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Publications  of  the 
Carnegie  Endowment  for  International  Peace 

New  York 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 

VOLUME  NINE 
1942-1945 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 

A  COLLECTION  OF  THE  TEXTS  OF 

MULTIPARTITE  INTERNATIONAL  INSTRUMENTS 

OF  GENERAL  INTEREST 


EDITED  BY 

MANLEY  0.  HUDSON 

BEMIS  PROFESSOR  OF  INTERNATIONAL  LAW 
HARVARD  LAW  SCHOOL 


WITH  THE  COLLABORATION  OF 

LOUIS  B.  SOHN 

HARVARD  LAW  SCHOOL 


VOLUME  IX    /    1942-1945 
NUMBERS  611-670 


NEW  YORK 

CARNEGIE  ENDOWMENT  FOR  INTERNATIONAL  PEACE 

405  WEST  llTm  STREET 

1950 


COPYRIGHT  1950 

BY  THE 
CARNEGIE  ENDOWMENT  FOR  INTERNATIONAL  PEACE 


PRINTED  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA 
AT  THE  RUliFORD  PRESS,  CONCORD,  N.  H. 


PREFACE  TO  VOLUME  IX 

This  volume  continues  a  serial  collection  of  texts  of  multipartite  inter- 
national instruments  of  general  interest,  published  under  the  title  of  Inter- 
national Legislation. 

Volumes  I  to  IV  of  the  collection,  covering  the  period  from  1919  to  July 
1929,  were  published  in  1931;  Volume  V,  for  the  years  1929  to  1931,  was 
published  in  1936;  Volume  VI,  for  the  years  1932  to  1934,  was  published  in 
1937;  Volume  VII,  for  the  years  1935  to  1937,  was  published  in  1941;  and 
Volume  VIII,  for  the  years  1938  to  1941,  was  published  in  1949. 

This  ninth  volume  of  the  collection  covers  the  four-year  period  from 
1942  to  1945,  inclusive.  It  reproduces  the  texts  of,  or  lists,  sixty  prin- 
cipal instruments  and  about  forty  subsidiary  instruments.  Some  of  them 
have  not  been  brought  into  force,  and  some  became  abortive  after  their 
entry  into  force.  As  one  of  the  objects  of  this  collection  is  to  trace  the 
continuous  development  of  the  legislative  process,  it  has  seemed  to  the 
editor  that  some  of  the  abortive  instruments  should  be  included  here;  on 
the  other  hand,  a  few  of  the  less  significant  instruments  of  the  period  have 
been  excluded. 

During  the  greater  part  of  the  period  covered  by  this  volume,  most  of  the 
states  of  the  world  were  engaged  in  waging  war  and  their  energies  could  not 
be  diverted  to  legislative  activity.  Beginning  in  1944,  however,  the  United 
Nations  began  the  post-war  planning  which  resulted  in  a  great  broadening 
of  international  organization ;  and  some  of  the  basic  instruments  are  repro- 
duced in  this  volume.  Prospect  now  exists  for  an  extension  of  international 
legislation  into  many  new  fields. 

The  collaboration  of  Mr.  Louis  B.  Sohn  in  the  preparation  of  this  volume 
has  been  invaluable.  The  editor  would  also  express  his  gratitude  to  the 
many  officials  of  governments  and  organizations  to  whom  he  has  turned  for 
aid  in  procuring  texts  and  information  with  respect  to  them.  Miss  Ruth  E. 
Stanton  has  bestowed  her  genius  on  editing  the  manuscript. 

MANLEY  O.  HUDSON 
CAMBRIDGE,  MASSACHUSETTS 
July  i,  1949 


vii 


CONTENTS 

PAGE 

PREFACE .    .                 ...  vii 

NUMERICAL  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS xii 

CHRONOLOGICAL  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS xxii 

SUBJECT  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS xxvi 

TEXTS  OF  INSTRUMENTS i 

SUBJECT  INDEX 941 


LISTS  OF  INSTRUMENTS 
IN  VOLUME  IX 


NUMERICAL  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS 

194* 

No.  FACE 

611.  Declaration  by  United  Nations.    Opened  for  signature  at  Washington,  Janu- 

ary I,  1942 I 

6na.  Atlantic  Charter.     Published  August  14,  1941 3 

612.  Agreement  concerning  the  Establishment  of  a  Commission  on  Forests  and 

Timber.    Signed  at  Berlin,  January  23,  1942 5 

613.  Treaty  of  Alliance.    Signed  at  Tehran,  January  29,  1942 7 

614.  Memorandum  of  Agreement  on  the  Production  and  Marketing  of  Wheat. 

Initialed  at  Washington,  April  22,  1942 II 

615.  Agreement  concerning  the  Division  of  the  Property  of  the  "Former"  Yugoslav 

State.     Signed  at  Berlin,  July  22,  1942 23 

6 1 6.  Protocol  concerning  the  1937  Agreement  on  the  Regulation  of  Production  and 

Marketing  of  Sugar.     Opened  for  signature  at  London,  July  22,  1942 24 

6i6a.  Protocol  concerning  the  1937  Agreement  on  the  Regulation  of  Production 
and  Marketing  of  Sugar.  Opened  for  signature  at  London,  August  31, 
1944 25 

617.  Treaty  concerning  the  Reorganization  of  the  Danube-Sava-Adriatic  Railway 

Company.     Signed  at  Brioni,  August  10,  1942 27 

618.  Agreement  concerning  the  Star  Insurance  Company  at  Prague.    Signed  at 

Berlin,  August  12,  1942 28 

619.  Convention  on  Education  in  Central  America.    Signed  at  San  Jos£,  September 

5.    1942 28 

620.  Convention  on   the  Practice  of  Liberal   Professions.    Signed  at  San  Jose", 

September  5,  1942 33 

621.  Agreement  for  the  International  Control  of  the  Production  and  Export  of  Tin. 

Signed  at  London,  September  9,  1942 35 

62 1  a.  Protocol  of  Signature  of  the  International  Tin  Control  Agreement. 

Signed  at  London,  September  9,  1942 42 

622.  Agreement  concerning  a  European   Postal  and  Telecommunications  Union. 

Signed  at  Vienna,  October  19,  1942 43 

International  Military  Traffic  on  the 

at  San  Salvador,  December  15,  1942      49 


623.     Agreement  concerning  the  Regulation  of  International  Military  Traffic  on  the 
Emergency  Military  Highway.    Signed 


1943 

624.  Inter-Allied  Declaration  against  Acts  of  Dispossession  Committed  in  Territories 

under  Enemy  Occupation  or  Control.    Approved  at  London,  January  5,  1943      49 

625.  Conditions  of  an  Armistice  with  Italy.    Signed  at  Fairfield  Camp,  Sicily, 

September  3,  1943 50 

62 5a.  Instrument  of  Surrender  of  Italy.    Signed  at  Malta,  September  29,  1943      52 

6?5b.  Protocol  Amending  the  Instrument  of  Surrender  of  Italy.    Signed  at 

Brindisi,  November  9,  1943 60 

xii 


Xiv  NUMERICAL  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS 

No.  PAGE 

626.  Convention  on  the  Inter- American  University.    Signed  at  Panama,  October  4, 

1943 6l 

6a6a.  Statute    of    the    Inter-American    University.    Adopted    at    Panama, 

October  4,  1943 66 

627.  Monetary  Convention.    Signed  at  London,  October  21,  1943 75 

628.  Declaration  on  General  Security.    Signed  at  Moscow,  October  30,  1943 82 

629.  Agreement  for  United   Nations   Relief  and   Rehabilitation  Administration. 

Signed  at  Washington,  November  9,  1943 84 

630.  Convention  on  the  Regulation  of  Inter- American  Automotive  Traffic.    Opened 

for  signature  at  Washington,  December  15,  1943 91 

1944 

631.  Convention  on  the  Inter-American  Institute  of  Agricultural  Sciences.    Opened 

for  signature  at  Washington,  January  15,  1944 101 

632.  Protocol  for  the  Regulation  of  Whaling.    Signed  at  London,  February  7,  1944     in 

632a.  Protocol  for  the  Regulation  of  Whaling.    Opened  for  signature  at 

London,  November  26,  1945 114 

632b.  Convention  for  the  Regulation  of  Whaling.    Signed  at  Washington, 

December  2,  1946 117 

633.  Declaration  concerning  the  Aims  and  Purposes  of  the  International  Labor 

Organization.    Adopted  at  Philadelphia,  May  10,  1944 124 

634.  Agreement  on  the  Continuance  of  Co-ordinated  Control  of  Merchant  Shipping. 

Signed  at  London,  August  5,  1944 129 

634a.  Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  a  Provisional  Maritime  Consultative 

Council.    Adopted  at  Washington,  October  30,  1946 133 

635.  Convention  concerning  a   Regime  of  Customs  Union.    Signed  at  London, 

September  5,  1944 135 

635a.  Protocol   concerning  a    Regime  of   Customs   Union.    Signed   at  The 

Hague,  March  14,  1947 135 

636.  Armistice  Agreement  with  Rumania.    Signed  at  Moscow,  September  12,  1944    139 

636a.  Protocol  to  the  Armistice  Agreement  with  Rumania.    Signed  at  Moscow, 

September  12,  1944 143 

637.  Armistice  Agreement  with  Finland.    Signed  at  Moscow,  September  19,  1944    144 

6378.  Protocol  to  the  Armistice  Agreement  with  Finland.    Signed  at  Moscow, 

September  19,  1944 151 

637b.  Protocol  to  the  Armistice  Agreement  with  Finland.    Signed  at  Moscow, 

October  8,  1944 .      ..     152 

638.  Armistice  Agreement  with  Bulgaria.    Signed  at  Moscow,  October  28,  1944.  . .     153 

6383.  Protocol  to  the  Armistice  Agreement  with  Bulgaria.    Signed  at  Moscow, 

October  28,  1944 X56 

639.  Interim  Agreement  on  International  Civil  Aviation.    Opened  for  signature  at 

Chicago,  December  7,  1944 157 

640.  Convention  on  International  Civil  Aviation.    Opened  for  signature  at  Chicago, 

December  7,  1944 168 


LISTE  NUMfeRIQUE  DBS  INSTRUMENTS  XV 

No.  PAGE 

626.  Convenci6n  sobre  la  Universidad  Interamericana.    Firmada  en  Panama,  4  de 

octubre  de  1943 61 

626a.  Estatuto  de  la  Universidad  Interamericana.    Aprobado  en  Panama,  4  de 

octubre  de  1943 66 

627.  Convention  mon6taire.    Signee  a  Londres,  21  octobre  1943 75 

628.  Declaration  sur  s6curit6  generate.    Signee  a  Moscou,  30  octobre  1943 82 

629.  Accord  sur  I'Administration  des  Nations  Unies  pour  les  Secours  et  la  Recon- 

struction.   Signe  a  Washington,  9  novembre  1943 84 

630.  Convenci6n  sobre  la  reglamentacion  del  trafico  automotor  interamericano. 

Abierta  a  la  firma  en  Washington,  15  de  diciembre  de  1943 91 

1944 

631.  Convenci6n  sobre  el  Institute  Interamericano  de  Ciencias  Agrfcolas.    Abierta 

a  la  firma  en  Washington,  15  de  enero  de  1944 IOI 

632.  Protocole  sur  la  reglementation  de  la  chasse  a  la  baleine.    Sign6  a  Londres, 

7  feVrier  1944        ....  Ill 

6323.  Protocole  sur  la  reglementation  de  la  chasse  a  la  baleine.     Ouvert  a  la 

signature  a  Londres,  26  novembre  1945.  .  .       ,.  ...     114 

632b.  Convention  pour  la  reglementation  de  la  chasse  a  la  baleine.    Signee  a 

Washington,  2  decembre  1946.  . .         .         ....  H7 

633.  Declaration  concernant  les  buts  et  les  objectifs  de  1'Organisation  internationale 

du  Travail.    Adoptde  a  Philadelphia,  10  mai  1944 124 

634.  Accord  sur  la  continuation  de  la  contrdle  coordonnee  de  la  marine  marchande. 

Sign6  a  Londres,  5  aoflt  1944.    ...  .  129 

6343.  Accord  relatif  a  la  creation  d'un  Conseil  consultatif  provisoire  de  la 

navigation  maritime.    Adopte  a  Washington,  30  octobre  1946 133 

635.  Convention   concernant   un    r6gime   de   communaut£   douaniere.    Signer   a 

Londres,  5  septembre  1944 135 

6353.  Protocole  concernant  un  r6gime  de  communaut6  douaniere.    Sign&  a 

La  Haye,  14  mars  1947 135 

636.  Accord  concernant  1'armistice  avec  la  Roumanie.    Sign6  a  Moscou,  12  sep- 

tembre 1944 ....     139 

6363.  Protocole  a  1' Accord  concernant  ('armistice  avec  la  Roumanie.    Sign£  a 

Moscou,  12  septembre  1944 143 

637.  Accord  concernant  1'armistice  avec  la  Finlande.    Sign&  a  Moscou,  19  septembre 

1944 144 

6373.  Protocole  a  1'Accord  concernant  1'armistice  avec  la  Finlande.    Signe"  a 

Moscou,  19  septembre  1944 151 

637b.  Protocole  a  I1  Accord  concernant  1'armistice  avec  la  Finlande.    Signe*  a 

Moscou,  8  octobre  1944 152 

638.  Accord  concernant  rarmistice  avec  la  Bulgarie.    Sign6  a  Moscou,  28  octobre  1944     153 

6383.  Protocole  a  PAccord  concernant  rarmistice  avec  la  Bulgarie.    Sign£  a 

Moscou,  28  octobre  1944 '56 

639.  Accord  provisionnel  sur  aviation  civile  internationale.    Ouvert  a  la  signature 

a  Chicago,  7  decembre  1944 157 

640.  Convention  relative  a  1'aviation  civile  internationale.    Ouverte  a  la  signature  a 
Chicago,  7  decembre  1944 168 


Xvi  NUMERICAL  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS 

No.  PAGE 

64oa.  Protocol  relating  to  an  Amendment  to  the  Convention  on  International 

Civil  Aviation.    Signed  at  iv.ontreal,  IWay  27,  1947 21 1 

64Ob.  Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Ch  il  Avia- 
tion Organization.  Signed  at  Lake  Success,  September  30,  1946 214 

641 .  International  Air  Services  Transit  Agreement.    Opened  for  signature  at  Chicago, 

December  7,  1944 228 

642.  International  Air  Transport  Agreement.    Opened  for  signature  at  Chicago, 

December  7,  1944 232 

643.  International  Sanitary  Convention.    Opened  for  signature  at  Washington, 

December  15,  1944 236 

6433.  Protocol  to  Prolong  the  Duration  of  the  International  Sanitary  Conven- 
tion of  1944.  Opened  for  signature  at  Washington,  April  23,  1946. . .  251 

644.  International  Sanitary  Convention  for  Aerial  Navigation.    Opened  for  signa- 

ture at  Washington,  December  15,  1944 254 

644a.  Protocol  to  Prolong  the  Duration  of  the  International  Sanitary  Conven- 
tion for  Aerial  Navigation  of  1944.  Opened  for  signature  at  Washing- 
ton, April  23,  1946  272 

1945 

645.  Armistice  Agreement  with  Hungary.    Signed  at  Moscow,  January  20,  1945. . .     276 

645a.  Protocol  to  the  Armistice  Agreement  with  Hungary.    Signed  at  Moscow, 

January  20,  1945 281 

646.  Agreement  regarding  Japan.    Signed  at  Yalta,  February  11,  1945 282 

647.  Act  of  Chapultepec.    Signed  at  Mexico  City,  March  8,  1945 283 

648.  Arrangements  concerning  the  Reorganization,  Consolidation,  and  Strengthening 

of  the  Inter-American  System.    Signed  at  Mexico  City,  March  8,  1945. . . .     290 

649.  Agreement  for  Economic  Consultation.    Signed  at  Paris,  March  20,  1945 ....     297 

650.  Pact  of  the  Arab  League.    Signed  at  Cairo,  March  22,  1945 300 

6503.  Cultural  Treaty  between  Arab  States.    Approved  at  Cairo,  November  20, 

1946 310 

651.  Act  of  Military  Surrender  of  Germany.    Signed  at  Berlin,  May  8,  1945 312 

652.  Declaration  regarding  the  Assumption  of  Supreme  Authority  with  respect  to 

Germany.    Signed  at  Berlin,  June  5,  1945 3*4 

652a.  Agreement  on  Certain  Additional   Requirements  to  be   Imposed  on 

Germany.    Adopted  at  Berlin,  September  20,  1945 319 

653.  Charter  of  the  United  Nations.    Signed  at  San  Francisco,  June  26,  1945 327 

653a.  Interim  Arrangements  of  the  United  Nations.    Signed  at  San  Francisco, 

June  26,  1945 366 

653b.  Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  General  Assembly.    Adopted  at  Flushing 

Meadows,  November  17,  1947 369 

653C.  Provisional  Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  Security  Council.    Adopted  at 

London,  January  17,  1946 400 

653d.  Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  Economic  and  Social  Council.    Adopted  at 

Lake  Success,  March  i8v  1949 411 


LISTE  NUM£RIQUE  DES  INSTRUMENTS  xvii 

No.  PACE 

640a.  Protocole  concernant  un  amendement  a  la  Convention  relative  a  1'aviation 

civile  internationale.    Signe  a  Montr6al,  27  mai  1947 211 

6400.  Accord  entre  lea  Nations  Unies  et  ('Organisation  de  1'aviation  civile 

internationale.    Sign£  a  Lake  Success,  30  septembre  1946 214 

641.  Accord  concernant  le  transit  des  services  aeriens  international^.    Ouvert  a 

la  signature  a  Chicago,  7  decembre  1944 228 

642.  Accord  concernant  le  transport  aeVien  international.    Ouvert  a  la  signature  a 

Chicago,  7  decembre  1944 232 

643.  Convention  sanitaire  internationale.    Ouverte  a  la  signature  a  Washington,  15 

decembre  1944 236 

6433.  Protocole  prorogeant  la  duree  de  la  Convention  sanitaire  de  1944. 

Ouvert  a  la  signature  a  Washington,  23  avril  1946 251 

644.  Convention  sanitaire  internationale  pour  la  navigation  a£rienne.    Ouverte  a 

la  signature  a  Washington,  15  decembre  1944 254 

.  Protocole  prorogeant  la  dur£e  de  la  Convention  sanitaire  pour  la  naviga- 
tion a£nenne  de  1944.  Ouvert  a  la  signature  a  Washington,  23  avril 
1946 272 

1945 

645.  Accord  concernant  1'armistice  avec  la  Hongrie.    Sign6  a  Moscou,  20  Janvier 

1945 276 

645a.  Protocole  a  1'Accord  concernant  1'armistice  avec  la  Hongrie.    Signe"  a 

Moscou,  20  Janvier  1945 281 

646.  Accord  concernant  le  Japon.    Sign£  a  Yalta,  II  tevrier  1945 282 

647.  Acta  de  Chapul tepee.    Firmada  en  la  Ciudad  de  Mexico,  8  de  marzo  de  1945    283 

648.  Convenios  relativos  a  la  reorganizaci6n,  consolidaci6n  y  fortalecimiento  del 

sistema  interamericano.    Firmados  en  la  Ciudad  de  Mexico,  8  de  marzo  de 
1945 290 

649.  Accord  de  consultation  6conomique.    Sign6  a  Paris,  20  mars  1945 297 

650.  Pacte  de  la  Ligue  des  Etats  Arabes.    Sign£  au  Caire,  22  mars  1945 300 

65oa.  Traite1  culturel  entre  les  Etats  Arabes.    ApprouvS  au  Caire,  20  novembre 

1946 310 

651.  Acte  de  reddition  militaire  de  FAllemagne.    Sign6  a  Berlin,  8  mai  1945 312 

652.  Declaration  concernant  la  prise  de  l'autorit&  supreme  a  I'&gard  de  1'Allemagne. 

Signee  a  Berlin,  5  juin  1945 314 

652a.  Accord  sur  certaines  conditions  additionnelles  a  imposer  sur  1'Allemagne. 

Adopt&  a  Berlin,  20  septembre  1945 319 

653.  Charte  des  Nations  Unies.    Signee  a  San  Francisco,  26  juin  1945 327 

6533.  Arrangements  provisoires  des  Nations  Unies.    Signes  a  San  Francisco, 

26  juin  1945 366 

653b.  R&lement   intlrieur   de   I'Assembl^e   G^n^rale.    Adoptd   a   Flushing 

Meadows,  17  novembre  1947 369 

653C.  R^glement   int6rieur   provisoire  du   Conseil   de  S6curit£.    Adopt6  a 

Londres,  17  Janvier  1946 400 

653d.  Rtelement  inteneur  du  Conseil  6conomique  et  sociale.    Adopt6  a  Lake 

Success,  18  man  1949 411 


XV111  NUMERICAL  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS 

No.  PAGE 

6536.  Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  Trusteeship  Council.    Adopted  at  Lake  Suc- 
cess, April  23,  1947 4*8 

653f.  Regulations   concerning    Registration    and    Publication    of    Treaties. 

Adopted  at  Flushing  Meadows,  December  14,  1946 44  £ 

&53K*  Provisional  Financial  Regulations  of  the  United  Nations.    Adopted  at 

Flushing  Meadows,  November  20,  1947 455 

653h.  Staff  Rules  of  the  United  Nations.    Codified  May  13,  1948 464 

653!.   Convention  on  the  Privileges  and  Immunities  of  the  United  Nations. 

Adopted  at  London,  February  13,  1946 499 

654.  Statute  of  the  International  Court  of  Justice.    Annexed  to  the  Charter  of  the 

United  Nations,  signed  at  San  Francisco,  June  26,  1945 510 

6543.  Rules  of  the  International  Court  of  Justice.    Adopted  at  The  Hague, 

May  6,  1946 5*9 

655.  Agreement  on  Control  Machinery  in  Austria.    Signed  at  London,  July  4,  1945    558 

655a.  Agreement  on  Zones  of  Occupation  in  Austria.    Signed  at  London, 

July  9,  1945   .  564 

655b.  Agreement  on  the  Machinery  of  Control  in  Austria.    Signed  at  Vienna, 

June  28,  1946 .  567 

656.  Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  the  Council  of  Foreign  Ministers.    Adopted 

at  Berlin,  August  I,  1945 577 

657.  Agreement  on  the  Treatment  of  Germany.    Adopted  at  Berlin,  August  I,  1945    580 

658.  Agreement  on  German  Reparations.    Adopted  at  Berlin,  August  i,  1945.       .     583 

6583.  Agreement  on  Reparation  from  Germany.    Opened  for  signature  at 

Paris,  January  14,  1946 . .  585 

658b.  Agreement  on  Allocation  of  a   Reparation  Share  to  Non-repatriable 

Victims  of  German  Action.    Signed  at  Paris,  June  14,  1946 608 

6580.  Accord  on  Treatment  of  German-owned  Patents.    Opened  for  signature 

at  London,  July  27,  1946. ..      .  614 

6580(1')  Protocol  amending   the   Accord  on   German-owned   Patents. 

Signed  at  London,  July  17,  1947 618 

6s8d.  Agreement  on  Conflicting  Claims  to  German  Enemy  Assets.    Opened  for 

signature  at  Brussels,  December  5,  1947 ....  620 

659.  Agreement  for  the   Establishment  of  an    International   Military  Tribunal. 

Signed  at  London,  August  8,  1945 632 

659a.  Charter  of  the  International  Military  Tribunal.    Annexed  to  the  Agree- 
ment signed  at  London,  August  8,  1945 637 

659b.  Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  International  Military  Tribunal.    Adopted  at 

Nuremberg,  October  29,  1945 647 

660.  Agreement  for  the  Re-establishment  of  the  International  Administration  of 

Tangier.    Signed  at  Paris,  August  31,  1945 653 

661.  Instrument  of  Surrender  by  Japan.    Signed  at  Tokyo  Bay,  September  2,  1945    661 

66ia.  Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  the  Far  Eastern  Commission  and  of 

the  Allied  Council  for  Japan.    Adopted  at  Moscow,  December  27, 1945    663 

662.  Agreement  concerning  the  Establishment  of  a  European  Central  Inland  Trans- 

port Organization.    Signed  at  London,  September  27,  1945 666 


LISTS  NUM&RIQUE  DBS  INSTRUMENTS  xix 

No.  PAGE 

6536.  Reglement  interieur  du  Conseil  de  tutclle.    Adopt*  a  Lake  Success,  23 

avril  1947 428 

653f.  Reglement   concernant   renregistrement   et    publication    des    traites. 

Adopt6  £  Flushing  Meadows,  14  decembre  1946 448 

&53ff.  Reglement  financier  provisoire  de  1'Organisation  des  Nations  Unies. 

Adopte  a  Flushing  Meadows,  20  novembre  1947 455 

653h.  Reglement  du  personnel  des  Nations  Unies.    Coding  13  mai  1948 464 

6531.   Convention  sur  les  privileges  et  immunit&s  des  Nations  Unies.    Ap- 

prouvee  &  Londres,  13  fevrier  1946 499 

654.  Statut  de  la  Cour  Internationale  de  Justice.    Annexe1  a  la  Charte  des  Nations 

Unies,  signee  a  San  Francisco,  26  juin  1945 510 

6543.  Reglement  de  la  Cour  Internationale  de  Justice.    Adopt£  a  La  Haye, 

6  mai  1946 529 

655.  Accord  sur  les  organismes  de  contrdle  en  Autriche.    Sign£  a  Londres,  4  juillet 

1945 558 

655a.  Accord  sur  les  zones  d'occupation  en  Autriche.    Sign6  a  Londres,  9 

juillet  1945 564 

655b.  Accord  sur  le  mecanisme  de  contrdle  en  Autriche.    Signe*  a  Vienne,  28 

juin  1946 567 

656.  Accord  sur  la  creation  du  Conseil  des  Ministres  des  Affaires  Etrangeres.    Adopt& 

a  Berlin,  I  aoflt  1945 577 

657.  Accord  sur  le  traitement  de  PAllemagne.    Adopt&  a  Berlin,  i  aoflt  1945 580 

658.  Accord  sur  les  reparations  allemandes.    Adopte*  a  Berlin,  I  aoflt  1945 583 

6583.  Accord  concernant  les  reparations  a  recevoir  de  rAllemagne.    Ouvert  a 

la  signature  a  Paris,  14  Janvier  1946 585 

6s8b.  Accord  sur  1'allocation  d'une  part  de  reparations  aux  yictimes  non- 

rapatriables  de  Taction  allemande.    Sign6  a  Paris,  14  juin  1946 608 

6s8c.  Accord  concernant  le  traitement  r6serve"  aux  brevets  d'invention  ayant 
appartenu  a  des  Allemands.  Ouvert  a  la  signature  a  Londres,  27  juillet 
1946 614 

6580(1')  Protocole  modifiant  1'Accord  sur  les  brevets  allemands.    Sign6 

a  Londres,  17  juillet  1947 618 

658d.  Accord  relatif  a  la  solution  des  conflits  de  juridiction  portant  sur  les  avoir 
allemands  a  1  Stranger.  Ouvert  a  la  signature  a  Bruxelles,  5  d6cembre 
1947 620 

659.  Accord  sur  la  creation  d'un  Tribunal  Militaire  International.    Signe*  a  Londres, 

8  aout  1945 632 

6593.  Statut  du  Tribunal  Militaire  International.    Annex6  a  TAccord  sign6  a 

Londres,  8  aoflt  1945 637 

659b.  Regies  de  procedure  du  Tribunal  Militaire  International.    Adoptees  4 

Nuremberg,  29  octobre  1945 647 

660.  Accord  en  vue  du  r6tablissement  a  Tanger  de  radministration  Internationale. 

Signe  a  Paris,  31  aoflt  1945 653 

661.  Acte  de  la  capitulation  du  Japon.    Sign6  a  la  Baie  du  Tokyo,  2  septembre  1945    661 

66 1  a.  Accord  sur  I'^tablissement  de  la  Commission  d'Extr&ne-Orient  et  du 

Conseil  alli^  pour  le  Japon.    Adopte*  a  Moscou,  27  decembre  1945 . . .     663 

662.  Accord  portent  creation  d'un  Office  Central  des  Transports  Interieurs  Euro- 

peens.    Sign6  a  Londres,  27  septembre  1945 666 


XX  NUMERICAL  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS 

No.  PAGE 

662a.  Protocol  relating  to  Traffic  on  Inland  Waterways.    Signed  at  London, 

September  27,  1945 687 

663.  Inter-American  Telecommunications  Convention.    Signed  at  Rio  de  Janeiro, 

September  27,  1945 690 

664.  Constitution  of  the  Food  and  Agriculture  Organization  of  the  United  Nations. 

Opened  for  signature  at  Quebec,  October  16,  1945 7*3 

664a.  Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  Food  and  Agriculture 

Organization.    Initialed  at  New  York,  June  10,  1946 730 

665.  Instrument  for  the  Amendment  of  the  Constitution  of  the  International  Labor 

Organization.    Adopted  at  Paris,  November  5,  1945 743 

6653.  Instrument  for  the  Amendment  of  the  Constitution  of  the  International 

Labor  Organization.     Adopted  at  Montreal,  October  9,  1946 749 

66sb.  Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Labor 

Organization.    Signed  at  New  York,  IV.  ay  30,  1946 771 

666.  Declaration  on  Atomic  Energy.    Signed  at  Washington,  November  15,  1945. .     783 

667.  Constitution  of  the   United    Nations   Educational,  Scientific   and   Cultural 

Organization.    Opened  for  signature  at  London,  November  16,  1945 786 

667a.  Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  United  Nations  Educa- 
tional, Scientific  and  Cultural  Organization.  Signed  at  New  York, 
June  4,  1946 801 

668.  Agreement  concerning  Telecommunications.    Signed  at  Bermuda,  December  4, 

1945 815 

669.  Articles  of  Agreement  of  the  International  Monetary  Fund.    Opened  for  signa- 

ture at  Washington,  December  27,  1945 820 

6693.  Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Monetary 

Fund.    Adopted  at  New  York,  August  15,  1947 882 

670.  Articles  of  Agreement  of  the  International  Bank  for  Reconstruction  and  Devel- 

opment.   Opened  for  signature  at  Washington,  December  27,  1945 889 

6/oa.  Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Bank  for 
Reconstruction  and  Development.  Adopted  at  New  York,  August  15, 
1947 933 


CHRONOLOGICAL  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS 

[This  list  includes  all  of  the  instruments  reproduced  in  Volume  IX,  and  three  subsidiary 
instruments  reproduced  or  listed  in  Volume  VIII.] 

IQ4Z  PAGE 

Aug.     14        Atlantic  Charter  ........  .....................  3 


Jan.        I         Declaration  by  United  Nations.     Washington  ................  i 

Jan.      23        Agreement  concerning  the  Establishment  of  a  Commission  on  Forests 

and  Timber.     Berlin  ...............  .........         5 

Jan.      29        Treaty  of  Alliance.    Tehran  ..........................        7 

April    22        Memorandum  of  Agreement  on  the  Production  and   Marketing  of 

Wheat.    Washington  ...  ...................         1  1 

July      22        Agreement  concerning  the  Division  of  the  Property  of  the  "Former" 

Yugoslav  State.     Berlin  ................................       23 

July      22        Protocol  concerning  the  1937  Agreement  on  the  Regulation  of  Produc- 

tion and  Marketing  of  Sugar.     London  .........................       24 

Aug.      10        Treaty  concerning  the  Reorganization  of  the  Danube-Sava-Adriatic 

Railway  Company.     Brioni  .......................         27 

Aug.      12        Agreement  concerning  the  Star  Insurance  Company  at  Prague.     Berlin      28 
Sept.       5        Convention  on  Education  in  Central  America.    San  Jos6  ........         28 

Sept.       5        Convention  on  the  Practice  of  Liberal  Professions.     San  Jose  ......       33 

Sept.       9        Agreement  for  the  International  Control  of  the  Production  and  Export 

of  Tin.     London  .'  ....................................       35 

Sept.      9        Protocol  of  Signature  of  the  International  Tin  Control  Agreement. 

London  ......................................       42 

Oct.      19        Agreement  concerning  a  European  Postal  and  Telecommunications 

Union.    Vienna  ....  ......          ........       43 

Dec.      15         Agreement  concerning  the  Regulation  of  International  Military  Traffic 

on  the  Emergency  Military  Highway.    San  Salvador  .....          ....       49 

1943 

Jan.        5         Inter-  Allied  Declaration  against  Acts  of  Dispossession  Committed  in 

Territories  under  Enemy  Occupation  or  Control.     London  ........       49 

Sept.  3  Conditions  of  an  Armistice  with  Italy.     Fairfield  Camp,  Sicily.  .      .    .  50 

Sept.  29  Instrument  of  Surrender  of  Italy.     Malta  ....................  52 

Oct.  4  Convention  on  the  Inter-  American  University.     Panama  ............  61 

Oct.  4  Statute  of  the  Inter-  American  University.     Panama  ................  66 

Oct.  21  Monetary  Convention.    London  .............................  75 

Oct.  30  Declaration  on  General  Security.    Moscow  ......................  82 

Nov.  9  Protocol  Amending  the  Instrument  of  Surrender  of  Italy.     Brindisi.  .  .  60 

Nov.      9        Agreement  for  United  Nations  Relief  and  Rehabilitation  Administra- 

tion.   Washington  ...........................................       84 

xxii 


CHRONOLOGICAL  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS 


XXlll 

PAGE 


Dec.     15        Convention  on  the  Regulation  of  Inter- American  Automotive  Traffic. 

Washington .             .  91 

1944 

Jan.      15        Convention  on  the  Inter- American  Institute  of  Agricultural  Sciences. 

Washington .  101 

Feb.       7        Protocol  for  the  Regulation  of  Whaling.    London in 

May     10        Declaration  concerning  the  Aims  and  Purposes  of  the  International 

Labor  Organization.     Philadelphia 124 

Aug.       5        Agreement  on  the  Continuance  of  Co-ordinated  Control  of  Merchant 

Shipping.     London .  129 

Aug.     31         Protocol  concerning  the  1937  Agreement  on  the  Regulation  of  Produc- 
tion and  Marketing  of  Sugar.    London 25 

Sept.       5        Convention  concerning  a  Regime  of  Customs  Union.     London ...    .  135 

Sept.     12        Armistice  Agreement  with  Rumania.     Moscow . .  139 

Sept.     12         Protocol  to  the  Armistice  Agreement  with  Rumania.     Moscow 143 

Sept.     19        Armistice  Agreement  with  Finland.     Moscow                                .  144 

Sept.     19        Protocol  to  the  Armistice  Agreement  with  Finland.     Moscow.  151 

Oct.        8         Protocol  to  the  Armistice  Agreement  with  Finland.     Moscow  152 

Oct.      28        Armistice  Agreement  with  Bulgaria.     Moscow ...  153 

Oct.      28         Protocol  to  the  Armistice  Agreement  with  Bulgaria.     Moscow 156 

Dec.       7        Interim  Agreement  on  International  Civil  Aviation.     Chicago   157 

Dec.       7        Convention  on  International  Civil  Aviation.     Chicago.  ...             . .  168 

Dec.       7         International  Air  Services  Transit  Agreement.     Chicago 228 

Dec.       7         International  Air  Transport  Agreement.     Chicago  .                 .    .  232 

Dec.      15         International  Sanitary  Convention.     Washington .  236 

Dec.      15        International  Sanitary  Convention  for  Aerial  Navigation.    Washington  254 

1945 

Jan.      20        Armistice  Agreement  with  Hungary.     Moscow              ...                 . .  276 

Jan.      20        Protocol  to  the  Armistice  Agreement  with  Hungary.     Moscow.          .  281 

Feb.      n        Agreement  regarding  Japan.    Yalta....         .           ....  282 

March    8        Act  of  Chapultepec.     Mexico  City .    .  ..283 

March    8        Arrangements    concerning    the    Reorganization,    Consolidation,    and 

Strengthening  of  the  Inter- American  System.     Mexico  City 290 

March  20        Agreement  for  Economic  Consultation.     Paris ....             .           ...  297 

March  22        Pact  of  the  Arab  League.     Cairo .                         300 

May       8        Act  of  Military  Surrender  of  Germany.    Berlin .312 

June       5        Declaration  regarding  the  Assumption  of  Supreme  Authority  with 

Respect  to  Germany.    Berlin 314 

June     26        Charter  of  the  United  Nations.    San  Francisco ...       .  327 

June     26        Interim  Arrangements  of  the  United  Nations.    San  Francisco 366 

June     26        Statute  of  the  International  Court  of  Justice.    San  Francisco 510 

July       4        Agreement  on  Control  Machinery  in  Austria.    London 558 

July       9        Agreement  on  Zones  of  Occupation  in  Austria.    London 564 


XXiv  CHRONOLOGICAL  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS 

1945  PAGE 

Aug.       I        Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  the  Council  of  Foreign  Ministers. 

Berlin 577 

Aug.       I        Agreement  on  the  Treatment  of  Germany.    Berlin 580 

Aug.       I        Agreement  on  German  Reparations.     Berlin 5^3 

Aug.       8        Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  an  International  Military  Tribunal. 

London 632 

Aug.       8        Charter  of  the  International  Military  Tribunal.    London 637 

Aug.     31        Agreement  for  the  Re -establishment  of  the  International  Administration 

of  Tangier.     Paris 653 

Sept.      i        Protocol  Extending  the  Inter-American  Coffee  Agreement.    Washing- 
ton.   (See  Volume  VIII,  p.  613.) 

Sept.      2        Instrument  of  Surrender  by  Japan.    Tokyo  Bay 661 

Sept.    20        Agreement  on  Certain  Additional  Requirements  to  be  Imposed  on 

Germany.    Berlin 319 

Sept.    27        Agreement  concerning  the  Establishment  of  a  European  Central  Inland 

Transport  Organization.    London 666 

Sept.    27        Protocol  relating  to  Traffic  on  Inland  Waterways.    London 687 

Sept.    27        Inter- American  Telecommunications  Convention.    Rio  de  Janeiro. . . .     690 

Oct.      1 6        Constitution  of  the  Food  and  Agriculture  Organization  of  the  United 

Nations.    Quebec 713 

Oct.      29        Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  International  Military  Tribunal.     Nuremberg    647 

Nov.       5        Instrument  for  the  Amendment  of  the  Constitution  of  the  International 

Labor  Organization.    Paris 743 

Nov.     15        Declaration  on  Atomic  Energy.    Washington 783 

Nov.     16        Constitution  of  the  United  Nations  Educational,  Scientific  and  Cul- 
tural Organization.    London 786 

Nov.     26        Protocol  for  the  Regulation  of  Whaling.    London 1 14 

Dec.       4        Agreement  concerning  Telecommunications.     Bermuda 815 

Dec.     27        Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  the  Far  Eastern  Commission  and  of 

the  Allied  Council  for  Japan.     Moscow 663 

Dec.     27        Articles  of  Agreement  of  the  International  Monetary  Fund.    Washing- 
ton       820 

Dec.     27        Articles  of  Agreement  of  the  International  Bank  for  Reconstruction 

and  Development.    Washington 889 

1946 

Jan.      14        Agreement  on  Reparation  from  Germany.    Paris 585 

Jan.      17        Provisional  Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  Security  Council.    London. . . .     400 

Feb.     13        Convention  on  the  Privileges  and  Immunities  of  the  United  Nations. 

London 499 

April    23        Protocol  to  Prolong  the  Duration  of  the  International  Sanitary  Con- 
vention of  1944.    Washington 251 

April    23        Protocol  to  Prolong  the  Duration  of  the  International  Sanitary  Con- 
vention for  Aerial  Navigation  of  1944.    Washington 272 

May      6       Rules  of  the  International  Court  of  Justice.    The  Hague 5*9 

May     30       Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Labor 

Organization.    New  York 771 

June      4       Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  United  Nations  Edu- 
cational, Scientific  and  Cultural  Organization.    Ntw  York 801 


CHRONOLOGICAL  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS 


XXV 


PAGE 

June     10       Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  Food  and  Agriculture 

Organization.    New  York 730 

June     14        Agreement  on  Allocation  of  a  Reparation  Share  to  Non-repatriable 

Victims  of  German  Action.    Paris 608 

June     28        Agreement  on  the  Machinery  of  Control  in  Austria.    Vienna 567 

July     27        Accord  on  Treatment  of  German-owned  Patents.    London 614 

Sept.      3        Protocol   Extending  the   Inter- American  Coffee  Agreement.    Wash- 
ington.    (See  Volume  VIII,  p.  616.) 

Sept.    30        Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Civil 

Aviation  Organization.    Lake  Success 214 

Oct.        9        Instrument  for  the  Amendment  of  the  Constitution  of  the  Inter- 
national Labor  Organization.     Montreal 749 

Oct.      30        Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  a  Provisional  Maritime  Con- 
sultative Council.    Washington 133 

Nov.    20        Cultural  Treaty  between  Arab  States.    Cairo 310 

Dec.       2        Convention  for  the  Regulation  of  Whaling.    Washington 117 

Dec.      14        Regulations   concerning    Registration   and    Publication   of   Treaties. 

Flushing  Meadows 448 

X947 

March  14        Protocol  concerning  a  Regime  of  Customs  Union.    The  Hague 135 

April    23        Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  Trusteeship  Council.    Lake  Success 428 

May     27        Protocol  relating  to  an  Amendment  to  the  Convention  on  International 

Civil  Aviation.     Montreal 211 

July      17        Protocol  amending  the  Accord  on  German-owned  Patents.    London ...     618 

Aug.     15        Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Mone- 
tary Fund.    New  York 882 

Aug.     15        Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Bank  for 

Reconstruction  and  Development.    New  York 933 

Sept.     II        Protocol  Extending  the  Inter- American  Coffee  Agreement.    Washing- 
ton.    (See  Volume  VIII,  p.  616.) 

Nov.     17        Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  General  Assembly.    Flushing  Meadows. .  . .     369 

Nov.    20        Provisional  Financial  Regulations  of  the  United  Nations.    Flushing 

Meadows 455 

Dec.       5        Agreement  on  Conflicting  Claims  to  German  Enemy  Assets.    Brussels    620 

1948 

May     13        Staff  Rules  of  the  United  Nations 464 


1949 

March  18 


Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  Economic  and  Social  Council.    Lake  Success    411 


SUBJECT  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS 

NO.  PAGE 

Agriculture 

614.     Memorandum  of  Agreement  on  the  Production  and  Marketing  of  Wheat. 

Washington,  April  22,  1942 II 

6 1 6.    Protocol  concerning  the  1937  Agreement  on  the  Regulation  of  Production 

and  Marketing  of  Sugar.     London,  July  22,  1942 24 

6i6a.     Protocol  concerning  the  1937  Agreement  on  the  Regulation  of  Production 

and  Marketing  of  Sugar.    London,  August  31,  1944 .  25 

631.     Convention  on  the   Inter- American   Institute  of  Agricultural  Sciences. 

Washington,  January  15,  1944 ..        .     101 

664.     Constitution  of  the  Food  and  Agriculture  Organization  of  the  United 

Nations.     Quebec,  October  16,  1945 .     713 

664a.     Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  Food  and  Agriculture 

Organization.     New  York,  June  10,  1946        .         730 

Arab  States 

650.  Pact  of  the  Arab  League.     Cairo,  March  22,  1945  . .     300 
6soa.    Cultural  Treaty  between  Arab  States.     Cairo,  November  20,  1946    .        .310 

Armistices 

625.     Conditions  of  an  Armistice  with  Italy.     Fairfield  Camp,  Sicily,  September 

3,1943      50 

62 5a.     Instrument  of  Surrender  of  Italy.     Malta,  September  29,  1943  52 

625b.     Protocol   Amending   the    Instrument   of   Surrender   of    Italy.     Brindisi, 

November  9,  1943  . .  60 

636.  Armistice  Agreement  with  Rumania.     Moscow,  September  12,  1944      . .       139 

637.  Armistice  Agreement  with  Finland.     Moscow,  September  19,  1944        .  . .     144 

637b.     Protocol  to  the  Armistice  Agreement  with  Finland.     Moscow,  October  8, 

1944  .    .  ....  .  .  152 

638.  Armistice  Agreement  with  Bulgaria.     Moscow,  October  28,  1944  153 
645.  Armistice  Agreement  with  Hungary.     Moscow,  January  20,  1945  276 

651.  Act  of  Military  Surrender  of  Germany.     Berlin,  May  8,  1945.  312 
661.  Instrument  of  Surrender  by  Japan.     Tokyo  Bay,  September  2,  1945  66 1 

Atomic  Energy 

666.     Declaration  on  Atomic  Energy.     Washington,  November  15,  1945  783 

Austria 

655.  Agreement  on  Control  Machinery  in  Austria.    London,  July  4,  1945    .  .  .  558 

655a.  Agreement  on  Zones  of  Occupation  in  Austria.     London,  July  9,  1945 .  .  .  564 

655b.  Agreement  on  the  Machinery  of  Control  in  Austria.     Vienna,  June  28,  1946  567 

Automotive  Traffic 

623.    Agreement  concerning  the  Regulation  of  International  Military  Traffic  on 

the  Emergency  Military  Highway.    San  Salvador,  December  15,  1942      49 

630.     Convention  on  the   Regulation  of  Inter-American  Automotive  Traffic. 

Washington,  December  15,  1943 .       91 

xx  vi 


SUBJECT  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS  XXvii 

No.  PAGE 

Aviation 

639.  Interim  Agreement  on  International  Civil  Aviation.    Chicago,  December 

7,  1944 157 

640.  Convention  on  International  Civil  Aviation.    Chicago,  December  7,  1944     168 

64oa.    Protocol  relating  to  an  Amendment  to  the  Convention  on  International 

Civil  Aviation.    Montreal,  May  27,  1947 211 

64ob.    Agreement  between   the  United   Nations  and  the   International  Civil 

Aviation  Organization.    Lake  Success,  September  30,  1946 214 

641.  International  Air  Services  Transit  Agreement.    Chicago,  December  7, 1944    228 

642.  International  Air  Transport  Agreement.    Chicago,  December  7,  1944  . . .     232 

644.     International  Sanitary  Convention  for  Aerial  Navigation.    Washington, 

December  15,  1944.    .  .....     254 

6443.    Protocol  to  Prolong  the  Duration  of  the  International  Sanitary  Convention 

for  Aerial  Navigation  of  1944.     Washington,  April  23,  1946    272 

Banking 

670.     Articles  of  Agreement  of  the  International  Bank  for  Reconstruction  and 

Development.    Washington,  December  27,  1945 889 

67oa.    Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Bank  for 

Reconstruction  and  Development.     New  York,  August  15,  1947.    .  .    .     933 

Central  America 

619.  Convention  on  Education  in  Central  America.    San  Jos£,  September  5, 

1942  .  .28 

620.  Convention  on  the  Practice  of  Liberal  Professions.    San  Jose,  September  5, 

1942  .  33 

623.    Agreement  concerning  the  Regulation  of  International  Military  Traffic 

on  the  Emergency  Military  Highway.    San  Salvador,  December  15, 1942      49 

Commercial  Relations  (See  also  Banking,  Monetary  Questions) 

635.     Convention  concerning  a  Regime  of  Customs  Union.     London,  September 

5,  I944-    -  .       .    .  135 

635a.     Protocol  concerning  a  Regime  of  Customs  Union.    The  Hague,  March  14, 

1947         .-.  135 

649.    Agreement  for  Economic  Consultation.    Paris,  March  20,  1945 297 

Commodities 

612.    Agreement  concerning  the  Establishment  of  a  Commission  on  Forests  and 

Timber.     Berlin,  January  23,  1942    5 

614.     Memorandum  of  Agreement  on  the  Production  and  Marketing  of  Wheat. 

Washington,  April  22,  1942     n 

616.  Protocol  concerning  the  1937  Agreement  on  the  Regulation  of  Production 

and  Marketing  of  Sugar.    London,  July  22,  1942 24 

6i6a.     Protocol  concerning  the  1937  Agreement  on  the  Regulation  of  Production 

and  Marketing  of  Sugar.    London,  August  31,  1944 25 

621.  Agreement  for  the  International  Control  of  the  Production  and  Export  of 

Tin.    London,  September  9,  1942    35 

Communications  and  Transit  (See  also  Aviation,  Telecommunications) 

617.  Treaty  concerning  the  Reorganization  of  the  Danube-Sava- Adriatic  Rail- 

way Company.     Brioni,  August  10,  1942 27 

623.    Agreement  concerning  the  Regulation  of  International  Military  Traffic  on 

the  Emergency  Military  Highway.    San  Salvador,  December  15,  1942      49 


XXviii  SUBJECT  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS 

No.  PACE 

Communications  and  Transit — Continued 

630.    Convention  on  the  Regulation  of  Inter-American  Automotive  Traffic. 

Washington,  December  15,  1943 91 

634.  Agreement  on  the  Continuance  of  Co-ordinated  Control  of  Merchant  Ship- 

ping.   London,  August  5,  1944 129 

6343.    Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  a  Provisional  Maritime  Consultative 

Council.    Washington,  October  30,  1946 133 

662.    Agreement  concerning  the  Establishment  of  a  European  Central  Inland 

Transport  Organization.    London,  September  27,  1945 666 

6623.    Protocol  relating  to  Traffic  on  Inland  Waterways.    London,  September  27, 

1945 687 

Courts 

654.    Statute  of  the  International  Court  of  Justice.    San  Francisco,  June  26, 

1945  5io 

6543.    Rules  of  the  International  Court  of  Justice.    The  Hague,  May  6,  1946  . .     529 

659.    Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  an  International  Military  Tribunal. 

London,  August  8,  1945 632 

659a.    Charter  of  the  International  Military  Tribunal.    London,  August  8,  1945    637 

659b.    Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  International  Military  Tribunal.    Nuremberg, 

October  29,  1945 647 

Cultural  Relations 

619.  Convention  on  Education  in  Central  America.    San  Jos6,  September  5, 

1942 28 

620.  Convention  on  the  Practice  of  Liberal  Professions.    San  Jose,  September  5, 

1942 33 

626.  Convention  on  the  Inter-American  University.  Panama,  October  4,  1943  61 
626a.  Statute  of  the  Inter- American  University.  Panama,  October  4,  1943 ...  66 
6soa.  Cultural  Treaty  between  Arab  States.  Cairo,  November  20,  1946 310 

667.    Constitution  of  the  United  Nations  Educational,  Scientific  and  Cultural 

Organization.     London,  November  16,  1945    786 

6673.    Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  United  Nations  Educa- 
tional, Scientific  and  Cultural  Organization.    New  York,  June  4,  1946    801 

Customs  Unions 

635.  Convention  concerning  a  Regime  of  Customs  Union.    London,  September 

5,  1944 135 

6353.    Protocol  concerning  a  Regime  of  Customs  Union.    The  Hague,  March  14, 

1947 135 

Education 

619.    Convention  on  Education  in  Central  America.    San  Jose,  September  5, 

1942 28 

626.  Convention  on  the  Inter-American  University.  Panama,  October  4,  1943  61 
626a.  Statute  of  the  Inter-American  University.  Panama,  October  4,  1943 66 

667.    Constitution  of  the  United  Nations  Educational,  Scientific  and  Cultural 

Organization.    London,  November  16,  1945 786 

667a.    Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  United  Nations  Educa- 
tional, Scientific  and  Cultural  Organization.    New  York,  June  4,  1946    801 


SUBJECT  UST  OF  INSTRUMENTS  Xxix 

No.  PAOB 

Europe 

622.  Agreement  concerning  a  European  Postal  and  Telecommunications  Union. 

Vienna,  October  19,  1942 43 

662.    Agreement  concerning  the  Establishment  of  a  European  Central  Inland 

Transport  Organization.    London,  September  27,  1945 666 

Far  Bast 

646.    Agreement  regarding  Japan.    Yalta,  February  1 1,  1945 282 

66ia.    Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  the  Far  Eastern  Commission  and  of 

the  Allied  Council  for  Japan.    Moscow,  December  27,  1945 663 

Fisheries 

632.    Protocol  for  the  Regulation  of  Whaling.    London,  February  7,  1944 in 

6323.    Protocol  for  the  Regulation  of  Whaling.    London,  November  26,  1945  •  •  •     "4 

632b.    Convention  for  the  Regulation  of  Whaling.    Washington,  December  2, 

1946 117 

Germany 

651.  Act  of  Military  Surrender  of  Germany.    Berlin,  May  8,  1945 3** 

652.  Declaration  regarding  the  Assumption  of  Supreme  Authority  with  Respect 

to  Germany.    Berlin,  June  5,  1945 314 

652a.    Agreement  on  Certain  Additional  Requirements  to  be  Imposed  on  Ger- 
many.   Berlin,  September  20,  1945 319 

657.  Agreement  on  the  Treatment  of  Germany.     Berlin,  August  I,  1945 580 

658.  Agreement  on  German  Reparations.     Berlin,  August  i,  1945 583 

6s8a.    Agreement  on  Reparation  from  Germany.    Paris,  January  14,  1946 585 

658b.    Agreement  on  Allocation  of  a  Reparation  Share  to  Non-repatriable  Victims 

of  German  Action.     Paris,  June  14,  1946 608 

6580.    Accord  on  Treatment  of  German-owned  Patents.    London,  July  27,  1946    614 

658c(i)    Protocol  amending  the  Accord  on  German-owned  Patents.    London,  July 

17,  1947 618 

65 8d.    Agreement  on  Conflicting  Claims  to  German  Enemy  Assets.    Brussels, 

December  5,  1947 620 

Health 

643.  International  Sanitary  Convention.    Washington,  December  15,  1944.  . .     236 

6433.    Protocol  to  Prolong  the  Duration  of  the  International  Sanitary  Convention 

of  1944.    Washington,  April  23,  1946 251 

644.  International  Sanitary  Convention  for  Aerial  Navigation.    Washington, 

December  15,  1944 254 

644a.    Protocol  to  Prolong  the  Duration  of  the  International  Sanitary  Convention 

for  Aerial  Navigation  of  1944.    Washington,  April  23,  1946 272 

Highway  Traffic 

623.  Agreement  concerning  the  Regulation  of  International  Military  Traffic  on 

the  Emergency  Military  Highway.    San  Salvador,  December  15,  1942      49 

630.    Convention  on  the  Regulation  of  Inter- American  Automotive  Traffic. 

Washington,  December  15,  1943 91 

Inland  Transport 

662.    Agreement  concerning  the  Establishment  of  a  European  Central  Inland 

Transport  Organization.    London,  September  27,  1945 666 


SUBJECT  LIST  OP  INSTRUMENTS 

No.  PAGE 

Inland  Transport— Continued 

66aa.    Protocol  relating  to  Traffic  on  Inland  Waterways.    London,  September  27, 

1945 687 

Insurance 

6 1 8.    Agreement  concerning  the  Star  Insurance  Company  at  Prague.     Berlin, 

August  12,  1942 28 

Inter-American  Agreements 

626.    Convention  on  the  Inter-American  University.    Panama,  October  4,  1943      61 
626a.    Statute  of  the  Inter-American  University.     Panama,  October  4,  1943   ...       66 

630.  Convention  on  the  Regulation  of  Inter-American  Automotive  Traffic. 

Washington,  December  15,  1943   91 

631.  Convention  on  the  Inter- American  Institute  of  Agricultural  Sciences. 

Washington,  January  15,  1944 101 

647.  Act  of  Chapultepec.     Mexico  City,  March  8,  1945 283 

648.  Arrangements  concerning  the  Reorganization,  Consolidation,  and  Strength- 

ening of  the  Inter- American  System.     Mexico  City,  March  8,  1945 ....     290 

663.    Inter-American    Telecommunications     Convention.    Rio    de    Janeiro, 

September  27,  1945   690 

International  Organizations 

612.    Agreement  concerning  the  Establishment  of  a  Commission  on  Forests  and 

Timber.    Berlin,  January  23,  1942 5 

614.     Memorandum  of  Agreement  on  the  Production  and  Marketing  of  Wheat. 

Washington,  April  22,  1942     n 

621.  Agreement  for  the  International  Control  of  the  Production  and  Export  of 

Tin.    London,  September  9,  1942 35 

622.  Agreement  concerning  a  European  Postal  and  Telecommunications  Union. 

Vienna,  October  19,  1942 43 

626.    Convention  on  the  Inter-American  University.    Panama,  October  4,  1943      61 
626a.    Statute  of  the  Inter- American  University.     Panama,  October  4,  1943   ...       66 

629.    Agreement  for  United  Nations  Relief  and  Rehabilitation  Administration. 

Washington,  November  9,  1943     84 

631.     Convention  on  the   Inter- American  Institute  of  Agricultural  Sciences. 

Washington,  January  15,  1944 IOI 

633.  Declaration  concerning  the  Aims  and  Purposes  of  the  International  Labor 

Organization.    Philadelphia,  May  10,  1944 124 

634.  Agreement  on  the  Continuance  of  Co-ordinated  Control  of  Merchant  Ship- 

ping.   London,  August  5,  1944 129 

6343.    Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  a  Provisional  Maritime  Consultative 

Council.    Washington,  October  30,  1946 133 

639.  Interim  Agreement  on  International  Civil  Aviation.    Chicago,  December 

7,1944 157 

640.  Convention  on  International  Civil  Aviation.    Chicago,  December  7,  1944    168 

6403.    Protocol  relating  to  an  Amendment  to  the  Convention  on  International 

Civil  Aviation.    Montreal,  May  27,  1947   211 

640b.    Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the   International  Civil 

Aviation  Organization.    Lake  Success,  September  30,  1946 214 

648.  Arrangements  concerning  the  Reorganization,  Consolidation,  and  Strength- 

ening of  the  Inter- American  System.    Mexico  City,  March  8,  1945 ....     290 

649.  Agreement  for  Economic  Consultation.    Paris,  March  20,  1945 297 


SUBJECT  LIST  OP  INSTRUMENTS 

No.  PAGE 

650.  Pact  of  the  Arab  League.    Cairo,  March  22,  1945 300 

65Oa.  Cultural  Treaty  between  Arab  States.    Cairo,  November  20,  1946 310 

653.  Charter  of  the  United  Nations.    San  Francisco,  June  26,  1945 327 

653a.  Interim  Arrangements  of  the  United  Nations.    San  Francisco,  June  26, 

1945 366 

653b.     Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  General  Assembly.    Flushing  Meadows,  Novem- 
ber 17,  1 947 369 

653C.     Provisional  Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  Security  Council.    London,  January 

17,1946 400 

653d.    Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  Economic  and  Social  Council.    Lake  Success, 

March  18,  1949 41 1 

6530.  Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  Trusteeship  Council.     Lake  Success,  April  23, 

1947 428 

653f.     Regulations  concerning  Registration  and  Publication  of  Treaties.    Flush- 
ing Meadows,  December  14,  1946 ...     448 

653g.     Provisional    Financial    Regulations    of    the    United    Nations.     Flushing 

Meadows,  November  20,  1947    ...  .  ....  .         455 

653h.    Staff  Rules  of  the  United  Nations.     May  13,  1948 464 

6531.  Convention  on  the  Privileges  and  Immunities  of  the  United  Nations. 

London,  February  13,  1946 499 

654.  Statute  of  the  International  Court  of  Justice.    San  Francisco,  June  26, 

1945..  510 

654a.     Rules  of  the  International  Court  of  Justice.    The  Hague,  May  6, 1946. . .     529 

656.    Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  the  Council  of  Foreign  Ministers. 

Berlin,  August  i,  1945      .  577 

66 1 a.    Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  the  Far  Eastern  Commission  and  of 

the  Allied  Council  for  Japan.     Moscow,  December  27,  1945 663 

662.  Agreement  concerning  the  Establishment  of  a  European  Central  Inland 

Transport  Organization.     London,  September  27,  1945 666 

663.  Inter- American     Telecommunications     Convention.     Rio     de     Janeiro, 

September  27,  1945 690 

664.  Constitution  of  the  Food  and  Agriculture  Organization  of  the  United 

Nations.     Quebec,  October  16,  1945 713 

6643.    Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  Food  and  Agriculture 

Organ iza don.     New  York,  June  10,  1946 730 

665.  Instrument  for  the  Amendment  of  the  Constitution  of  the  International 

Labor  Organization.     Paris,  November  5,  1945      743 

6653.     Instrument  for  the  Amendment  of  the  Constitution  of  the  International 

Labor  Organization.    Montreal,  October  9,  1946 749 

665b.    Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Labor 

Organization.     New  York,  May  30,  1946 ....     771 

666.  Declaration  on  Atomic  Energy.     Washington,  November  15,  1945   783 

667.  Constitution  of  the  United  Nations  Educational,  Scientific  and  Cultural 

Organization.    London,  November  16,  1945 786 

667a.    Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  United  Nations  Educa- 
tional, Scientific  and  Cultural  Organization.     New  York,  June  4,  1946.     80 1 

669.    Articles  of  Agreement  of  the  International  Monetary  Fund.    Washington, 

December  27,  1945 820 

660*.    Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Monetary 

Fund.    New  York,  August  15,  1947 882 


XXXli  SUBJECT  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS 

No.  PAGE 

International  Organizations— Continued 

670.    Articles  of  Agreement  of  the  International  Bank  for  Reconstruction  and 

Development.    Washington,  December  27,  1945 889 

6joa     Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Bank  for 

Reconstruction  and  Development.  New  York,  August  15,  1947 933 

Japan 

646.    Agreement  regarding  Japan.    Yalta,  February  n,  1945 282 

66 1.    Instrument  of  Surrender  by  Japan.    Tokyo  Bay,  September  2,  1945 661 

66ia.    Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  the  Far  Eastern  Commission  and  of 

the  Allied  Council  for  Japan.    Moscow,  December  27,  1945 663 

Labor 

633.  Declaration  concerning  the  Aims  and  Purposes  of  the  International  Labor 

Organization.    Philadelphia,  May  10,  1944 "4 

665.    Instrument  for  the  Amendment  of  the  Constitution  of  the  International 

Labor  Organization.    Paris,  November  5,  1945 743 

6653.    Instrument  for  the  Amendment  of  the  Constitution  of  the  International 

Labor  Organization.    Montreal,  October  9,  1946 749 

665b.    Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Labor 

Organization.    New  York,  May  30,  1946 771 

Legal  Questions  (Special) 

615.    Agreement  concerning  the  Division  of  the  Property  of  the  "Former" 

Yugoslav  State.    Berlin,  July  22,  1942 23 

617.  Treaty  concerning   the   Reorganization   of   the   Danube-Sava- Adriatic 

Railway  Company.    Brioni,  August  10,  1942 27 

618.  Agreement  concerning  the  Star  Insurance  Company  at  Prague.    Berlin, 

August  12,  1942 28 

624.    Inter-Allied  Declaration  against  Acts  of  Dispossession  Committed  in  Terri- 
tories under  Enemy  Occupation  or  Control.    London,  January  5,  1943      49 

653f.    Regulations  concerning  Registration  and  Publication  of  Treaties.    Flush- 
ing Meadows,  December  14,  1946 448 

6531.    Convention  on  the  Privileges  and  Immunities  of  the  United  Nations. 

London,  February  13,  1946 499 

658c.    Accord  on  Treatment  of  German-owned  Patents.    London,  July  27,  1946    614 

658c(i).    Protocol  amending  the  Accord  on  German-owned  Patents.    London,  July 

17,  1947 618 

Liberal  Professions 

620.    Convention  on  the  Practice  of  Liberal  Professions.    San  Jos£,  September 

5,194^ 33 

Maritime  Law 

632.    Protocol  for  the  Regulation  of  Whaling.    London,  February  7,  1944 1 1 1 

632a.    Protocol  for  the  Regulation  of  Whaling.    London,  November  26,  1945 ...     114 

632b.    Convention  for  the  Regulation  of  Whaling.    Washington,  December  2, 

1946 "7 

634.  Agreement  on  the  Continuance  of  Co-ordinated  Control  of  Merchant  Ship- 

ping.   London,  August  5,  1944 129 

6348.    Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  a  Provisional  Maritime  Consultative 

Council.    Washington,  October  30, 1946 133 


SUBJECT  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS  XXXiii 

No.  PAGB 

Monetary  Questions 

627.  Monetary  Convention.    London,  October  21,  1943 75 

669.    Articles  of  Agreement  of  the  International  Monetary  Fund,  Washington, 

December  27,  1945 820 

6693.    Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Monetary 

Fund.    New  York,  August  15,  1947 882 

Patents 

658c.    Accord  on  Treatment  of  German-owned  Patents.    London,  July  27,  1946    614 

658c(i).     Protocol  amending  the  Accord  on  German-owned  Patents.     London,  July 

17,  1947 .618 

Political  Relations 

6n.     Declaration  by  United  Nations.     Washington,  January  i,  1942    .    .         .  i 

6na.     Atlantic  Charter.     August  14,  1941 3 

613.    Treaty  of  Alliance.     Tehran,  January  29,  19^2          7 

628.  Declaration  on  General  Security.     Moscow,  October  30,  1943       82 

646.  Agreement  regarding  Japan.     Yalta,  February  n,  1945 ..      .     282 

647.  Act  of  Chapullepec.     Mexico  City,  March  8,  1945 283 

648.  Arrangements  concerning  the  Reorganization,  Consolidation,  and  Strength- 

ening of  the  Inter- American  System.     Mexico  City,  March  8,  1945.    .       290 

650.     Pact  of  the  Arab  League.     Cairo,  March  22,  1945 300 

652.  Declaration  regarding  the  Assumption  of  Supreme  Authority  with  respect 

to  Germany.     Berlin,  June  5,  1945 314 

6523.    Agreement  on  Certain  Additional  Requirements  to  be  Imposed  on  Ger- 
many.    Berlin,  September  20,  1945 319 

653.  Charter  of  the  United  Nations.     San  Francisco,  June  26,  1945 327 

655.  Agreement  on  Control  Machinery  in  Austria.     London,  July  4,  1945.    .         558 
655a.    Agreement  on  Zones  of  Occupation  in  Austria.     London,  July  9,  1945.  .  .     564 
655b.    Agreement  on  the  Machinery  of  Control  in  Austria.     Vienna,  June  28,  1946    567 

656.  Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  the  Council  of  Foreign  Ministers. 

Berlin,  August  i,  1945 577 

657.  Agreement  on  the  Treatment  of  Germany.     Berlin,  August  i,  1945  580 

Posts 

622.    Agreement  concerning  a  European  Postal  and  Telecommunications  Union. 

Vienna,  October  19,  1942 43 

Property 

615.    Agreement  concerning  the  Division  of  the  Property  of  the  "Former" 

Yugoslav  State.     Berlin,  July  22,  1942 23 

624.     Inter-Allied  Declaration  against  Acts  of  Dispossession  Committed  in  Ter- 
ritories under  Enemy  Occupation  or  Control.     London,  January  5,  1943      49 

6s8d.    Agreement  on  Conflicting  Claims  to  German  Enemy  Assets.     Brussels, 

December  5,  1947 620 

Railways 

617.    Treaty  concerning  the  Reorganization  of  the  Danube-Sava-Adriatic  Rail- 
way Company.    Brioni,  August  10,  1942 27 


XXXIV 


SUBJECT  UST  OF  INSTRUMENTS 


No. 
Reconstruction 

629.    Agreement  for  United  Nations  Relief  and  Rehabilitation  Administration. 
Washington,  November  9,  1943      

670.     Articles  of  Agreement  on  the  International  Bank  for  Reconstruction  and 
Development.     Washington,  December  27,  1945          


670a.    Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Bank  for 


Reconstruction  and  Development.     New  York,  August  15,  1947 


Relief 


629.     Agreement  for  United  Nations  Relief  and  Rehabilitation  Administration. 
Washington,  November  9,  1943 

Reparations 

658.     Agreement  on  German  Reparations.     Berlin,  August  I,  1945 

6583.     Agreement  on  Reparation  from  Germany.     Paris,  January  14,  1946.    . 

658b.     Agreement  on  Allocation  of  a  Reparation  Share  to  Non-repatriable  Victims 
of  German  Action.     Paris,  June  14,  1946     ... 


PAGE 

84 
889 
933 

84 

583 
585 

608 


6s8c.     Accord  on  Treatment  of  German-owned  Patents.     London,  July  27,  1946    614 
6s8c(i).     Protocol  amending  the  Accord  on  German-owned  Patents.     London,  July 


17,  1947      .... 

6s8d.     Agreement  on  Conflicting  Claims  to  German  Enemy  Assets.     Brussels, 
December  5,  1947 

Rivers 

662a.     Protocol  relating  to  Traffic  on  Inland  Waterways.     London,  September 


27,  1945 


Shipping 

634.     Agreement  on  the  Continuance  of   Co-ordinated   Control  of   Merchant 
Shipping.     London,  August  5,  1944    ....          .  . 

6343.    Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  a  Provisional  Maritime  Consultative 


Council.     Washington,  October  30,  1946 


618 


620 


687 


129 


133 


Sugar 


616.     Protocol  concerning  the  1937  Agreement  on  the  Regulation  of  Production 
and  Marketing  of  Sugar.     London,  July  22,  1942      .    . 

6i6a.     Protocol  concerning  the  1937  Agreement  on  the  Regulation  of  Production 
and  Marketing  of  Sugar.     London,  August  31,  1944 


Tangier 
660. 


Agreement  for  the  Re-establishment  of  the  International  Administration  of 
Tangier.     Paris,  August  31,  1945    .... 


Telecommunications 

622.     Agreement  concerning  a  European  Postal  and  Telecommunications  Union. 
Vienna,  October  19, 1942  .  ... 

663.     Inter-American  Telecommunications  Convention.    Rio  de  Janeiro,  Sep- 
tember 27,  1945.    .  .    .  ...  .... 


Timber 


653 


43 

690 
668.     Agreement  concerning  Telecommunications.     Bermuda,  December  4,  1945     815 


612.    Agreement  concerning  the  Establishment  of  a  Commission  on  Forests  and 

Timber.     Berlin,  January  23,  1942 5 


SUBJECT  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS  XXXV 

No.  PAGE 

Tin 

621.    Agreement  for  the  International  Control  of  the  Production  and  Export  of 

Tin.    London,  September  9,  1942 35 

United  Nations 

611.     Declaration  by  United  Nations.     Washington,  January  I,  1942 i 

629.    Agreement  for  United  Nations  Relief  and  Rehabilitation  Administration. 

Washington,  November  9,  1943 84 

640.     Convention  on  International  Civil  Aviation.     Chicago,  December  7,  1944     168 

6403.     Protocol  relating  to  an  Amendment  to  the  Convention  on  International 

Civil  Aviation.     Montreal,  May  27,  1947 21 1 

64ob.     Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Civil  Avia- 
tion Organization.    Lake  Success,  September  30,  1946 214 

653.  Charter  of  the  United  Nations.     San  Francisco,  June  26,  1945    .  . .       327 
6533.     Interim  Arrangements  of  the  United  Nations.     San  Francisco,  June  26, 

1945         .  366 

653b.     Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  General  Assembly.     Flushing  Meadows,  Novem- 
ber 17,  1947  369 

653C.     Provisional  Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  Security  Council.     London,  January 

17,  1946  .  400 

653d.     Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  Economic  and  Social  Council.     Lake  Success, 

March  18,  1949 411 

6536.     Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  Trusteeship  Council.    Lake  Success,  April  23, 

1947  .  428 

653f.     Regulations  concerning  Registration  and  Publication  of  Treaties.     Flush- 
ing Meadows,  December  14,  1946  .        .    .     448 

653g.     Provisional    Financial    Regulations   of    the    United    Nations.     Flushing 

Meadows,  November  20,  1947  .  ....  455 

653h.     Staff  Rules  of  the  United  Nations.     May  13,  1948.  .     464 

653i-     Convention  on  the  Privileges  and   Immunities  of  the  United  Nations. 

London,  February  13,  1946     .  ...  .     499 

654.  Statute  of  the  International  Court  of  Justice.     San  Francisco,  June  26, 

1945  .  -  .  ..510 

6543.     Rules  of  the  International  Court  of  Justice.    The  Hague,  May  6,  1946.    .     529 

664.  Constitution  of  the  Food  and  Agriculture  Organization  of  the  United 

Nations.     Quebec,  October  16,  1945  .  ...  .        .713 

6643.    Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  Food  and  Agriculture 

Organization.     New  York,  June  10,  1946      ....  .  730 

665.  Instrument  for  the  Amendment  of  the  Constitution  of  the  International 

Labor  Organization.     Paris,  November  5,  1945 743 

665a.     Instrument  for  the  Amendment  of  the  Constitution  of  the  International 

Labor  Organization.     Montreal,  October  9,  1946       . .  .        ...     749 

66sb.    Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Labor 

Organization.     New  York,  May  30,  1946        ...          .      . .      .          .    .     771 

666.  Declaration  on  Atomic  Energy.    Washington,  November  15,  1945       .    .     783 

667.  Constitution  of  the  United  Nations  Educational,  Scientific  and  Cultural 

Organization.     London,  November  16,  1945 786 

6673.    Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  United  Nations  Educa- 
tional, Scientific  and  Cultural  Organization.     New  York,  June  4,  1946    801 

669.    Articles  of  Agreement  of  the  International  Monetary  Fund.    Washington, 

December  27,  1945 820 


XXXVI 


SUBJECT  LIST  OF  INSTRUMENTS 


No.  PAGE 

United  Nations— Continued 

669a.    Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Monetary 

Fund.  New  York,  August  15,  1947 882 

670.    Articles  of  Agreement  of  the  International  Bank  for  Reconstruction  and 

Development.    Washington,  December  27,  1945 889 

670a.    Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Bank  for 

Reconstruction  and  Development.    New  York,  August  15,  1947 933 

War  Crimes 

659.    Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  an  International  Military  Tribunal. 

London,  August  8,  1945  632 

659a.    Charter  of  the  International  Military  Tribunal.    London,  August  8,  1945    637 

659b.    Rules  of  Procedure  of  the  International  Military  Tribunal.    Nuremberg, 

October  29,  1945 647 

Whaling 

632.    Protocol  for  the  Regulation  of  Whaling.    London,  February  7,  1944 in 

632a.     Protocol  for  the  Regulation  of  Whaling.    London,  November  26,  1945. . .     114 
632b.    Convention  for  the  Regulation  of  Whaling.    Washington,  December  2, 

J946 "7 

Wheat 

614.    Memorandum  of  Agreement  on  the  Production  and  Marketing  of  Wheat. 

Washington,  April  22,  1942 1 1 


No.  611 

DECLARATION  by  United  Nations.     Opened  for  signature  at  Wash- 
ington, January  i,  1942. 

DECLARATION  des  Nations  Unies.     Ouverte  &  la  signature  &  Wash- 
ington, i  Janvier  1942. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Declaration  established  a  basis  for  cooperation  between  the  na- 
tions united  against  the  Axis  states  in  World  War  II.  A  resolution  on  mutual  assistance 
had  been  adopted  at  the  Inter-Allied  Meeting  at  London,  June  12,  1941.  Br.  Parl.  Papers, 
Misc.  No.  i  (1941),  Cmd.  6285,  p.  15.  For  the  text  of  the  Atlantic  Charter  of  August  14, 

1941,  referred  to  in  the  preamble  to  this  Declaration,  see  No.  6na,  post;  for  the  text  of  the 
Tripartite  Pact  of  September  27,  1940,  see  No.  591,  ante.     The  Charter  of  the  United  Na- 
tions was  adopted  at  San  Francisco,  June  26,  1945  (No.  653,  post). 

ACCESSIONS.  On  May  i,  1945,  this  Declaration  had  been  acceded  to  and  signed  by 
Bolivia,  Brazil,  Chile,  Colombia,  Ecuador,  Egypt,  Ethiopia,  France,  Iran,  Iraq,  Lebanon, 
Liberia,  Mexico,  Paraguay,  Peru,  Philippines,  Saudi  Arabia,  Syria,  Turkey,  Uruguay,  and 
Venezuela. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Declaration  is  also  published  in  U.S.  Executive  Agree- 
ment Series,  No.  236;  British  Treaty  Series,  No.  5  (1942),  Cmd.  6388;  Canada,  Treaty  Series, 

1942,  No.  i;  36  Am.  Jour.  Int.  Law  (Supp.,  1942),  p.  191;  i  Soviet  Foreign  Policy  During 
the  Patriotic  War:  Documents  and  Materials,  p.  1 14;  1 1  Zeitschrift  fur  auslandisches  offentliches 
Recht  und  Volkerrecht  (1943),  p.  547.     For  a  Spanish  translation,  see  Panama,  Memoria  del 
Mimsterio  de  Relaciones  Exteriores,  1943,  p.  652;  2  Revista  peruana  de  derecho  internacwnal 
(1942),  P-  559- 

A.  A.  Berle,  Jr.,  "  United  Nations  and  United  Peoples,"  6  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin 

(1942),  pp.  203-5;  H.  Bonnet,  The  United  Nations  (Chicago,  1942),  100  pp.; ,  United 

Nations  on  the  Way  (Chicago,  1942),  170  pp.;  G.  B.  Huszar,  "The  United  Nations  in  War 
and  Peace,"  106  World  Affairs  (1943),  pp.  98-104;  C.  Savage,  "The  Concept  of  the  United 
Nations,"  12  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1945),  pp.  504-6;  R.  E.  Sherwood,  Roosevelt 
and  Hopkins  (New  York,  1948),  pp.  446-53;  P.  S.  Wild,  Jr.,  "Machinery  of  Collaboration 
between  the  United  Nations,"  18  Foreign  Policy  Reports  (1942),  pp.  94-108. 

Entered  into  force  January  i,  1942.' 
Text  and  translation  from  204  League  of  Nations  Treaty  Series,  p.  381. 

[Trad  uct  ion] 
The  Governments  signatory  hereto,         Les  gouvernements  signataires  de 

la  pr£sente  Declaration, 

Having  subscribed  to  a  common  Ayant  souscrit  &  un  programme 
programme  of  purposes  and  princi-  commun  de  buts  et  de  principes 
pies  embodied  in  the  Joint  Declara-  £nonc£  dans  la  Declaration  conjointe 
tion  of  the  President  of  the  United  du  President  des  Etats-Unis  d'Am6- 
States  of  America  and  the  Prime  rique  et  du  Premier  Ministre  du 
Minister  of  the  United  Kingdom  of  Royaume-Uni  de  Grande-Bretagne 
1  Registered  with  the  Secretariat  of  the  League  of  Nations,  No.  4817,  October  29,  1942. 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  611 


Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ireland, 
dated  August  I4th,  1941,  known  as 
the  Atlantic  Charter, 

Being  convinced  that  complete 
victory  over  their  enemies  is  essen- 
tial to  defend  life,  liberty,  independ- 
ence and  religious  freedom,  and  to 
preserve  human  rights  and  justice  in 
their  own  lands  as  well  as  in  other 
lands,  and  that  they  are  now  en- 
gaged in  a  common  struggle  against 
savage  and  brutal  forces  seeking  to 
subjugate  the  world,  declare: 


(1)  Each  Government  pledges  it- 
self to  employ  its  full  resources,  mili- 
tary or  economic,  against  those  mem- 
bers of  the  Tripartite  Pact  and  its 
adherents  with  which  such  Govern- 
ment is  at  war. 

(2)  Each  Government  pledges  it- 
self to  co-operate  with  the  Govern- 
ments signatory  hereto  and  not  to 
make  a  separate  armistice  or  peace 
with  the  enemies. 

The  foregoing  declaration  may  be 
adhered  to  by  other  nations  which 
are,  or  which  may  be,  rendering  ma- 
terial assistance  and  contributions  in 
the  struggle  for  victory  over  Hitler- 
ism. 

DONE  at  Washington,  the  1st 
January,  1942. 


et  d'Irlande  du  Nord,  en  date  du  14 
aoflt  1941,  connue  sous  le  nom  de 
"Charte  de  1'Atlantique", 

Convaincus  qu'une  victoire  com- 
pile sur  leurs  ennemis  est  essentielle 
pour  d6fendre  la  vie,  la  Iibert6,  1'in- 
d£pendance  et  la  Iibert6  de  con- 
science et  pour  preserver  les  droits 
humains  et  la  justice  dans  leurs 
propres  territoires,  ainsi  que  dans  les 
autres,  et  qu'ils  sont  actuellement 
engages  dans  une  lutte  commune 
contre  des  forces  sauvages  et  bru- 
tales  qui  cherchent  &  subjuguer  le 
monde,  d6clarent: 

1)  Chaque  gouvernement  s'engage 
&  utiliser  toutes  ses  ressources,  mili- 
taires   ou   6conomiques,   contre   les 
membres  du  Pacte  tripartite  et  ses 
adherents  avec  lesquels  ce  gouverne- 
ment est  en  guerre. 

2)  Chaque  gouvernement  s'engage 
&  coop£rer  avec  les  gouvernements 
signataires  de  la  pr£sente  D£clara- 
tion  et  &  ne  pas  conclure  d'armistice 
ou  de  paix  s£par£s  avec  les  ennemis. 

La  Declaration  qui  pr£c£de  est 
ouverte  &  Tadh6sion  des  autres  na- 
tions qui  fournissent  ou  peuvent 
fournir  une  assistance  et  des  con- 
tributions mat£rielles  dans  la  lutte 
pour  la  victoire  sur  I'hitterisme. 

FAIT  £  Washington,  le  ior  Janvier 
1942. 


[Signed:]  The  United  States  of  America,  by  FRANKLIN  D.  ROOSEVELT; 
the  United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ireland,  by  WINSTON  S. 
CHURCHILL;  on  behalf  of  the  Government  of  the  Union  of  Soviet  Socialist 
Republics,  MAXIM  LITVINOV,  Ambassador;  National  Government  of  the 
Republic  of  China,  TsE-yuNG  SOONG,  Minister  for  Foreign  Affairs;  the 
Commonwealth  of  Australia,  by  R.  G.  CASEY;  the  Kingdom  of  Belgium,  by 
Cte.  R.  v.  STRATEN;  Canada,  by  LEIGHTON  MCCARTHY;  the  Republic  of 
Costa  Rica,  by  Luis  FERNANDEZ;  the  Republic  of  Cuba,  by  AURELIO  F. 
CONCHESO;  Czecho-Slovak  Republic,  by  V.  S.  HURBAN;  the  Dominican 
Republic,  by  J.  M.  TRONCOSO;  the  Republic  of  El  Salvador,  by  C.  A.  ALFARO; 
the  Kingdom  of  Greece,  by  CIMON  G.  DIAMANTOPOULOS;  the  Republic  of 
Guatemala,  by  ENRIQUE  LOPEZ-HERRARTE;  La  Republique  d'Haiti,  par 
FERNAND  DENNIS;  the  Republic  of  Honduras,  by  JULIAN  R.  CACERES; 
India,  by  GIRJA  SHANKAR  BAJPAI;  the  Grand-Duchy  of  Luxemburg,  by 
HUGUES  LE  GALLAIS;  the  Kingdom  of  the  Netherlands,  by  A.  LOUDON; 
signed  on  behalf  of  the  Government  of  the  Dominion  of  New  Zealand,  by 
FRANK  LANGSTONE;  the  Republic  of  Nicaragua,  by  L6oN  DE  BAYLE;  the 
Kingdom  of  Norway,  by  W.  MUNTHE  MORGENSTIERNE;  the  Republic  of 


Aug.  14,  1941  ATLANTIC  CHARTER  3 

Panamd,  by  JA£N  GUARDIA  ;  the  Republic  of  Poland,  by  JAN  CIECHANOWSKI  ; 
the  Union  of  South  Africa,  by  RALPH  W.  CLOSE  ;  the  Kingdom  of  Yugoslavia, 

by  CONSTANTIN  A.  FOTITCH. 


No.  611a 

Atlantic  Charter.    Published  August  14,  1941. 
Charte  de  I'Atiantique.    Rendue  publique  le  14  aofit  1941. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  instrument,  drawn  up  by  the  President  of  the  United  States  and 
the  Prime  Minister  of  the  United  Kingdom  on  August  12,  1941,  on  board  U.S.S.  Augusta, 
was  published  on  August  14,  1941.  It  was  adhered  to  by  ten  governments  represented  at 
an  Inter- Allied  Conference  in  London  on  September  24,  1941.  Br.  Parl.  Papers,  Misc. 
No.  3  (1941),  Cmd.  6315,  pp.  6-16.  A  resolution  approving  the  Atlantic  Charter  was 
adopted  at  the  Third  Meeting  of  the  Ministers  of  Foreign  Affairs  of  the  American  Republics 
at  Rio  de  Janeiro,  January  28,  1942.  Pan  American  Union,  Congress  and  Conference  Series, 
No.  36,  p.  58. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  the  Atlantic  Charter  is  also  published  in  Br.  Parl.  Papers, 
United  States  No.  3  (1941),  Cmd.  6321;  5  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1941),  p.  125. 
For  a  Spanish  translation,  see  145  Peru,  Boletin  del  Ministerio  de  Relaciones  Exteriores  (1941), 
p.  269. 

E.  de  Althaus,  "Apuntes  sobre  la  Carta  del  Atlantico,"  2  Revista  peruana  de  derecho 
international  (1942),  pp.  497-514;  W.  Arnold-Forster,  Charters  of  Peace — A  Commentary 
on  the  Atlantic  Charter  and  the  Declarations  of  Moscow,  Cairo,  and  Teheran  (London,  1944), 

138  pp.; "The  Atlantic  Charter,"  13  Political  Quarterly  (1942),  pp.  144-59;  J.  F. 

Dulles,  Long  Range  Peace  Objectives  Including  an  Analysis  of  the  Roosevelt-Churchill  Eight 
Point  Declaration  (New  York,  1941),  29  pp.;  C.  Eagleton,  "The  Atlantic  Charter,"  7  New 
Commonwealth  Quarterly  (1941),  pp.  172-82;  A.  Giannini,  "La  cabala  degli  otto  punti,"  9 
Rivista  di  studi  politici  internazionali  (1942),  pp.  149-78;  J.  E.  Johnsen,  Eight  Points  of  Post- 
War  Reorganization  (New  York,  1942),  126  pp.;  V.  Kybal,  "The  Atlantic  Charter,"  12  World 
Affairs  Interpreter  (1942),  pp.  367-81;  E.  Reves,  "Atlantic  Charter  and  Beyond,"  6  Public 
Affairs  (1943),  pp.  125-32;  H.  L.  Samuel,  "Thoughts  on  the  Atlantic  Charter,"  161  Con- 
temporary Review  (1942),  pp.  1-8;  B.  E.  Schmitt,  "Roosevelt-Churchill  Declaration  and  the 
Terms  of  a  Future  Peace,"  6  Social  Education  (1942),  pp.  58-65;  R.  E.  Sherwood,  Roosevelt 
and  Hopkins  (New  York,  1948),  pp.  359-63;  W.  Stephan,  "  Atlantik-Charta  und  Beveridge- 
Plan,"  10  Auswartige  Politik  (1943),  pp.  376-80;  I.  Stoepel,  "Die  Atlantik-Charta  eine 
Garantie  fur  die  Baltischen  Staaten,"  idem,  pp.  451-55;  J.  Stone,  The  Atlantic  Charter 
(Sydney,  1943),  245  pp.;  2d  ed.  (Sydney,  1945)*  9$  PP-;  J-  Sulkowski,  "The  Atlantic  Charter 
and  the  Principle  of  Self -Determination,"  2  New  Europe  (1942),  pp.  262-68;  G.  Turbay, 
"Atlantic  Charter,"  76  Bulletin  of  the  Pan  American  Union  (1942),  pp.  324-27;  U.S.  Library 
of  Congress,  Legislative  Reference  Service,  The  Atlantic  Charter — Symbol  of  United  Democracy 
(Washington,  1942),  30  pp.;  S.  Welles,  Where  Are  We  Heading  (New  York,  1946),  pp.  4-18. 

Entered  into  force  August  14, 194Z.1 

Text  and  translation  from  204  League  of  Nations  Treaty  Series,  p.  384. 

[Traduction] 

The  President  of  the  United  States         Le   President  des   Etats-Unis  d' 

of  America  and  the  Prime  Minister,     Am6rique  et  le  Premier  Ministre, 

1  Registered  with  the  Secretariat  of  the  League  of  Nations,  under  No.  481 7,  October  29, 1942. 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  6na 


Mr.  Churchill,  representing  His  Maj- 
esty's Government  in  the  United 
Kingdom,  being  met  together,  deem 
it  right  to  make  known  certain  com- 
mon principles  in  the  national  poli- 
cies of  their  respective  countries  on 
which  they  base  their  hopes  for  a 
better  future  for  the  world. 

First,  their  countries  seek  no  ag- 
grandizement, territorial  or  other; 

Second,  they  desire  to  see  no  terri- 
torial changes  that  do  not  accord 
with  the  freely  expressed  wishes  of 
the  peoples  concerned ; 

Third,  they  respect  the  right  of  all 
peoples  to  choose  the  form  of  govern- 
ment under  which  they  will  live;  and 
they  wish  to  see  sovereign  rights  and 
self-government  restored  to  those 
who  have  been  forcibly  deprived  of 
them; 

Fourth,  they  will  endeavour,  with 
due  respect  for  their  existing  obliga- 
tions, to  further  the  enjoyment  by 
all  States,  great  or  small,  victor  or 
vanquished,  of  access,  on  equal 
terms,  to  the  trade  and  to  the  raw 
materials  of  the  world  which  are 
needed  for  their  economic  prosperity; 

Fifth,  they  desire  to  bring  about 
the  fullest  collaboration  between  all 
nations  in  the  economic  field  with  the 
object  of  securing,  for  all,  improved 
labour  standards,  economic  advance- 
ment, and  social  security; 

Sixth,  after  the  final  destruction  of 
the  Nazi  tyranny,  they  hope  to  see 
established  a  peace  which  will  af- 
ford to  all  nations  the  means  of 
dwelling  in  safety  within  their  own 
boundaries,  and  which  will  afford 
assurance  that  all  the  men  in  all  the 
lands  may  live  out  their  lives  in 
freedom  from  fear  and  want; 

Seventh,  such  a  peace  should  ena- 
ble all  men  to  traverse  the  high  seas 
and  oceans  without  hindrance; 

Eighth,  they  believe  that  all  of  the 
nations  of  the  world,  for  realistic  as 


M.  Churchill,  repr6sentant  le  Gou- 
vernement  de  Si  MajestS  dans  le 
Royaume-Uni,  s'£tant  r6unis,  esti- 
ment  devoir  faire  connattre  certains 
principes  communs  &  la  politique 
nationale  de  leurs  pays  respectifs  et 
sur  lesquels  ils  fondent  leurs  espoirs 
d'un  avenir  meilleur  pour  le  monde. 

Premi&rement,  leurs  pays  ne  re- 
cherchent  aucun  agrandissement, 
territorial  ou  autre; 

Deuxtemement,  ils  d6sirent  ne  voir 
aucun  changement  territorial  qui  ne 
soit  pas  conforme  aux  voeux  libre- 
ment  exprim£s  des  peuples  interests; 

Troisi&mement,  ils  respectent  b 
droit  de  tous  les  peuples  de  choisir 
la  forme  de  gouvernement  sous  la- 
quelle  ils  veulent  vivre;  et  ils  de- 
sirent  voir  restaurer  les  droits  sou- 
verains  et  1'autonomie  £  ceux  qui 
en  ont  £t£  prives  par  la  force; 

Quatri&mement,  ils  s'efforceront, 
tout  en  respectant  leurs  obligations 
existantes,  de  favoriscr  pour  tous  les 
Etats,  grands  ou  petits,  vainqueurs 
ou  vaincus,  l'acc£s,  sur  un  pied 
dY»galit6,  au  commerce  et  aux  mati- 
6res  premieres  du  monde  qui  sont 
n£cessaires  £  leur  prosp6rite  6cono- 
mique; 

Cinqui£mement,  ils  d£sirent  r£ali- 
ser  la  collaboration  la  plus  complete 
entre  toutes  les  nations  dans  le  do- 
maine  6conomique  en  vue  d'assurer, 
pour  toutes,  une  amelioration  des 
conditions  de  travail,  le  progr&s 
6conomique,  et  la  s6curite  sociale; 

Sixi&mement,  apr6s  la  destruction 
definitive  de  la  tyrannic  nazie,  ils 
esp&rent  voir  s'£tablir  une  paix  qui 
fournira  £  toutes  les  nations  les 
moyens  de  demeurer  en  sflret6  dans 
leurs  propres  frontteres,  et  qui  don- 
nera  1'assurance  que  tous  les  hommes, 
dans  tous  les  pays,  pourront  vivre 
Iib6r6s  de  la  crainte  et  du  besoin; 

Septtemement,  une  telle  paix  de- 
vrait  permettre  £  tous  les  hommes  de 
traverser  sans  entraves  les  mers  et  les 
oceans; 

Huittemement,  ilscroient  que,  pour 
des  raisons  pratiques  aussi  bien  que 


Jan.  23,  1942          COMMISSION  ON  FORESTS  AND  TIMBER  5 

well  as  spiritual  reasons,  must  come  spirituelles,  toutes  les  nations  du 
to  the  abandonment  of  the  use  of  monde  doivent  en  arriver  &  renoncer 
force.  Since  no  future  peace  can  be  £  1'emploi  de  la  force.  Etant  donn6 
maintained  if  land,  sea  or  air  arma-  qu'aucune  paix  future  ne  pourra 
ments  continue  to  be  employed  by  £tre  maintenue  si  les  armements 
nations  which  threaten,  or  may  terrestres,  navals  ou  a6riens  con- 
threaten,  aggression  outside  of  their  tinuent  £  £tre  utilises  par  des  nations 
frontiers,  they  believe,  pending  the  qui  menacent,  ou  peuvent  menacer, 
establishment  of  a  wider  and  perma-  d'agression  en  dehors  de  leurs  fron- 
nent  system  of  general  security,  that  ti&res,  ils  croient  que,  en  attendant 
the  disarmament  of  such  nations  is  I'^tablissement  d'un  syst£me  de  s6- 
essential.  They  will  likewise  aid  curit£  g£n6rale  plus  large  et  perma- 
and  encourage  all  other  practicable  nent,  le  disarmament  de  ces  nations 
measures  which  will  lighten  for  peace-  est  essentiel.  Ils  favoriseront  et  en- 
loving  peoples  the  crushing  burden  courageront  6galement  toutes  les 
of  armaments.  autres  mesures  praticables  qui  all£- 

geront,  pour  les  peuples  pacifiques, 
l'£crasant  fardeau  des  armements. 


No.  612 

AGREEMENT  concerning  the  Establishment  of  a  Commission  on 
Forests  and  Timber.     Signed  at  Berlin,  January  23,  1942. 

ACCORD  concernant  restitution  d'une  Commission  sur  les  ques- 
tions forestieres  et  du  bois.    Signe  &  Berlin,  23  Janvier  1942. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  The  problems  of  forestry  and  timber  were  dealt  with  by  unofficial  and 
official  conferences  at  Bratislava  in  1923,  at  Lyons  in  1924,  at  Rome  in  1926,  at  Bratislava 
in  1929,  at  Paris  and  Warsaw  in  1931,  at  Vienna  and  Nancy  in  1932,  at  Berlin  in  1933,  at 
Vienna  in  1934,  at  Paris  and  Copenhagen  in  1935,  at  London  and  Budapest  in  1936,  at  Paris 
and  Stockholm  in  1937,  at  Brussels  in  1938.  A  meeting  of  timber  experts  was  held  at 
Geneva,  April  25-27,  1932,  under  the  auspices  of  the  League  of  Nations.  League  of  Nations 
Document,  C.493.M. 239.1932.11.6.6.  See  also  the  report  on  timber  statistics  of  the  League 
of  Nations  Committee  of  Statistical  Experts  of  1938.  Idem,  C.226.M. 128.1938.11^.15. 
An  International  Timber  Committee  (Comit6  international  du  Bois),  established  by  the 
Vienna  Conference  of  1932,  took  an  active  part  in  the  preparation  of  the  later  conferences. 
On  March  22,  1938,  the  International  Institute  of  Agriculture  established  a  Centre  inter- 
national de  Sylviculture  at  Berlin;  for  the  statute  and  regulations  of  the  Center,  see  Institut 
international  d' Agriculture,  Comit6  permanent,  Proccs-verbaux,  1938,  pp.  34-38,  185-92. 
An  International  Timber  Conference  was  held  at  Marianske  Lazne,  April  28-May  10,  1947, 
under  the  auspices  of  the  United  Nations  Food  and  Agriculture  Organization.  A  European 
Forestry  Office  of  the  Food  and  Agriculture  Organization  was  established  at  Geneva  in 
November  1947. 

RATIFICATIONS.  On  January  i,  1945,  ratifications  of  or  accessions  to  this  Agreement 
had  been  deposited  at  Berlin  by  Bulgaria,  Croatia,  Denmark,  Finland,  Germany,  Hungary, 
Italy,  Rumania,  Slovakia,  and  Sweden. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Agreement  is  also  published  in  39  Martens,  N.R.G.  (3d 
ser.),  p.  717. 

G.  Golay,  "Les  origines,  les  buts  et  les  formes  de  la  collaboration  Internationale  en  raatiere 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  612 


forestiere,"  2  Intersylva  (1942),  pp.  376-87.  On  the  background  of  this  Agreement,  see 
Anon.,  "The  International  Organization  of  the  Timber  Market,"  6  World  Trade  (1934). 
No.  8,  p.  5;  Anon.,  "Organizing  the  World  Timber  Market,"  7  idem  (1935),  No.  I,  p.  6; 
Anon.,  "European  Timber  Export  Convention,"  8  idem  (1936),  No.  2,  p.  2;  F.  Arcoleo, 
"The  Organization  of  the  International  Timber  Market,"  27  International  Review  of  Agri- 
culture  (1936),  pp.  41-49;  E.  Glesinger,  Le  bois  en  Europe  (Paris,  1932),  pp.  55-240;  H.  R.  G. 
Greaves,  Raw  Materials  and  International  Control  (London,  1936),  pp.  93-98;  W.  Parch- 
mann,  "Europaische  Forstwirtschaft  als  Vorbild  kontinentaler  Marktregelung,"  Jahrbuch 
der  Gesettschaft  fur  europdische  Wirtschaftsplannung  (Dresden,  1941),  pp.  25-30;  E.  Staley, 
Raw  Materials  in  Peace  and  War  (New  York,  1937),  pp.  315-16. 

Entered  into  force  April  9,  1942. 

Text  from  German  Reichsgesetzblatt,  1942,  Part  II,  p.  220. 


Die  Koniglich  Danische  Regie- 
rung,  die  Deutsche  Regierung,  die 
Finnische  Regierung  und  die  Konig- 
lich Schwedische  Regierung,  von 
dem  Wunsche  geleitet,  gemeinsam 
liber  forst-  und  holzwirtschaf  tliche  und 
-wissenschaftliche  Fragen  zu  beraten 
und  die  Voraussetzungen  fur  den 
geordneten  Austausch  der  Holz- 
(iberschusse  zu  untersuchen,  haben 
sich  geeinigt,  ein  Abkommen  iiber  die 
Einsetzung  einer  gemeinsamen  Forst- 
und  Holzkommission  zu  treffen,  und 
haben  zu  diesem  Zweck  zu  ihren 
Bevollmachtigten  ernannt: l 

Die  Koniglich  Danische  Regie- 
rung:  Otto  Carl  Mohr; 

Die  Deutsche  Regierung:  Emil 
Wiehl  und  Willi  Parchmann; 

Die  Finnische  Regierung:  Toivo 
Mikael  Kivimaki; 

Die  Koniglich  Schwedische  Regie- 
rung:  Arvid  Richert. 

Die  Bevollmachtigten  haben  nach 
Vorlage  ihrer  in  guter  und  gehoriger 
Form  befundenen  Vollmachten 
Nachstehendes  vereinbart: 

Artikel  i.  Zur  gemeinsamen  Be- 
ratung  iiber  forst-  und  holzwirt- 
schaftliche  und  -wissenschaftliche 
Fragen  und  zur  Untersuchung  der 
Voraussetzungen  fur  den  geordneten 
Austausch  der  Holziiberschiisse  wird 
eine  Kommission  eingesetzt,  in  welche 
jede  der  vertragschlieBenden  Re- 
gierungen  einen  Vertreter  als  Mit- 
glied  entsendet. 


Die  Vertreter  konnen  zu  ihrer 
Untersttitzung  Sachverstandige  hin- 
zuziehen. 

Art.  2.  Die  Kommission  tagt 
nach  Bedarf  in  den  von  Fall  zu  Fall 
zu  bestimmenden  Landern,  deren 
Regierungen  diesem  Abkommen  an- 
gehoren. 

Die  Geschaftsstelle  der  Kommis- 
sion befindet  sich  in  Berlin. 

Die  Kosten  fur  die  Entsendung  der 
Mitglieder  und  der  Sachverstandigen 
tragt  jede  Regierung  selbst. 

Die  Kommission  erlaBt  eine  Ge- 
schaftsordnung. 

Art.  3.  Wenn  die  Kommission 
Vorschlage  zu  machen  hat,  so  wird 
sie  diese  den  von  den  einzelnen 
Landern  fur  die  Durchfiihrung  der 
zweiseitigcn  Wirtschaftsabkommen 
eingesetzten  Regierungsausschussen 
unterbreiten.  Die  Ausschiisse  ent- 
scheiden  ubcr  die  Durchfiihrung 
solcher  Vorschlage. 

Art.  4.  Es  besteht  Einverstandnis 
dariiber,  daB  ein  gemeinsames  In- 
teresse  besteht,  den  geordneten  Aus- 
tausch der  Holzuberschiisse  auf 
moglichst  breiter  Grundlage  durch- 
zufuhren.  Es  ist  daher  erwOnscht, 
daB  andere  europaische  Staaten  die- 
sem Abkommen  beitreten. 

Der  Beitritt  wird  auf  diplomati- 
schem  Wege  der  Deutschen  Regierung 
mitgeteilt  und  wird  alsbald  nach  Nie- 
derlegung  der  Beitrittsurkunden  bei 
der  Deutschen  Regierung  wirksam. 


1  The  titles  of  plenipotentiaries  are  omitted. — ED. 


Jan.  29,  1942 


IRAN:  TREATY  OF  ALLIANCE 


Die  Deutsche  Regierung  teilt  den 
Beitritt  den  Regierungen  der  an- 
deren  Vertragsstaaten  mit. 

Art.  5.  Ein  Vertragsstaat,  der 
dieses  Abkommen  kiindigen  will, 
mufl  dies  der  Deutschen  Regierung 
mitteilen;  diese  benachrichtigt  un- 
verztiglich  die  anderen  Vertragsstaa- 
ten unter  Mitteilung  des  Tages,  an 
welchem  sie  die  Kiindigung  erhalten 
hat. 

Die  Kiindigung  wird  fur  den  kiin- 
digenden  Staat  erst  ein  Jahr,  nach- 
dem  das  Kiindigungsschreiben  bei 
der  Deutschen  Regierung  eingegan- 
gen  ist,  wirksam. 

Art.  6.  Dieses  Abkommen  soil  so- 
bald  als  moglich  ratifiziert  werden 


und  tritt  in  Kraft,  sobald  samtliche 
Ratifikationsurkunden  im  Auswarti- 
gen  Amt  in  Berlin  niedergelegt  wor- 
den  sind. 

Art.  7.  Das  Abkommen  wird  nur 
in  einer  Urschrift  unterzeichnet,  die 
im  Archiv  des  Ausw^rtigen  Amts  in 
Berlin  niedergelegt  werden  wird. 
Die  Deutsche  Regierung  wird  jeder 
der  anderen  beteiligten  Regierungen 
eine  beglaubigte  Abschrift  des  Ab- 
kommens  auf  diplomatischem  Wege 
zugehen  lassen. 

Zu  URKUND  DESSEN  haben  die 
Bevollmachtigten  dieses  Abkommen 
unterzeichnet. 

Geschehen  zu  Berlin  am  23.  Jan- 
uar  1942. 


[Unterzeichnet:]  Fur  die  Koniglich  Danische  Regierung:  O.  C.  MOHR; 
fur  die  Deutsche  Regierung:  WIEHL,  PARCHMANN;  fur  die  Finnische  Regie- 
rung:  T.  M.  KIVIMAKI;  fur  die  Koniglich  Schwedische  Regierung:  ARVID 
RICHERT. 


No.  613 

TREATY  of  Alliance.    Signed  at  Tehran,  January  29,  1942. 
TRAITfi  d'alliance.     Signe  a  Teheran,  29  Janvier  1942. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  On  August  25,  1941,  British  and  Soviet  troops  entered  Iran,  and  on 
September  9,  1941,  the  Iranian  Government  accepted  the  terms  put  forward  by  the  British 
and  Soviet  Governments.  The  Shah  abdicated  on  September  16,  1941,  and  was  succeeded 
by  the  Crown  Prince  Muhammed  Riza  Pahlevi.  A  draft  of  this  Treaty  was  approved  by 
the  Iranian  Parliament  on  January  26,  1942.  A  convention  regarding  the  zones  of  influence 
in  Persia  was  concluded  by  Great  Britain  and  Russia  on  August  18/31,  1907.  100  Br.  and 
For.  St.  Papers,  p.  555.  A  treaty  of  friendship  was  concluded  by  the  Soviet  Union  and  Iran 
on  February  26,  1921  (9  League  of  Nations  Treaty  Series,  p.  384),  and  a  treaty  of  guarantee 
and  neutrality  was  concluded  by  them  on  October  I,  1927  (112  idem,  p.  292).  Cf.  also  the 
declaration  regarding  Iran  issued  by  the  Tehran  Conference  on  December  6,  1943,  9  C7.5. 
Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1943),  p.  409.  In  January  and  March  1946,  the  Iranian  Gov- 
ernment brought  to  the  attention  of  the  Security  Council  of  the  United  Nations  certain 
alleged  breaches  of  the  1942  Treaty  by  the  Soviet  Union.  Yearbook  of  the  United  Nations, 
1946-1947,  pp.  327-36. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Treaty  is  also  published  in  6  U.S.  Department  of  State 
Bulletin  (1942),  p.  249;  i  Soviet  Foreign  Policy  During  the  Patriotic  War:  Documents  and 
Materials,  p.  127;  36  Am.  Jour.  Int.  Law  (Supp.,  1942),  p.  175.  For  the  background  of  the 
Treaty,  see  13  C.  U.  Aitchison,  A  Collection  of  Treaties,  Engagements,  and  Sanaa's  relating 
to  India  and  Neighbouring  Countries  (Calcutta,  1933),  pp.  iii-clxix,  1-201. 

G.  M.  Coombs,  "The  Background  of  the  Russo- Persian  Dispute/'  169  Contemporary 


8 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  613 


Review  (1946),  pp.  152-55;  W.  S.  Haas,  Iran  (New  York,  1946),  273  pp.;  A.  H.  Hamzavi, 
"Iran  and  the  Tehran  Conference,"  20  International  A/airs  (1944),  pp.  192-203;  ---  , 
"Iran's  Future—  Some  Lessons  from  the  Past,"  31  Royal  Central  Asian  Journal  (1944),  pp. 
273-80;  --  ,  Persia  and  the  Powers—  An  Account  of  Diplomatic  Relations, 


(London,  1946),  125  pp.;  A.  K.  S.  Lambton,  "Some  of  the  Problems  Facing  Persia,"  22 
International  Affairs  (1946),  pp.  254-72;  W.  J.  Thompson,  "Iran,  1939-1944,"  32  Royal 
Central  Asian  Journal  (1945),  pp.  34~43« 

Entered  into  force  January  29,  1942. 

Text  from  Br.  Parl.  Papers,  Persia  No.  I  (1942),  Cmd.  6335. 


His  Majesty  The  King  of  Great 
Britain,  Ireland  and  the  British  Do- 
minions beyond  the  Seas,  Emperor  of 
India,  and  the  Union  of  Soviet  So- 
cialist Republics,  on  the  one  hand, 
and  His  Imperial  Majesty  The  Shah- 
inshah  of  Iran,  on  the  other; 

Having  in  view  the  principles  of 
the  Atlantic  Charter  jointly  agreed 
upon  and  announced  to  the  world  by 
the  President  of  the  United  States  of 
America  and  the  Prime  Minister  of 
the  United  Kingdom  on  the  I4th 
August,  1941,  and  endorsed  by  the 
Government  of  the  Union  of  Soviet 
Socialist  Republics  on  the  24th  Sep- 
tember, 1941,  with  which  His  Im- 
perial Majesty  The  Shahinshah  de- 
clares his  complete  agreement  and 
from  which  he  wishes  to  benefit  on 
an  equal  basis  with  other  nations  of 
the  world ;  and 

Being  anxious  to  strengthen  the 
bonds  of  friendship  and  mutual  un- 
derstanding between  them;  and 

Considering  that  these  objects  will 
best  be  achieved  by  the  conclusion  of 
a  Treaty  of  Alliance; 

Have  agreed  to  conclude  a  treaty 
for  this  purpose  and  have  appointed 
as  their  plenipotentiaries;  l 

His  Majesty  The  King  of  Great 
Britain,  Ireland  and  the  British  Do- 
minions beyond  the  Seas,  Emperor  of 
India, 

For  the  United  Kingdom  of  Great 
Britain  and  Northern  Ireland,  Sir 
Reader  William  Bullard. 

The  Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Re- 
publics, Andre  Andreewich  Smirnov. 


His  Imperial  Majesty  The  Shahin- 
shah of  Iran,  Ali  Soheily. 

Who,  having  communicated  their 
full  powers,  found  in  good  and  due 
form,  have  agreed  as  follows: 

Article  i.  His  Majesty  The  King 
of  Great  Britain,  Ireland  and  the 
British  Dominions  beyond  the  Seas, 
Emperor  of  India,  and  the  Union  of 
Soviet  Socialist  Republics  (herein- 
after referred  to  as  the  Allied  Pow- 
ers) jointly  and  severally  undertake 
to  respect  the  territorial  integrity, 
sovereignty  and  political  independ- 
ence of  Iran. 

Art.  2.  An  alliance  is  established 
between  the  Allied  Powers  on  the 
one  hand  and  His  Imperial  Majesty 
The  Shahinshah  of  Iran  on  the  other. 

Art.  3.— (i)  The  Allied  Powers 
jointly  and  severally  undertake  to 
defend  Iran  by  all  means  at  their 
command  from  all  aggression  on 
the  part  of  Germany  or  any  other 
Power. 

(ii)  His  Imperial  Majesty  The 
Shahinshah  undertakes — 

(a)  to  co-operate  with  the  Allied 
Powers  with  all  the  means  at  his 
command  and  in  every  way  possible, 
in  order  that  they  may  be  able  to 
fulfil  the  above  undertaking.  The 
assistance  of  the  Iranian  forces  shall, 
however,  be  limited  to  the  mainte- 
nance of  internal  security  on  Iranian 
territory; 

(6)  to  secure  to  the  Allied  Powers, 
for  the  passage  of  troops  or  supplies 
from  one  Allied  Power  to  the  other 
or  for  other  similar  purposes,  the 


1  The  titles  of  plenipotentiaries  are  omitted. — ED. 


Jan.  29,  1942 


IRAN:  TREATY  OF  ALLIANCE 


unrestricted  right  to  use,  maintain, 
guard  and,  in  case  of  military  neces- 
sity, control  in  any  way  that  they 
may  require  all  means  of  communica- 
tion throughout  Iran,  including  rail- 
ways, roads,  rivers,  aerodromes, 
ports,  pipelines  and  telephone,  tele- 
graph and  wireless  installations; 

(c)  to  furnish  all  possible  assist- 
ance and  facilities  in  obtaining  ma- 
terial and  recruiting  labour  for  the 
purpose  of  the  maintenance  and  im- 
provement of  the  means  of  commu- 
nication   referred    to    in    paragraph 

<«; 

(d)  to  establish  and  maintain,  in 
collaboration  with  the  Allied  Powers, 
such  measures  of  censorship  control 
as  they  may  require  for  all  the  means 
of    communication    referred    to    in 
paragraph  (b). 

(iii)  It  is  clearly  understood  that 
in  the  application  of  paragraph  (ii) 
(b)  (c)  and  (d)  of  the  present  article 
the  Allied  Powers  will  give  full  con- 
sideration to  the  essential  needs  of 
Iran. 

Art.  4.— (i)  The  Allied  Powers 
may  maintain  in  Iranian  territory 
land,  sea  and  air  forces  in  such  num- 
ber as  they  consider  necessary.  The 
location  of  such  forces  shall  be  de- 
cided in  agreement  with  the  Iranian 
Government  so  long  as  the  strategic 
situation  allows.  All  questions  con- 
cerning the  relations  between  the 
forces  of  the  Allied  Powers  and  the 
Iranian  authorities  shall  be  settled 
so  far  as  possible  in  co-operation  with 
the  Iranian  authorities  in  such  a  way 
as  to  safeguard  the  security  of  the 
said  forces.  It  is  understood  that 
the  presence  of  these  forces  on  Ira- 
nian territory  does  not  constitute  a 
military  occupation  and  will  disturb 
as  little  as  possible  the  administra- 
tion and  the  security  forces  of  Iran, 
the  economic  life  of  the  country, 
the  normal  movements  of  the  popula- 
tion and  the  application  of  Iranian 
laws  and  regulations. 

(ii)  A  separate  agreement  or  agree- 
ments shall  be  concluded  as  soon  as 


possible  after  the  entry  into  force  of 
the  present  Treaty  regarding  any 
financial  obligations  to  be  borne  by 
the  Allied  Powers  under  the  provi- 
sions of  the  present  article  and  of 
paragraphs  (ii)  (6),  (c)  and  (d)  of 
Article  3  above  in  such  matters  as 
local  purchases,  the  hiring  of  build- 
ings and  plant,  the  employment  of 
labour,  transport  charges,  &c.  A 
special  agreement  shall  be  concluded 
between  the  Allied  Governments  and 
the  Iranian  Government  defining 
the  conditions  for  any  transfers  to 
the  Iranian  Government  after  the 
war  of  buildings  and  other  improve- 
ments effected  by  the  Allied  Powers 
on  Iranian  territory.  These  agree- 
ments shall  also  settle  the  immuni- 
ties to  be  enjoyed  by  the  forces  of 
the  Allied  Powers  in  Iran. 

Art.  5.  The  forces  of  the  Allied 
Powers  shall  be  withdrawn  from 
Iranian  territory  not  later  than  six 
months  after  all  hostilities  between 
the  Allied  Powers  and  Germany  and 
her  associates  have  been  suspended 
by  the  conclusion  of  an  armistice  or 
armistices,  or  on  the  conclusion  of 
peace  between  them,  whichever  date 
is  the  earlier.  The  expression  "as- 
sociates" of  Germany  means  all 
other  Powers  which  have  engaged  or 
may  in  the  future  engage  in  hostili- 
ties against  either  of  the  Allied 
Powers. 

Art.  6.— (i)  The  Allied  Powers  un- 
dertake in  their  relations  with  for- 
eign countries  not  to  adopt  an  atti- 
tude which  is  prejudicial  to  the  terri- 
torial integrity,  sovereignty  or  po- 
litical independence  of  Iran,  nor  to 
conclude  treaties  inconsistent  with 
the  provisions  of  the  present  Treaty. 
They  undertake  to  consult  the  Gov- 
ernment of  His  Imperial  Majesty  The 
Shahinshah  in  all  matters  affecting 
the  direct  interests  of  Iran. 

(ii)  His  Imperial  Majesty  The 
Shahinshah  undertakes  not  to  adopt 
in  his  relations  with  foreign  countries 
an  attitude  which  is  inconsistent 
with  the  alliance,  nor  to  conclude 


IO 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  613 


treaties  inconsistent  with  the  provi- 
sions of  the  present  Treaty. 

Art.  7.  The  Allied  Powers  jointly 
undertake  to  use  their  best  endeav- 
ours to  safeguard  the  economic  ex- 
istence of  the  Iranian  people  against 
the  privations  and  difficulties  arising 
as  a  result  of  the  present  war.  On 
the  entry  into  force  of  the  present 
Treaty,  discussions  shall  be  opened 
between  the  Government  of  Iran 
and  the  Governments  of  the  Allied 
Powers  as  to  the  best  possible  meth- 
ods of  carrying  out  the  above  under- 
taking. 

Art.  8.  The  provisions  of  the 
present  Treaty  are  equally  binding 
as  bilateral  obligations  between  His 


Imperial  Majesty  The  Shahinshah 
and  each  of  the  two  other  High 
Contracting  Parties. 

Art.  9.  The  present  Treaty  shall 
come  into  force  on  signature  and 
shall  remain  in  force  until  the  date 
fixed  for  the  withdrawal  of  the  forces 
of  the  Allied  Powers  from  Iranian 
territory  in  accordance  with  Article 
5-1 

IN  WITNESS  WHEREOF,  the  above- 
named  plenipotentiaries  have  signed 
the  present  Treaty  and  have  affixed 
thereto  their  seals. 

Done  at  Tehran  in  triplicate  in 
English,  Russian  and  Persian,  all  be- 
ing equally  authentic,  on  the  2Qth 
day  of  January,  1942. 


R.  W.  BULLARD        A.  A.  SMIRNOV        ALI  SOHEILY 


ANNEX  1 

Identic  Notes  addressed  to  the  Iranian  Min- 
ister for  Foreign  Affairs  by  His  Majesty's 
Minister  and  the  Soviet  Ambassador. 

With  reference  to  Article  6,  paragraph 
(i),  of  the  Treaty  of  Alliance  signed  to- 
day, I  have  the  honour,  on  behalf  of  His 
Majesty's  Government  in  the  United 
Kingdom/the  Government  of  the  Union 
of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics,  to  assure 
Your  Excellency  that  my  Government 
interpret  the  provisions  of  this  clause  as 
being  applicable  to  any  peace  conference 
or  conferences  held  at  the  conclusion  of 
the  present  war,  or  other  general  inter- 
national conferences.  Consequently  they 
consider  themselves  bound  not  to  approve 
anything  at  any  such  conference  which  is 
prejudicial  to  the  territorial  integrity, 
sovereignty  or  political  independence  of 
Iran,  and  not  to  discuss  at  any  such  con- 
ference anything  affecting  the  direct  inter- 
ests of  Iran  without  consultation  with  the 
Government  of  Iran. 

His  Majesty's  Government/the  Gov- 
ernment of  the  Union  of  Soviet  Socialist 
Republics  will  further  do  their  best  to 
secure  that  Iran  will  be  represented  on  a 
footing  of  equality  in  any  peace  negotia- 
tions directly  affecting  her  interests. 


ANNEX  2 

Identic  Notes  addressed  to  His  Majesty's 
Minister  and  the  Soviet  Ambassador  by 
the  Iranian  Minister  for  Foreign  Affairs. 

With  reference  to  Article  6,  paragraph 
(ii),  of  the  Treaty  of  Alliance  signed  this 
day,  I  have  the  honour,  on  behalf  of  the 
Iranian  Government,  to  assure  Your  Ex- 
cellency that  the  Iranian  Government 
would  consider  it  contrary  to  their  obliga- 
tions under  this  clause  to  maintain  diplo- 
matic relations  vyith  any  State  which  is  in 
diplomatic  relations  with  neither  of  the 
Allied  Powers. 


ANNEX  3 

Identic  Notes  addressed  to  the  Iranian 
Minister  for  Foreign  Affairs  by  His 
Majesty's  Minister  and  the  Soviet  Am- 
bassador. 

I  have  the  honour,  on  behalf  of  His 
Majesty's  Government  in  the  United 
Kingdom/the  Government  of  the  Union 
of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics,  to  convey  to 
Your  Excellency  the  following  assurances: 

(i)  With  reference  to  Article  3  (ii)  (a) 
of  the  Treaty  of  Alliance  which  has  been 
signed  to-day,  the  Allied  Powers  will  not 


1  The  date  was  fixed  as  March  2,  1946. — ED. 


April  22,  1942         PRODUCTION  AND  MARKETING  OF  WHEAT  II 

require  of  Iran  the  participation  of  her  of  any  works  which  the  Allied  Powers  carry 

armed  forces  in  any  war  or  military  opera-  out  for  their  own  military  ends  and  which 

tions    against    any    Foreign    Power   or  are  not  necessary  for  the  needs  of  Iran. 
Powers.  (3)  It  is  understood  that  Annex  I  will 

(2)  With  reference  to  Article  4  (ii),  it  remain  in  force  even  if  the  Treaty  ceases 

is  understood  that  there  is  no  provision  to  be  valid,  in  accordance  with  the  provi- 

in  the  Treaty  which  requires  that  the  sions  of  Article  9,  before  peace  has  been 

Iranian  Government  shall  bear  the  cost  concluded. 


No.  614 

MEMORANDUM  of  Agreement  on  the  Production  and  Marketing 
of  Wheat.    Initialed  at  Washington,  April  22,  1942. 

MEMORANDUM  de  Convenio  sobre  la  production  y  venta  del  trigo. 
Inicialado  en  Washington,  22  de  abril  de  1942. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  An  agreement  between  four  wheat  exporting  countries,  concluded  at 
London  on  June  30,  1933,  was  followed  by  an  agreement  between  exporting  and  importing 
countries,  concluded  at  London  on  August  25,  1933  (No.  344,  ante),  which  set  up  a  Wheat 
Advisory  Committee.  The  International  Wheat  Council,  established  under  this  Memoran- 
dum, held  its  first  meeting  at  Washington  in  August  1942.  An  amendment,  effected  June  3, 
1946,  deleted  paragraphs  5-8  of  the  Memorandum,  and  substituted  a  new  paragraph  5  pro- 
viding that  the  Council  should  remain  in  being  pending  the  conclusions  of  the  conference 
referred  to  in  paragraph  3  or  until  otherwise  determined.  7  U.N.  Treaty  Series,  p.  331. 
The  conference,  which  was  held  at  London,  March  i8-April  23,  1947,  reached  no  conclusive 
results.  A  new  wheat  agreement,  signed  at  Washington  on  March  6,  1948,  was  not  brought 
into  force;  an  agreement  signed  at  Washington  on  March  23,  1949,  was  brought  into  force 
on  July  I,  1949.  Br.  Parl.  Papers,  Misc.  No.  6  (1949),  Cmd.  7680. 

RATIFICATIONS.  All  of  the  contracting  governments  notified  their  approval  of  the 
Memorandum  of  Agreement  by  June  27,  1942.  In  1946,  representatives  of  Belgium,  Brazil. 
China,  Denmark,  France,  India,  Italy,  and  the  Netherlands  became  members  of  the  Inter- 
national Wheat  Council.  In  1947,  twenty-eight  other  states  were  invited  to  be  represented 
on  the  Council. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Memorandum  of  Agreement  is  also  published  in  8  U.N. 
Treaty  Series,  p.  237.  See  also  Br.  Parl.  Papers,  United  States  No.  2  (1942),  Cmd.  6371; 
Canada,  Treaty  Series,  1942,  No.  n;  International  Labour  Office,  Intergovernmental  Com- 
modity Control  Agreements  (Montreal,  1943),  pp.  10-25;  37  Am.  Jour.  Int.  Law  (Supp., 
1943),  PP.  24-41. 

Anon.,  "The  International  Wheat  Agreement  and  Post-war  Relief,"  46  Int.  Labour  Rev. 
(1942),  pp.  443-45;  G.  P.  Boals,  '"New  World'  Wheat  Agreement,"  2  Agriculture  in  the 
Americas  (1942),  pp.  148-50;  A.  Cairns,  "International  Wheat  Agreement,"  145  Economist 
(i943)»  P-  202;  E.  G.  Cale,  "International  Wheat  Conference,"  16  U.S.  Department  of  State 

Bulletin  (1947),  pp.  1053-56; ,  "Comments  on  the  International  Wheat  Agreement," 

18  idem  (1948),  pp.  395-401; ,  "The  International  Wheat  Agreement  of  1949,"  20 

idem  (1949),  pp.  507-1 1;  J-  S.  Davis,  "New  International  Wheat  Agreements,"  19  Wheat 

Studies  of  the  Food  Research  Institute  (1942),  pp.  25-83; ,  Wheat  under  International 

Agreement  (American  Enterprise  Association,  National  Economic  Problems,  No.  410:  New 
York,  1945),  19  pp.;  P.  de  Hevesy,  World  Wheat  Planning  and  Economic  Planning  in  General 
(London,  1940),  912  pp.;  F.  A.  Linville,  "Draft  Memorandum  of  Agreement  Prepared  for 
International  Wheat  Conference,"  16  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1947),  pp.  47*-73; 


12 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  614 


E.  S.  Mason,  Controlling  World  Trade  (New  York,  1946),  pp.  213-36;  U.S.  Department  of 
Agriculture,  Office  of  Foreign  Agricultural  Relations,  The  International  Wheat  Agreement 
(Washington,  1942),  24  pp.;  P.  L.  Yates,  Commodity  Control  (London,  1943),  pp.  18-47. 

Entered  into  force  June  27,  1942.* 
Text  from  U.S.  Executive  Agreement  Series,  No.  384. 


1.  Officials  of  Argentina,  Austra- 
lia, Canada  and  the  United  States, 
wheat  exporting  countries,  and  of  the 
United  Kingdom,  a  wheat  importing 
country,  met  in  Washington  on  July 
10,  1041  to  resume  the  wheat  discus- 
sions which  were  interrupted  in  Lon- 
don by  the  outbreak  of  war  in  Septem- 
ber 1939  and  to  consider  what  steps 
might  be  taken  toward  a  solution  of 
the  international  wheat  problem. 

2.  The  discussions  at  Washington, 
which   extended   over   a   period   of 
many  months,  have  made  it  clear 
that  a  satisfactory  solution  of  the 
problem    requires    an    international 
wheat  agreement  and  that  such  an 
agreement  requires  a  conference  of 
the    nations   willing    to    participate 
which  have  a  substantial  interest  in 
international  trade  in  wheat.  It  was 
also    recognized    that    pending   the 
holding   of   such   a   conference   the 
situation  should  not  be  allowed  to 
deteriorate.     The  Washington  Wheat 
Meeting  has  recorded  the  results  of 
its    deliberations    in    the    attached 
Draft  Convention  in  order  to  facili- 
tate further  international  considera- 
tion of  the  subject  at  such  time  as 
may  be  possible  and  to  provide  a 
basis  for  such  interim  measures  as 
may  be  found  necessary. 

3.  The  Washington  Wheat  Meet- 
ing has  recognized   that  it   is  im- 
practicable to  convene  at  the  present 
time  the  international  wheat  con- 
ference referred  to  above.     Accord- 
ingly, the  five  countries  present  at 
that  Meeting  have  agreed  that  the 
United  States,  so  soon  as  after  con- 
sultation   with    other    countries    it 
deems  the  time  propitious,  should 
convene  a  wheat  conference  of  the 


nations  having  a  substantial  interest 
in  international  trade  in  wheat  which 
are  willing  to  participate,  and  that 
the  Draft  Convention  above  men- 
tioned should  be  submitted  to  that 
conference  for  consideration. 

4.  In  the  meantime  there  should 
be  no  delay  in  the  provision  of  wheat 
for  relief  in  war-stricken  and  other 
necessitous  areas  so  soon  as  in  the 
view  of  the  five  countries  circum- 
stances permit.     Likewise  it  is  im- 
perative that  the  absence  of  control 
measures  over  the  accumulation  of 
stocks  in  the  four  countries  now  pro- 
ducing large  quantities  of  wheat  for 
markets  no  longer  available  should 
not  create  insoluble  problems  for  a 
future  conference.     Accordingly,  the 
five  countries  have  agreed  to  regard 
as  in  effect  among  themselves,  pend- 
ing the  conclusions  of  the  conference 
referred    to   above,    those   arrange- 
ments   described    in    the    attached 
Draft  Convention  which  are  neces- 
sary to  the  administration  and  dis- 
tribution of  the  relief  pool  of  wheat 
and  to  the  control  of  production  of 
wheat  other  than  those  involving  the 
control  of  exports. 

5.  If  the  conference  contemplated 
above  shall  have  met  and  concluded 
an  agreement  prior  to  the  cessation 
of  hostilities,  no  further  action  will 
be  needed  by  the  countries  repre- 
sented at  the  Washington  Meeting. 
However,  if  this  is  not  the  case,  it 
will  be  necessary,  in  order  to  prevent 
disorganization  and  confusion  in  in- 
ternational trade  in  wheat,  to  insti- 
tute temporary  controls  pending  the 
conclusions  of  the  conference.    Ac- 
cordingly the  five  countries  agree 
that   in    the   period    following   the 


1  Filed  with  the  Secretariat  of  the  United  Nations,  No.  44,  Septembtr  19,  1947. 


April  22,  1942         PRODUCTION  AND  MARKETING  OF  WHEAT 


cessation  of  hostilities  and  pending 
the  conclusion  of  a  wheat  agreement 
at  the  conference  referred  to  the  ar- 
rangements described  in  the  at- 
tached Draft  Convention  which  re- 
late to  the  control  of  production, 
stocks  and  exports  of  wheat  and  to 
the  administration  thereof  will  be 
brought  into  effect  among  them- 
selves. Those  arrangements  will 
come  into  effect  on  such  date  as  may 
be  unanimously  agreed.  Announce- 
ment of  that  date  will  be  made 
within  six  months  after  the  cessation 
of  hostilities. 

6.  Pending  the  conclusions  of  the 
conference  contemplated  above,  the 
five  countries,  on  the  cessation  of 
hostilities  or  such  earlier  date  as 
they  may  agree,  will  regard  as  in 
effect  among  themselves  the  ar- 
rangements described  in  the  attached 
Draft  Convention  for  the  control  of 
the  prices  of  wheat.  The  determina- 
tion of  prices  required  to  be  made  in 
accordance  with  those  arrangements 
will  be  made  by  unanimous  consent. 
If  no  determination  of  prices  has 
been  made  on  the  cessation  of  hos- 
tilities, the  five  countries  will,  pend- 


ing such  determination  but  for  a 
period  not  exceeding  six  months, 
maintain  as  the  export  price  of  wheat 
the  last  price  negotiated  by  the 
United  Kingdom  for  a  bulk  purchase 
of  wheat  from  the  principal  country 
of  supply:  equivalent  f.o.b.  prices 
will  be  calculated  for  wheats  of  the 
other  exporting  countries  and  will 
be  adjusted  from  time  to  time  to 
meet  substantial  changes  in  freight 
and  exchange  rates. 

7.  In  taking  any  decisions  under 
this  Memorandum  and  the  arrange- 
ments   of    the    Draft    Convention 
which  it  brings  into  operation  each 
of  the  five  countries  will  have  one 
vote  and  a  two-thirds  majority  will 
be  required  for  decision  except  as 
otherwise  provided  herein. 

8.  The  provisions  of  this  Memo- 
randum will  be  superseded  by  any 
agreement  reached  at  the  proposed 
wheat  conference  or  by  any  arrange- 
ments which  the  five  countries  and 
other  interested  countries  may  make 
to  deal  with  the  period  pending  such 
a  conference.     In  any  event   they 
are  to  terminate  two  years  from  the 
cessation  of  hostilities. 


[Initialed:]  A.  M.  V.,  for  Argentina;  E.  McC,  for  Australia;  C.  F.  W.,  for 
Canada;  H.  F.  C.,  for  the  United  Kingdom;  L.  A.  W.,  for  the  United  States. 
WASHINGTON,  April  22,  1942. 


[ANNEX  I] 
Draft  Convention 


PREAMBLE 


1.  The  prospects  with  regard  to  the 
production  and  marketing  of  wheat  are 
such  that  accumulation  of  wheat  surpluses 
threatens  to  result  in  grave  post-war  diffi- 
culties for  the  economies  of  the  producing 
countries  and  hence,  because  of  the  inter- 
dependence of  nations,  for  the  economies 
of  all  countries.    It  is  also  to  be  expected 
that,  unless  appropriate  action  is  taken, 
such  accumulation  will  recur. 

2.  A  solution  of  the  problem  thus  pre- 
sented must  be  regarded  as  an  essential 
part  of  any  program  of  world  economic 


reconstruction  and  will  call  for  coopera- 
tive action  by  all  countries  concerned  in 
international  trade  in  wheat.  It  will 
involve  national  and  international  meas- 
ures for  the  regulation  of  wheat  produc- 
tion in  both  exporting  and  importing 
countries,  for  the  orderly  distribution  of 
wheat  and  flour  in  domestic  and  interna- 
tional trade  at  such  prices  as  are  fair  to 
consumers  and  provide  a  reasonable  re- 
muneration to  producers  and  for  the 
maintenance  of  world  supplies  which  shall 
be  at  all  times  ample  for  the  needs  of 
consumers  without  being  so  excessive  as 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  614 


to  create  a  world  burden  of  unwanted 
surpluses. 

3.  Cooperative  action  is  also  necessary 
to  meet  the  need  for  relief  in  the  war- 
stricken  areas  of  the  world  by  the  supply 
and  distribution  of  gifts  of  wheat. 

4.  The  benefits  of  abundant  world  sup- 
plies of  wheat  cannot  be  assured  to  con- 
sumers unless  there  is  a  substantial  de- 
crease in  uneconomic  incentives  to  high- 
cost  production,  a  lowering  of  barriers  to 
world  trade  and  the  charging  of  prices  to 
consumers  not  substantially  higher  than 
the  price  of  wheat  in  international  trade. 

§.  In  many  countries  the  standard  of 
living  would  be  improved  by  increasing 
the  consumption  of  wheat  through  a 
lowering  of  prices.  In  all  countries  the 
standard  of  living  would  be  improved  by 
stimulating  the  consumption  of  foods  rich 
in  vitamins,  proteins  and  minerals.  The 
increased  production  of  such  foods  would 
offer  a  more  valuable  use  for  land  which 
has  at  times  been  used  uneconomically  for 
high-cost  production  of  wheat. 

6.  Producers  of  an  international  com- 
modity such  as  wheat  are  directly  affected 
by  standards  of  living  throughout  the 
world,  by  international  purchasing  power 
and  by  prevailing  policies  and  practices 
affecting  international  trade  generally. 
There  can  be  no  basic  solution  of  the 
problem  of  export  surpluses  without  a 
general  reduction  of  import  barriers  and 
no  measure  should  be  taken  or  maintained 
which  has  the  effect  of  retarding  such 
reduction  or  of  preventing  in  any  way  the 
fullest  possible  development  of  interna- 
tional trade. 

Accordingly  the  contracting  Govern- 
ments have  agreed  as  follows: 

ARTICLE  I. — Expansion  of  Trade 

I.  The  contracting  Governments  agree 
that  an  essential  element  of  a  solution  of 
the  world  wheat  problem  is  that  con- 
sumers should  have  the  opportunity  and 
means  of  increasing  their  purchases  of 
wheat  from  areas  which  are  equipped  to 
produce  it  economically.  They  agree 
that  such  opportunity  and  means  depend 
not  only  on  the  lowering  of  barriers  to  the 
importation  of  wheat  but  also  on  making 
available  to  wheat  importing  countries 
increased  outlets  for  the  exportation  of 
goods  which  they  in  turn  are  equipped  to 


produce  economically.  They  agree  that 
this  requires  the  adoption  and  pursuit  of 
national  and  international  policies  aimed 
at  a  fuller  and  more  efficient  use  among 
nations  of  human  and  natural  resources 
and  thereby  a  world -wide  expansion  of 
purchasing  power. 

2.  Recognizing    therefore    that   much 
that  is  called  for  transcends  the  scope  of 
a  wheat  agreement  and  requires  action  on 
a  broad  international  basis,  but  that  much 
also  can   be  accomplished   by   national 
measures  and  by  agreements  with  each 
other  and  with  other  countries,  the  con- 
tracting Governments  undertake  to  fur- 
ther in  every  way  possible  the  attainment 
of  the  foregoing  objectives. 

3.  The  Council  shall  from  time  to  time 
submit  to  the  contracting  Governments  a 
review  of  international  trade  in  wheat  and 
invite  them  to  consider,  in  the  light  of  the 
foregoing,  what  measures  may  be  adopted 
for  the  expansion  of  such  trade. 

ARTICLE  II.— Production  Control* 

1.  The    Governments    of    Argentina, 
Australia,  Canada  and  the  United  States 
of  America  shall  adopt  suitable  measures 
to  ensure  that  the  production  of  wheat  in 
their  territories  does  not  exceed  the  quan- 
tity needed  for  domestic  requirements  and 
the  basic  export  quotas  and  maximum 
reserve  stocks  for  which  provision  is  here- 
inafter made. 

2.  Should  nevertheless  production  in 
any  country  be  found  to  have  exceeded 
in  any  crop-year  the  quantity  above  pre- 
scribed, the  Government  of  that  country 
shall  before  the  end  of  that  crop-year  take 
such  action  as  will  result  in  the  disap- 
pearance of  the  excess  production  within 
its  territories  before  the  end  of  the  follow- 
ing crop-year  or  shall  otherwise  deal  with 
such  excess  production  as  the  Council 
may  direct,  except  that  if  any  part  of  the 
excess  production  is  shown  to  the  satis- 
faction of  the  Council  to  be  due  to  a  yield 
above  the  average  of  the  preceding  20 
years  the  Government  of  the  country  con- 
cerned may  carry  that  part  as  provided 
in  paragraph  3  (a)  of  Article  III  or  deal 
with  it  in  such  other  manner  as  may  be 
agreed  with  the  Council. 

3.  Pending  the  coming  into  force  of 
paragraphs  I  and  2  of  this  Article,  the 
Governments    of   Argentina,    Australia, 


*  NOTE:  This  Article  to  be  expanded,  when  further  international  consideration  of  the  subject  is 
possible,  to  include  provisions  for  production  control  in  other  exporting  countries  and  in  importing 
countries. 


April  22,  1942         PRODUCTION  AND  MARKETING  OF  WHEAT 


Canada  and  the  United  States  of  America 
shall  adopt  or  maintain  positive  measures 
to  control  production  with  the  object  of 
minimizing  the  accumulation  of  excessive 
stocks. 

ARTICLE  III.— Stocks 

1.  The    Governments    of    Argentina, 
Australia,  Canada  and  the  United  States 
of  America  shall,  subject  to  the  provisions 
of  paragraphs  2,  3,  4  and  5  of  this  Article, 
ensure  that  stocks  of  old  wheat  held  at 
the  end  of  their  respective  crop  years  are 
not  less  than  35,  25,  80  and  150  million 
bushels  respectively,  and  not  more  than 
130,  80,  275  and  400  million  bushels  re- 
spectively. Any  stocks  not  in  excess  of  the 
specified  maximum  are  hereinafter  called 
"reserve  stocks". 

2.  Stocks  of  old  wheat  in  any  country 
may  be  permitted  to  fall  below  the  speci- 
fied minimum  (a)  if  the  new  crop  together 
with  the  carry-over  from  the  previous 
crop-year  is  insufficient  to  meet  domestic 
requirements  and  leave  at  the  end  of  that 
crop-year  the  minimum  reserve  stocks 
specified,  in  which  case  those  stocks  may 
be  reduced  by  the  amount  necessary  fully 
to  meet  domestic  requirements,  and  (b)  in 
so  far  as  the  Council  decides  that  exports 
from  the  minimum  reserve  stocks  of  that 
country  are  required  fully  to  meet  the 
world  demand  for  imported  wheat. 

3.  Stocks  of  old  wheat  may  exceed  the 
maximum  by  (a)  the  quantity  of  per- 
mitted excess  stocks  ascertained  under 
paragraph  4  of  this  Article  and  (b)  the 
quantity  of  permitted  surplus  stocks  as- 
certained under  paragraph  5  of  this  Arti- 
cle. 

4.  Such  part  of  excess  production  in  the 
first  crop-year  in  which  it  occurs  following 
the  crop-year  in  which  Article  IV  comes 
into  force  as  may  be  shown  under  para- 
graph 2  of  Article  II  to  be  due  to  above 
average  yields  shall  be  permitted  excess 
stocks  at  the  end  of  that  crop-year.    The 
permitted  excess  stocks  at  the  end  of  each 
succeeding  crop-year  shall  be  ascertained 
by  the  Council  by  deducting  from  the 
permitted  excess  stocks,  if  any,  at  the  end 
of  the  preceding  crop-year  any  quantity 
by  which  production  in  the  crop-year  then 
ending  was  less  than  the  maximum  pre- 
scribed in  paragraph  I  of  Article  II  or  by 
adding  thereto  such  part  of  any  excess 
production  in  that  crop-year  as  may  be 
shown  under  paragraph  2  of  Article  II  to 
be  due  to  above  average  yields. 


5.  Stocks  in  excess  of  the  maximum,  as 
ascertained  by  the  Council,  at  the  end  of 
the  crop-year  in  which  announcement  is 
made  of  the  date  on  which  the  provisions 
of  Articles  II,  III  and  IV  will  come  into 
effect  shall  be  permitted  surplus  stocks, 
unless  that  announcement  is  made  less 
than  45  days  prior  to  the  beginning  of  the 
seeding  period  for  the  next  harvest  in 
which  case  stocks  in  excess  of  the  maxi- 
mum at  the  end  of  the  succeeding  crop- 
year  shall  be  permitted  surplus  stocks. 
Permitted  surplus  stocks  at  the  end  of 
each  succeeding  crop-year  shall  be  ascer- 
tained by  the  Council  by  deducting  from 
the  permitted  surplus  stocks  at  the  end 
of  the  preceding  crop-year  (a)  any  sec- 
ondary or  supplementary  export  quotas 
allocated  in  the  crop-year  then  ending  and 
(b)  any  quantity  by  which  production  in 
that  crop-year  plus  the  permitted  excess 
stocks  at  the  end  of  the  preceding  crop- 
year  was  less  than  the  maximum  produc- 
tion prescribed  in  paragraph  i  of  Article 
II. 

6.  Should  it  be  shown  to  the  satisfac- 
tion of  the  Council  that,  owing  to  insuffi- 
cient or  defective  storage  facilities,  any 
part  of  the  permitted  surplus  stocks  in  any 
country  has  been  destroyed  or  has  been 
disposed  of  by  governmental  measures  in 
a  manner  clearly  constituting  extraordi- 
nary use  such  part  shall  nevertheless  be 
counted  as  permitted  surplus  stocks  for 
the  purposes  of  paragraphs  3  and  4  of 
Article  IV  so  long  as  any  other  permitted 
surplus  stocks  remain  in  that  country. 

7.  The  Council  shall  (a)  at  its  regular 
August  meeting  ascertain  the  permitted 
surplus  stocks  in  Canada  and  the  United 
States  of  America  at  the  end  of  their 
preceding  crop-years  and  estimate  such 
stocks  in  Argentina  and  Australia  at  the 
end  of  their  current  crop-years,  and  (b)  at 
its  regular  January  meeting  ascertain  the 
permitted  surplus  stocks  in  Argentina  and 
Australia  at  the  end  of  their  preceding 
crop-years  and  estimate  such  stocks  in 
Canada  and  the  United  States  of  America 
at  the  end  of  their  current  crop-years. 

ARTICLE  IV. —Export  Control 
I .  The  contracting  Government  of  each 
exporting  country  shall  adopt  the  meas- 
ures necessary  to  ensure  that  net  exports 
of  wheat,  including  flour  expressed  in 
terms  of  its  wheat  equivalent,  from  its 
territories  in  each  quota-year  shall  not, 
subject  to  the  provisions  of  paragraph  n 


16 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  614 


of  this  Article,  exceed  the  basic,  secondary 
and  supplementary  export  quotas  for 
which  provision  is  hereinafter  made.  It 
is  recogni/ed  in  principle  that,  within  the 
framework  of  this  Agreement,  wheat  from 
each  exporting  country  should  continue  to 
find  its  way  into  its  normal  markets. 

2.  The  basic  export  quotas  for  Argen- 
tina, Australia,  Canada  and  the  United 
States  of  America  shall,  subject  to  the 
provisions  of  paragraph  3  of  this  Article, 
be  25,  19,  40  and  16  percent  respectively 
of  the  Council's  latest  published  estimate 
of  the  total  volume  of  international  trade 
in  wheat  and  flour  in  each  quota-year  less 
(a)  such  basic  export  quotas  for  other  ex- 
porting countries  as  mav  be  agreed  under 
Article  XIV  and   (b)   reasonable  allow- 
ances, having  due  regard  to  exports  in 
past  years,  for  net  exports  from  the  terri- 
tories of  Governments  not  parties  to  the 
Agreement. 

3.  Should  the  residual  quantity  ascer- 
tained under  paragraph  2  of  this  Article 
exceed  500  million  bushels  in  any  quota- 
year,  the  excess  shall  be  allocated  to  Ar- 
gentina,   Australia,     Canada    and     the 
United  States  of  America  as  secondary 
export  quotas.    Allocations  made  in  the 
first  half  of  the  quota-year  shall  be  in 
proportion  to  permitted  surplus  stocks  as 
determined    under   paragraph    7    (a)    of 
Article  III  and  allocations  made  in  the 
second  half  of  the  quota-year  shall  be  in 
proportion  to  permitted  surplus  stocks  as 
determined   under   paragraph    7    (b)   of 
Article   III.    Should   there   be   no   per- 
mitted surplus  stocks  in  any  of  those  four 
countries  the  excess  shall  be  allocated  to 
those    countries    as    secondary    export 
quotas  in  proportion  to  their  basic  export 
quotas. 

4.  If  the  Council  is  satisfied  that  any 
part  of  any  country's  export  quota  or  of 
the  allowance  made  for  its  exports  for  any 
quota-year  will  not  be  exported  by  that 
country  in  that  quota-year,  it  shall,  sub- 
ject to  the  provisions  of  paragraph  6  of 
this  Article,  re-allocate  that  part  as  sup- 
plementary export  quotas  to  the  other 
exporting  countries  in  accordance  with 
the  procedure  prescribed  in  paragraph  3 
of  this  Article  for  the  allocation  of  second- 
ary export  quotas.    Should  there  be  no 
permitted  surplus  stocks  in  any  of  those 
countries  that  part  shall,  unless  the  Coun- 
cil otherwise  decides,  be  re-allocated  as 
supplementary  export  quotas  to  those  of 
the  other  exporting  countries  which  have 


percentage  export  quotas  in  proportion 
to  those  quotas. 

5.  No  decisions  taken  by  the  Council 
pursuant  to  paragraph  4  of  this  Article 
shall  prejudice  the  right  of  any  country  to 
export  its  full  export  quota  within  the 
quota-year  to  which  it  relates. 

6.  Should  it  be  shown  to  the  satisfac- 
tion of  the  Council  that  the  failure  of  any 
country  to  ship  any  part  of  its  export 
quota  during  the  first  quota-year  is  due 
to  shortage  of  shipping,  the  amount  of  the 
supplementary  export  quotas  allocated  to 
other  countries  in  respect  of  such  part 
shall  be  deducted  from  the  basic  export 
quotas  of  those  countries  for  the  second 
quota-year  and  added  to  the  aforemen- 
tioned country's  basic  export  quota  for 
the  second  quota-year. 

7.  No  export  quota  or  part  thereof 
shall  be  exported  in  any  quota-year  other 
than   that   to  which   it   relates,   except 
as   otherwise   provided    in    this  Article. 
Should  it  nevertheless  be  shown  to  the 
satisfaction  of  the  Council  that,  owing  to 
unavoidable  delay  in  the  arrival  or  de- 
parture of  ships,  part  of  an  export  quota 
had  not  been  shipped  at  the  end  of  the 
quota-vear  that  part  may  be  shipped  in 
the   following  quota-year   but   shall   be 
deemed    to   have   been   shipped   in   the 
quota-vear  to  which  it  relates. 

8.  No  export  quota  or  part  thereof 
shall  be  ceded,  transferred  or  loaned  by 
any  country  except  as  provided  in  this 
Article  or  with  the  unanimous  approval 
of  the  contracting  Governments  of  export- 
ing countries. 

9.  When  it  appears  that  any  country  is 
approaching  the  limit  of  its  export  quota, 
the  Chairman  of  the  Council  on  the  rec- 
ommendation of  the  Executive  Commit- 
tee shall  request  the  Government  of  that 
country  to  control  loadings  for  export 
during  the  remainder  of  the  quota-year 
and  to  telegraph  each  week  to  the  Council 
the  gross  exports  and  gross  imports  of 
wheat  and  of  wheat  flour  from  and  into 
its  territories  during  the  preceding  week. 

10.  When  the  Chairman  of  the  Council 
after  consultation   with   the   Executive 
Committee  finds  that  any  country  has 
exported  its  export  quota  for  any  quota- 
year  he  shall  immediately  make  a  declara- 
tion to  that  effect.    The  contracting  Gov- 
ernment of  the  exporting  country  con- 
cerned shall  thereupon  announce  that  the 
exportation  of  wheat  or  flour  from  its 
territories  will  not  be  permitted  after 


April  22,  1942         PRODUCTION  AND  MARKETING  OF  WHEAT 


seven  days  from  the  date  of  the  Chair- 
man's declaration  and  the  contracting 
Government  of  each  importing  country 
shall  not  permit  the  importation  into  its 
territories  of  wheat  or  flour  shipped  from 
that  exporting  country  during  the  current 
quota-year  more  than  seven  days  after 
the  date  of  the  Chairman's  declaration. 

n.  Should  it  be  found  that,  owing  to 
practical  difficulties  of  closely  controlling 
shipments,  exports  from  any  country  have 
exceeded  its  export  quota,  that  country 
shall  not  be  deemed  to  have  infringed  the 
provisions  of  paragraph  I  of  this  Article 
so  long  as  the  excess  is  not  more  than  5 
percent  of  the  quota,  but  the  amount  of 
that  excess  up  to  3  percent  of  the  quota 
and  three  times  the  amount  of  that  excess 
above  3  percent  of  the  quota  shall  be 
deducted  from  that  country's  export 
quota  for  the  following  quota-year. 

12.  The  contracting  Governments  rec- 
ognize that  international  trade  in  wheat 
should  be  distributed  on  a  fair  and  equita- 
ble basis  among  all  countries  which  export 
wheat  and  they  agree  that  the  effective 
operation  of  the  Agreement  should  not  be 
impaired  by  abnormal  exports  from  coun- 
tries that  have  not  acceded  to  it.  Ac- 
cordingly the  contracting  Governments 
shall  cooperate  in  taking,  on  the  advice  of 
the  Council,  such  practicable  measures  as 
may  be  necessary  to  attain  this  end. 

ARTICLE  V.— - Price  Control 

1.  The  Council  shall  fix  and  publish 
prior  to  the  coming  into  force  of  Article 
IV  and  thereafter  at  each  regular  August 
meeting  a  basic  minimum  price  and  a 
basic   maximum    price   of   wheat,    c.i.f. 
United  Kingdom  ports,  and  schedules  of 
prices,    c.i.f.    and/or    f.o.b.,    equivalent 
thereto  for  the  various  wheats  sold  in 
world  markets.    These  prices  shall  take 
effect  on  such  date  as  may  be  determined 
by  the  Council  and  shall  remain  in  force 
until  the  effective  date  of  the  prices  fixed 
by  the  Council  at  its  next  regular  August 
meeting  but  shall  be  subject  to  such  ad- 
justments as  the  Council  may  find  neces- 
sary to  meet  substantial  changes  in  freight 
or  exchange  rates  or  as  may  be  made  in 
accordance  with  the  provisions  of  para- 
graph 3  of  this  Article. 

2.  The  prices  fixed  under  paragraph  i 
of  this  Article  shall  be  such  as  will  in  the 
opinion  of  the  Council  (a)  return  reason- 
ably remunerative  prices  to  producers  in 
exporting  countries,  (&)  be  fair  to  con- 


sumers in  importing  countries,  (c)  be  in 
reasonable  relationship  to  prices  of  other 
commodities  and  (d)  make  appropriate 
allowance  for  exchange  rates  and  trans- 
portation costs. 

3.  Should  the  Council  so  decide  the 
basic  minimum  and  maximum  prices  of 
wheat  and  the  schedules  of  prices  equiva- 
lent thereto  shall  be  adjusted  at  monthly 
or  other  intervals  to  allow  for  carrying 
charges. 

4.  The    Governments    of    Argentina, 
Australia,  Canada  and  the  United  States 
of  America  shall  not,  after  the  coming 
into  force  of  paragraph  I  of  this  Article, 
sell  or  permit  the  sale  of  wheat  for  export, 
or  to  millers  for  producing  flour  for  export, 
at  prices  below  the  minimum  equivalents 
fixed  by  the  Council  under  paragraph  I  or 
3  of  this  Article. 

5.  The    Governments    of    Argentina, 
Australia,  Canada  and  the  United  States 
of  America  shall  ensure  that  wheat  for 
export  is  at  all  times  on  sale  at  f.o.b. 
prices   not  in  excess  of  the  maximum 
equivalents  fixed  by  the  Council  under 
paragraph  I  or  3  of  this  Article. 

ARTICLE  VI.— Relief  Pool 

1.  The    Governments    of    Argentina, 
Australia,  Canada,  the  United  Kingdom 
and  the  United  States  of  America  shall 
establish  a  pool  of  wheat  which  will  be 
available  for  intergovernmental  relief  in 
war-stricken  countries  and  other  neces- 
sitous areas  of  the  world,  where  circum- 
stances in  the  view  of  those  Governments 
make  such  relief  practicable. 

2.  The  Governments  of  Canada,  the 
United  Kingdom  and  the  United  States  of 
America  shall  give  to  the  pool,  as  and 
when  required  bv  the  Council,  25,  25  and 
50  million  bushels  respectively  of  wheat, 
or  its  equivalent  in  whole  or  part  in  flour, 
f.o.b.  seaboard  port  in  the  country  of 
origin. 

3.  The    Governments    of    Argentina, 
Australia,  Canada  and  the  United  States 
of  America  shall,  as  and  when  required  by 
the  Council,  give  to  the  pool  in  addition 
to  the  contributions  prescribed  in  para- 
graph 2  of  this  Article  a  quantity  of  wheat 
or  its  equivalent  in  whole  or  part  in  flour, 
f.o.b.  seaboard  port,  to  be  determined  by 
them  in  consultation  with  the  Council  and 
on  such  basis  as  may  be  agreed  among 
them. 

4.  The  Council  shall  be  responsible  for 
the  administration  of  the  relief  pool  and 


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INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  614 


shall,  wherever  possible,  arrange  for  the 
distribution  of  relief  wheat  through  such 
intergovernmental  relief  body  as  may  be 
set  up  and  given  general  responsibility  for 
the  distribution  of  relief.  Should  the 
Council  decide  to  make  relief  wheat  or 
flour  available  to  any  necessitous  area  in 
which  the  intergovernmental  relief  body 
has  not  the  organization  necessary  for  the 
distribution  of  such  wheat  or  flour  the 
Council  shall  arrange  with  the  appropriate 
authorities  to  distribute  such  wheat  or 
flour  in  that  area.  Any  arrangements  for 
the  distribution  of  relief  wheat  shall  be 
such  as  to  minimize,  so  far  as  the  provision 
of  sufficient  relief  permits,  the  reduction 
of  the  effective  demand  for  wheat  on  sale. 

5.  The  United  Kingdom  Government 
may,  if  so  agreed  by  the  Council  after 
consultation  with  the  intergovernmental 
relief  body,  contribute  transportation  of 
relief  wheat  or  flour  in  lieu  of  part  or  all 
of  its  contribution  under  paragraph  2  of 
this  Article. 

6.  Any  contributing  Government  shall, 
if  the  Council  after  consultation  with  the 
intergovernmental  relief  body  so  requests 
and  upon  such  terms  of  replacement  as 
may  be  agreed  with  the  Council,  make, 
pending  the  arrival  of  contributions  by 
other   Governments,    advances   of   such 
wheat  or  flour  as  that  Government  may 
consider  practicable  to  release  for  im- 
mediate relief. 

7.  Should  the  Council  consider  or  be 
advised  by  the  intergovernmental  relief 
body  that  the  quantity  of  relief  wheat 
contributed  under  paragraphs  2,  3  and  5 
of  this  Article  appears  likely  to  prove  in- 
sufficient, the  Council  shall  make  recom- 
mendations to  the  contracting  Govern- 
ments regarding  additional  contributions. 

8.  The  Council  shall  instruct  the  Exec- 
utive  Committee    (a)    to   facilitate   the 
transfer  of  relief  wheat  and  flour  from  the 
national  wheat-handling  organizations  of 
the  contributing  Governments  to  the  in- 
tergovernmental relief  body,  (b)  to  main- 
tain effective  liaison  between  the  national 
wheat-handling  and  shipping  organiza- 
tions of  the  contributing  Governments 
and  international  shipping  and  transport 
controls  and  (c)  generally  to  consult  with 
the  intergovernmental  relief  body  regard- 
ing all  transactions  relating  to  the  relief 
pool. 

9.  Should  the  Council  receive,  at  any 


time  after  the  completion  of  the  relief  to 
which  the  provisions  of  paragraphs  I  to 
8  of  this  Article  relate,  an  appeal  for  relief 
wheat  or  flour  from  any  Government  to 
relieve  famine  in  any  area  within  the 
jurisdiction  of  that  Government,  the 
Council  shall  investigate  the  possibilities 
of  meeting  such  an  appeal  and  report  to 
the  contracting  Governments  its  findings 
together  with  its  recommendations. 

ARTICLE  VII.— The  Council  * 

1.  This  Agreement  shall  be  adminis- 
tered by  an  International  Wheat  Council 
consisting  of  one  or  more  delegates  of  each 
contracting  Government. 

2.  The  Council  shall  have  the  powers 
specifically  assigned  to  it  under  the  Agree- 
ment and  such  other  powers  as  are  neces- 
sary for  the  effective  operation  of  the 
Agreement  and  for  the  carrying  out  of  its 
provisions. 

3.  The  Council  may,  by  unanimity  of 
the  votes  cast,  delegate  the  exercise  of  any 
of  its  powers  or  functions  to  such  persons 
or  bodies  as  it  thinks  fit. 

4.  The  Council  shall  elect,   for  such 
periods  and  upon  such  conditions  as  it 
may  determine,  a  Chairman  and  a  Vice 
Chairman,  who  need  not  be  delegates  of 
contracting  Governments. 

5.  The  Council  shall  appoint  a  Secre- 
tary and  such  other  employees  as  it  con- 
siders   necessary    and    determine    their 
powers,  duties,  compensation  and  dura- 
tion of  employment. 

6.  The  seat  of  the  Council  shall  be  in 
London  unless  the  Council  should  other- 
wise determine. 

7.  The  Council  shall  meet  in  January 
and  August  of  each  year  and  at  such  other 
times  as  it  may  determine.    The  Chair- 
man shall  convene  a  meeting  of  the  Coun- 
cil if  so  requested  (a)  by  the  Executive 
Committee  or  (b)  by  the  delegates  of  five 
contracting  Governments  or  (c)  by  the 
delegates    of    contracting    Governments 
with  a  total  of  not  less  than votes. 

8.  Notices  of  all  meetings  shall  be  dis- 
patched so  as  to  ensure  receipt  by  delega- 
tions of  contracting  Governments  at  least 
fourteen  days  in  advance  of  the  date  fixed 
for  the  meeting. 

9.  Any  contracting  Government  may 
designate  the  delegation  of  any  other  con- 
tracting Government  to  represent  it  and 
to  vote  on  its  behalf  at  any  meeting  of  the 


*  NOTE:  This  Article  to  be  expanded,  when  further  international  consideration  of  the  subject  is 
possible,  to  include  provisions  for  voting. 


April  22,  1942          PRODUCTION  AND  MARKETING  OF  WHEAT 


Council  or  on  any  particular  question. 
The  terms  of  any  such  delegation  of  au- 
thority shall  be  communicated  in  writing 
by  the  delegating  Government  to  the 
Chairman  of  the  Council. 

10.  The  Council  may  take  decisions, 
without  holding  a   meeting,   by   corre- 
spondence between  the  Chairman  and  the 
delegations  of  the  contracting  Govern- 
ments,   unless   any   delegation    objects. 
Any  decisions  so  taken  shall  be  communi- 
cated forthwith  to  all  the  delegations  and 
shall  be  recorded  in  the  Minutes  of  the 
next  meeting  of  the  Council. 

11.  The   Council  shall   make   at   the 
earliest  practicable  date  all  possible  ar- 
rangements with  international  shipping 
controls  to  facilitate  the  exportation  of 
wheat. 

12.  The    Council    shall    instruct    the 
Executive  Committee  (a)   to  cooperate 
with  bodies  engaged  in  the  task  of  im- 
proving human  nutrition,  (b)  to  investi- 
gate the  possibilities  of  increasing  wheat 
consumption  and  (c)  to  examine  and  re- 
port upon  any  proposals  made  to  the 
Council  by  any  contracting  Government 
designed  to  facilitate  the  attainment  of 
the  objectives  of  the  Agreement. 

13.  The  Council   shall   ascertain   and 
make  public  the  carry-over  of  wheat  in 
Argentina,   Australia,   Canada   and   the 
United  States  of  America  at  the  end  of 
each  of  their  respective  crop-years. 

14.  The  Council  shall,  upon  the  request 
of  any  contracting  Government  of  an  ex- 
porting country,  investigate  the  possibil- 
ity of  meeting  the  needs  of  that  country 
for  wheat  storage  facilities  to  maintain  in 
a  good  state  of  preservation  such  stocks  of 
wheat  as  may  accumulate  prior  to  the 
coming  into  force  of  Article  IV.    The 
Council  shall  report  to  the  contracting 
Governments  its  findings  together  with 
its  recommendations. 

15.  The  Council  shall  at  its  regular 
August  meeting  make  and  publish,  with 
such  detail  as  it  considers  desirable,  an 
estimate  of  the  total  volume  of  interna- 
tional trade  in  wheat  and  flour  in  the  cur- 
rent quota-year  and  shall  from  time  to 
time  review  that  estimate  and  publish 
such  revised  estimates  as  it  may  make. 

1 6.  The  Council  shall  publish  an  an- 
nual report  on  the  operation  of  the  Agree- 
ment which  shall  include  a  summary  of 
relevant  statistics  and  such  other  material 
as    the    Council    may   determine.    The 
Council  may  authorize  the  publication  of 


such  other  reports  as  it  considers  appro- 
priate. Reports  shall  be  published  in 
English  and  in  any  other  languages  that 
the  Council  may  determine. 

17.  Pending  the  establishment  of  the 
Executive  Committee  under  Article  VIII, 
the  Council  shall  itself  perform  the  func- 
tions assigned  by  the  Agreement  to  that 
Committee. 

1 8.  The  Council  may  arrange  to  take 
over  the  assets  and  liabilities  of  the  Wheat 
Advisory  Committee  upon  the  dissolution 
of  that  body  on  such  terms  as  may  be 
agreed  with  it. 

ARTICLE  VIII. — The  Executive  Committee 

1.  The  Council  shall,  when  it  considers 
it  desirable  to  do  so,  establish  an  Execu- 
tive Committee  which  shall  work  under 
its  general  direction. 

2.  The    Chairman    of    the    Executive 
Committee  shall  be  appointed   by   the 
Council  for  such  period  and  upon  such 
conditions  as  it  may  determine.    He  need 
not  be  a  delegate  of  a  contracting  Govern- 
ment to  the  Council  or  a  member  of  the 
Committee. 

3.  The  Secretary  of  the  Council  shall  be 
the  Secretary  of  the  Executive  Commit- 
tee. 

4.  In  addition  to  the  specific  duties  for 
which  provision  is  made  in  this  Agree- 
ment, the  Executive  Committee  shall  be 
charged  with  the  general  duty  of  keeping 
under  review  the  working  of  the  Agree- 
ment and  of  reporting  to  the  Council  from 
time  to  time  on  the  manner  in  which  the 
provisions  of  the  Agreement  are  being 
carried  out. 

5.  The  Executive  Committee  may  be 
convened  at  any  time  by  its  Chairman. 

6.  The  decisions  of  the  Executive  Com- 
mittee shall  be  taken  by  a  simple  majority 
of  the  total  votes  held  by  its  members. 

ARTICLE  IX. — Reports  to  the  Council 

1.  Each  contracting  Government  shall 
make  to  the  Council  such  reports  as  the 
Council  may  from  time  to  time  request 
on  the  action  which  that  Government  has 
taken  to  carry  out  the  provisions  of  this 
Agreement. 

2.  Each  contracting  Government  shall 
upon  request  telegraph  each  month  to  the 
Council  the  gross  exports  and  gross  im- 
ports of  wheat  and  of  wheat  flour  from 
and  into  its  territories  in  the  preceding 
month,  and  shall  supply  such  other  in- 
formation as  the  Council  may  from  time 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  614 


to  time  request  for  the  purposes  of  the 
Agreement. 

ARTICLE  X. — Finance 

1.  The  contracting  Governments  shall 
share  proportionally  to  the  votes  which 
they  hold  in  the  Council  any  expenses  in- 
curred by  the  Council  in  administering 
this  Agreement. 

2.  The  Council  shall  at  its  first  meeting 
approve  its  budget  for  the  period  prior  to 
the  first  day  of  the  month  of  August  after 
its   first   regular  January   meeting  and 
assess  the  contribution  to  be  paid   by 
each   contracting   Government  for  that 
period. 

3.  The  Council  shall  at  each  regular 
January  meeting  approve  its  budget  for 
the  following  August-July   period   and 
assess  the  contribution  to  be  paid  by  each 
contracting  Government  for  that  period. 

4.  The  initial  contribution  of  any  Gov- 
ernment acceding  to  the  Agreement  after 
the  first  meeting  of  the  Council  shall  be 
assessed  proportionally  to  the  number  of 
its  votes  in  the  Council  and  to  the  num- 
ber of  full  months  between  its  accession 
and  the  beginning  of  the  first  August- 
July  period  for  which  it  is  assessed  under 
the  provisions  of   paragraph  3  of  this 
Article,  but  the  assessments  already  made 
upon   other  Governments  shall  remain 
unaltered. 

5.  The  Council  shall  publish  an  audited 
statement  of  all  moneys  received  and  paid 
out  during  the  period  referred  to  in  para- 
graph 2  of  this  Article  and  during  each 
August-July  period  thereafter. 

6.  Consideration  shall  be  given  by  each 
contracting  Government  to  the  possibility 
of  according  to  the  funds  of  the  Council 
and  to  the  salaries  paid  by  the  Council  to 
its  employees  who  are  nationals  of  other 
countries  treatment  in  respect  of  taxation 
and  of  foreign  exchange  control  no  less 
favourable  than  that  accorded  by  such 
Government  to  the  funds  of  any  other 
Government  and  to  salaries  paid  by  any 
other  Government  to  any  of  its  accredited 
representatives  who  are  its  nationals. 

7.  The   Council    shall   determine   the 
disposal,  on  the  termination  of  the  Agree- 
ment, of  any  funds  which  remain  after 
meeting  its  obligations. 

ARTICLE  XI.— Date  Upon  Which  the 
Agreement  Comes  Into  Force  * 


ARTICLE  XII. — Duration  of  the  Agreement 

This  Agreement  shall  remain  in  force 
for  four  years  after  the  last  day  of  the 
month  of  July  following  the  date  upon 
which  it  comes  into  force.  The  Council 
shall  inquire  of  the  contracting  Govern- 
ments at  least  six  months  before  the 
Agreement  is  due  to  expire  whether  they 
desire  to  continue  it  and  shall  report  to 
the  contracting  Governments  the  results 
of  such  inquiry  together  with  its  recom- 
mendations. 

ARTICLE  XIII.— Relation  to  Other 
Agreements 

1.  So  long  as  this  Agreement  remains 
in  force  it  shall  prevail  over  any  provisions 
inconsistent  therewith  which  may  be  con- 
tained in  any  other  agreement  previously 
concluded  between  any  of  the  contracting 
Governments. 

2.  Should  any  contracting  Government 
be  party  to  an  agreement  with  a  non- 
contracting  Government  containing  any 
provision  inconsistent  with  this  Agree- 
ment, that  contracting  Government  shall 
take  all  reasonable  steps  to  procure  the 
necessary  amendment  of  such  agreement 
at  the  earliest  date  which  it  deems  practi- 
cable. 

ARTICLE  XIV. — Accessions 

This  Agreement  shall  at  any  time  be 
open  to  accession  by  the  Government  of 
any  country  on  the  terms  contained 
therein  so  far  as  they  are  applicable  to 
that  Government  and  on  such  other  terms 
not  inconsistent  therewith  as  may  be 
agreed  with  the  Council.  It  shall  accede 
as  the  Government  either  of  an  exporting 
country  or  of  an  importing  country  as 
may  be  agreed  with  the  Council  and  if  it 
accedes  as  the  Government  of  an  export- 
ing country  it  shall  have  such  basic  export 
quota  as  may  be  agreed  with  the  Council. 

ARTICLE  XV.— Withdrawals 

I.  The  contracting  Government  of  any 
country  which  considers  its  national  se- 
curity endangered  as  a  result  of  hostilities 
may  apply  to  the  Council  for  the  suspen- 
sion of  any  of  its  obligations  under  Arti- 
cles II,  III,  IV  and  V  of  this  Agreement. 
If  the  application  is  not  granted  within 
30  days  after  the  date  thereof,  such  Gov- 
ernment may  within  15  days  after  the  end 


*  NOTE:  The  text  of  thia  Article  to  be  determined  when  further  international  consideration  of 
the  subject  ia  poasiblt. 


April  22,  1942         PRODUCTION  AND  MARKETING  OF  WHEAT 


21 


of  that  period  withdraw  from  the  Agree- 
ment on  written  notice  to  the  Council. 

2.  If  it  is  shown  to  the  satisfaction  of 
the  Council  that  the  Government  of  Ar- 
gentina, of  Australia,  of  Canada  or  of  the 
United  States  of  America  has  failed  to 
carry  out  its  obligations  under  paragraph 
i  of  Article  IV  or  paragraph  4  of  Article 
V,  the  contracting  Government  of  any 
exporting  country  may  within  90  days 
withdraw   from   the   Agreement   on   30 
days'  written  notice  to  the  Council. 

3.  If  the  Government  of  Argentina,  of 
Australia,  of  Canada  or  of  the  United 
States  of  America  withdraws  from  the 
Agreement,  the  Agreement  shall  there- 
upon terminate,  unless  the  Council,  by 
three-fourths  of  the  total  votes  held  in  the 
Council,  decides  to  maintain  the  Agree- 
ment with  whatever  modifications  it  may 
deem  necessary. 

ARTICLE  XVI.— Territories 

1 .  The  rights  and  obligations  under  this 
Agreement  of  the  Government  of  Argen- 
tina apply  to  the  Customs  territory  there- 
of; those  of  the  Government  of  Australia 
to  Australia  and  her  territories;  those  of 
the  Government  of  Canada  to  the  Cus- 
toms territory  thereof;  those  of  the  Gov- 
ernment of  the  United  Kingdom  of  Great 
Britain  and  Northern  Ireland  to  Great 
Britain  and  Northern  Ireland;  and  those 
of  the  Government  of  the  United  States  of 
America  to  the  Customs  territory  thereof. 

2.  In  the  event  of  the  Government  of 
any  other  country  acceding  to  the  Agree- 
ment  under  Article  XIV,   the  Council 
shall  agree  with  the  said  acceding  Govern- 
ment as  to  the  territories  to  which  the 
rights  and  obligations  of  the  said  acceding 
Government  under  the  Agreement  shall 
apply. 

ARTICLE  XVII.— Definitions 
For  the  purposes  of  this  Agreement: 

1.  "  Bushel "  means  sixty  pounds  avoir- 
dupois. 

2.  "Carrying  charges"  means  the  costs 
incurred  for  storage,  interest  and  insur- 
ance in  holding  wheat. 

3.  "Carry-over"  means  the  aggregate 
of  the  stocks  in  any  country,  as  ascer- 
tained by  the  Council  under  paragraph  13 
of  Article  VII,  of  old  wheat  at  the  end  of 
the  crop-year  held  (a)  in  all  elevators, 
warehouses  and  mills,  (b)  in  transit  or  at 
railroad  sidings  and  (c)  on  farms,  except 


that  in  the  case  of  Canada  "carry-over" 
means  in  addition  the  stocks  of  wheat  of 
Canadian  origin  held  in  bond  in  the 
United  States  of  America. 

4.  "Council"  means  the  International 
Wheat   Council   for  which  provision   is 
made  in  Article  VII. 

5.  "Crop-vear"  means  in   respect  of 
Argentina  and  Australia,  the  period  from 
December  i  to  November  30;  in  respect 
of  Canada,  the  period  from  August  i  to 
July  31:  and  in  respect  of  the  United 
States  of  America,  the  period  July  i  to 
June  30. 

6.  "  Domestic  requirements"  means  all 
use  of  wheat  and  flour  during  anv  crop- 
year  within  the  territories  of  each  con- 
tracting   Government    for    human    and 
animal  consumption,  for  industrial  pur- 
poses, and  for  seed,  and  waste. 

7.  "Equivalent",  with  reference  to  the 
measurement  of  flour  in  terms  of  wheat, 
means  a  quantity  calculated  in  the  ratio 
of  such  number  of  pounds  of  flour  to  100 
pounds  of  wheat  as  the  Council  shall 
determine. 

8.  "Executive  Committee"  means  the 
Executive  Committee  established  by  the 
International  Wheat  Council  under  Arti- 
cle VI 1 1. 

9.  "Exporting  countrv"  means  Argen- 
tina,   Australia,    Canada,    the    United 
States  of  America  or  any  country  that 
mav  accede  as  such  to  the  Agreement 
under  Article  XIV. 

10.  "Export  quota"  means  basic  ex- 
port quota  together  with  any  secondary 
or  supplementary  export  quota  allocated 
under  Article  IV. 

11.  "Extraordinary   use"    means   use 
which  the  Council  is  satisfied  would  not 
have  taken  place  but  for  the  governmental 
measures  referred  to  in  paragraph  6  of 
Article  III. 

12.  "Gross  exports"  means  the  total 
quantitv  of  wheat,  including  flour  ex- 
pressed in  terms  of  its  wheat  equivalent, 
shipped  from  the  territories  of  any  Gov- 
ernment, except  that  in  the  case  of  Can- 
ada "gross  exports"  means  the  overseas 
clearances  of  Canadian  wheat  from  sea- 
board ports  in  Canada  and  the  United 
States  of  America,  plus  imports  of  wheat 
from  Canada  into  the  United  States  of 
America  for  consumption  and  for  milling 
in  bond,  plus  flour  expressed  in  terms  of 
its  wheat  equivalent  shipped  from  Cana- 
dian territories. 

13.  "Gross  imports"  means  the  total 


22 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  614 


quantity  of  wheat,  including  flour  ex- 
pressed in  terms  of  its  wheat  equivalent, 
imported  into  the  territories  of  any  Gov- 
ernment. 

14.  " Importing  country"   means  the 
United  Kingdom  or  any  country  that  may 
accede  as  such  to  the  Agreement  under 
Article  XIV. 

15.  "Net  exports "  means  gross  exports 
minus  gross  imports. 

16.  "Net  imports"  means  gross  im- 
ports minus  gross  exports. 

17.  "New   crop"   means   wheat   har- 
vested not  more  than  two  months  prior  to 
the  beginning  of  the  current  crop-year. 

18.  "Old   wheat"  means  wheat  har- 
vested more  than  two  months  prior  to  the 
beginning  of  the  current  crop-year. 

IQ.  "Quota- year"  means  the  period 
ending  July  31  following  the  date  upon 
which  the  Agreement  comes  into  force  and 
thereafter  the  period  from  August  I  to 

July  31- 

20.  "Seaboard  port"  means  any  sea  or 
river  port  at  which  a  sea-going  ship  of 
6000  tons  gross  can  load. 


21.  "Shipped"  means  transported  in 
any  manner. 

22.  "Territories"  means  territory,  or 
group  of  territories,  to  which  the  rights 
and  obligations  of  the  Agreement  apply  in 
accordance  with  the  provisions  of  Article 
XVI. 

23.  "The    beginning   of   the   seeding 
period  for  the  next  harvest"  means  in 
respect  of  Argentina,  May  I ;  in  respect  of 
Australia  and  Canada,  April  i;  and  in 
respect  of  the  United  States  of  America, 
September  I. 

24.  "Total    volume    of    international 
trade  in  wheat  and  flour"  means  the  ag- 
gregate of  the  net  export  from  each  coun- 
try of  the  world. 

25.  "Wheat     Advisory     Committee" 
means  the  Committee  established  under 
the  Final  Act  of  the  Conference  of  Wheat 
Exporting  and  Importing  Countries  held 
in  London  at  the  Offices  of  the  High  Com- 
missioner for  Canada,  from  August  21  to 

25»  J933- 

26.  "  Yield  "  means  quantity  of  produc- 
tion per  unit  of  sown  area. 


[ANNEX  II] 
Minutes  of  the  Final  Session  of  the  Washington  Wheat  Meeting 


The  officials  of  the  five  countries  par- 
ticipating in  the  Washington  Wheat 
Meeting  record  as  follows  their  under- 
standing regarding  certain  provisions  of 
the  Memorandum  of  Agreement  entered 
into  pursuant  to  that  Meeting: 

1.  The   arrangements   referred    to   in 
paragraph  4  of  the  Memorandum,  relating 
to  the  relief  pool  of  wheat  and  to  the  con- 
trol of  production,  mean  the  following 
provisions  of  the  Draft  Convention  at- 
tached thereto:  paragraph  3  of  Article  II 
(Production  Control),  Articles  VI  (Relief 
Pool),  VII   (The  Council)  except  para- 
graph 6,  X  (Finance),  XVII  (Definitions) 
and,  should  the  Council  at  any  time  so 
decide,  Article  VIII  (The  Executive  Com- 
mittee). 

2.  The   arrangements   referred    to   in 
paragraph  5  of  the  Memorandum,  relating 
to  the  control  of  production,  stocks  and 
exports  and  to  the  administration  thereof, 
mean    the   following   provisions   of   the 
Draft  Convention,  in  addition  to  Articles 
VII  (except  paragraph  6),  VIII,  X  and 
XVII  referred  to  above:  paragraphs  I  and 
2   of  Article   II    (Production   Control), 


Article  III  (Stocks),  Article  IV  (Export 
Control)  except  the  provisions  of  para- 
graphs 10  and  12  relating  to  the  obliga- 
tions of  importing  countries  since  those 
provisions  are  not  regarded  as  essential 
to  the  interim  measures  contemplated  in 
the  Memorandum,  Article  IX  (Reports 
To  The  Council)  and  Article  XVI  (Ter- 
ritories). 

3.  The  words  "cessation  of  hostilities" 
in  the  Memorandum  mean  the  earliest 
date  at  which  none  of  the  five  countries  is 
engaged  in  substantial  belligerent  opera- 
tions. 

4.  The  words  "arrangements  described 
in  the  attached  Draft  Convention"  in 
paragraph  6  of  the  Memorandum  mean 
the  provisions  of  Article  V  of  the  Draft 
Convention. 

5.  The  words  "  equivalent  f  .o.b.  prices  " 
which  will  be  calculated  for  wheats  of  the 
other  exporting  countries   under  para- 
graph 6  of  the  Memorandum  mean  the 
prices    of    Argentine,    Australian    and 
United  States  wheats  which  will  be  ascer- 
tained by  the  unanimous  vote  of  the 
Council  as  equivalent  to  the  last  price 


July  22,  1942         PROPERTY  OF  "FORMER"  YUGOSLAV  STATE  23 

negotiated  by  the  United  Kingdom  for  a  Wheeler,  officials  of  Argentina,  Australia, 

bulk  purchase  of  wheat  from  Canada.  Canada,  the  United  Kingdom  and  the 

6.  The  seat  of  the  Council  will  be  in  United  States  respectively,  as  competent 
Washington  during  the  period  in  which  experts  in  a  position  to  reflect  the  views 
the  Memorandum  of  Agreement  is  in  of  their  respective  Governments.    The 
force,  unless  the  Council  should  otherwise  Memorandum,  the  Draft  Convention  and 
determine.  the  present  Minutes  will  be  transmitted  in 

7.  The   Minutes   of   the   Washington  English  and  Spanish  by  the  Government 
Wheat  Meeting,  together  with  the  Re-  of  the  United  States  to  the  other  four 
ports  of  its  Committees,  will  be  available  Governments    for    their    approval.    So 
for  the  information  of  the  Council  during  soon  as  the  approval  of  the  five  Govern- 
the  period  in  which  the  Memorandum  of  ments  has  been  notified  to  each  of  them 
Agreement  is  in  force.  the  provisions  of  the  Memorandum  of 

8.  The  English  texts  of  the  Memoran-  Agreement  will  be  deemed  to  come  into 
dum  of  Agreement  and  of  the  present  effect  and  the  Memorandum  of  Agree- 
Minutes  have  been  initialled  by  Anselmo  ment  together  with  the  Draft  Convention 
M.  Viacava,  Edwin  McCarthy,  Charles  attached  thereto  and  the  present  Minutes 
F.  Wilson,  Harold  F.  Carlill,  and  Leslie  A.  will  be  made  public. 

[Initials  and  date  identical  with  those  affixed  to  the  Memorandum  of  Agreement.] 


No.  615 

AGREEMENT  concerning  the  Division  of  the  Property  of  the 
"Former"  Yugoslav  State.     Signed  at  Berlin,  July  22,  1942. 

ACCORD  concernant  la  division  de  la  propriete  de  "1'ancien"  etat 
yougoslave.    Signe  &  Berlin,  22  juillet  1942. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Agreement  between  Bulgaria,  Croatia,  Germany,  Hungary,  and 
Italy  regulated  property  questions  resulting  from  the  abortive  transfers  of  Yugoslav  territory 
to  these  states.  It  was  accompanied  by  two  protocols  concerning  the  Yugoslav  National 
Bank.  Italy,  Gazzetta  ufficiale,  1943,  No.  55,  pp.  864,  865.  It  was  followed  by  three  instru- 
ments of  September  2,  1943 — an  agreement  and  a  protocol  on  social  insurance  funds,  and  a 
protocol  concerning  other  Yugoslav  banks.  Official  Journal  of  Bulgaria  (Drzhaven  Vertmk), 
February  24,  1944,  No.  43,  pp.  2,  16;  4  Croatia,  Zbornik  Zakona  (1944),  Nos.  7-9,  p.  216. 
Under  Article  75  of  the  treaty  of  peace  with  Italy  of  February  10,  1947,  Italy  agreed  to  return 
property  removed  from  the  territory  of  any  of  the  United  Nations,  and,  in  accordance  with 
Annex  XIV  to  that  treaty,  the  successor  states  received  Italian  "State  and  para-statal 
property"  within  territories  ceded  to  them;  see  also  Article  22  of  the  treaty  of  peace  with 
Bulgaria  and  Article  24  of  the  treaty  of  peace  with  Hungary.  U.S.  Treaties  and  Other  Inter- 
national Acts  Series,  Nos.  1648,  1650,  and  1651. 

RATIFICATIONS.  On  April  21,  1943,  ratifications  of  this  Agreement  had  been  deposited 
by  the  signatory  states. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Agreement  is  published  in  German  Reichsgesetzblatt, 
1943,  Part  II,  pp.  154-65;  Italian  Raccolta  ufficiale  delle  leggi  e  dei  decreti,  1942,  Vol.  V,  pp. 

3921-45. 

Anon.,  "  Patrimoine  de  1'ex-Etat  yougoslave,"  19  Revue  des  lois,  decrets  et  traitSs  de  com- 
merce (1943),  pp.  323-24. 

Entered  into  force  April  21,  1943. 

[Text  not  reproduced.] 


24  INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION  No.  6l6 

No.  616 

PROTOCOL  concerning  the  1937  Agreement  on  the  Regulation  of 
Production  and  Marketing  of  Sugar.  Opened  for  signature  at 
London,  July  22,  1942. 

PROTOCOLE  concernant  r  Accord  de  1937  pour  la  rgglementation 
de  la  production  et  de  Pecoulement  du  sucre  sur  le  march£. 
Ouvert  &  la  signature  ft  Londres,  22  juillet  1942. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Protocol  continued  in  force  the  London  agreement  on  sugar  of 
May  6,  1937  (No.  479,  ante),  which  had  entered  into  force  provisionally  on  September  I, 
1937.  The  extension  had  been  recommended  by  the  International  Sugar  Council.  The 
duration  of  the  1937  agreement  was  further  extended  by  protocols  of  August  31,  1944, 
August  31,  1945,  August  30,  1946,  August  29,  1947,  and  August  31,  1948.  Agreements 
concerning  sugar  had  previously  been  concluded  at  Paris  in  1864,  at  Brussels  in  1875,  at 
London  in  1888,  and  at  Brussels  in  1902,  1907,  and  1912.  54  Br.  and  For  St.  Papers,  p.  29; 
66  idem,  p.  1070;  79  idem,  p.  250;  95  idem,  p.  6;  100  idem,  p.  482;  105  idem,  p.  392. 

SIGNATURES.  Most  of  the  signatures  to  this  Protocol  were  affixed  on  July  22,  1942. 
Brazil  and  Portugal  signed  it  on  August  28,  1942. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Protocol  is  also  published  in  Br.  Par/.  Papers,  Misc. 
No.  I  (1942),  Cmd.  6395;  7  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1942),  p.  679;  International 
Labor  Office,  Intergovernmental  Commodity  Control  Agreements  (Montreal,  1943),  p.  45. 
The  text  and  a  French  translation  are  published  in  112  Moniteur  beige  (1942),  pp.  430-32. 

M.  H.  El-Gamal,  Le  probleme  international  du  sucre  (Paris,  1941),  402  pp.;  H.  E.  Fried- 
laender,  Los  conv^nios  azucareros  de  Bruselas  de  1931  y  de  Londres  de  1937  (Habana,  1941), 
68  pp.;  V.  Gutierrez  Vallad6n,  Estudios  sobre  problemas  azucareros  (Habana,  1944),  173  pp.; 
E.  Hexner,  International  Cartels  (Chapel  Hill,  1945),  pp.  189-95;  J.  Mulliken,  "International 
Cooperation  in  Sugar,"  16  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1947),  pp.  43-46,  78;  K.  Wilk, 
"The  International  Sugar  R6gime,"  33  Am.  Pol.  Sci.  Rev.  (1939),  pp.  860-78;  U.S.  Depart- 
ment of  State,  International  Agencies  in  Which  the  United  States  Participates  (Washington, 
1946;  Publ.  2699),  pp.  84-90;  P.  L.  Yates,  Commodity  Control  (London,  1945),  pp.  48-66. 

Entered  into  force  July  22,  1942. 

Text  from  17.5.  Treaty  Series,  No.  990. 

Whereas  an  Agreement  regarding  of  all  the  signatories  have  not  been 

the  Regulation  of  Production  and  deposited,  the  Governments  which 

Marketing  of  Sugar  (hereafter  re-  have   ratified   the  Agreement   may 

ferred   to  as   the  Agreement)   was  decide  to  put  it  into  force  among 

signed  in  London  on  the  6th  May,  themselves";  and 


w             Ar*vi*  *  si    f  +K    A  Whereas   the  ratifications  of  all 

Whereas  Article  48  of  the  Agree-  the  signatories  were  not  deposited 

ment  provides  as  follows:  by  th(f  Igt  September,  193?  ;  and 

41  (a)  The  present  Agreement  shall  Whereas  the  Agreement  has  been 

come  into  force  on  the  ist  Septem-  ratified  by  the  Governments  of  the 

ber,  1937,  if  at  that  date  it  has  been  following  countries: 

ratified  by  all  the  signatory  Gov-  Union  of  South  Africa,  Common- 

ernments;  wealth  of  Australia,  Brazil,  Belgium, 

"(*)  If  by  the  above-mentioned  United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain 

date  the  instruments  of  ratification  and  Northern  Ireland,  Cuba,  Czecho- 


Aug.  3Iy  1944  PRODUCTION  AND  MARKETING  OF  SUGAR  25 

Slovakia,  Dominican  Republic,  Ger-  for  a  period  of  two  years  from  that 

many,  Haiti,  Hungary,  India,  Neth-  date. 

erlands,    Peru,    Poland,    Portugal,         Art.    3.    The    present    Protocol 

Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics,  shall  bear  this  day's  date  and  shall 

United  States  of  America;  and  remain  open  for  signature  until  the 

Whereas  it  seems  desirable  that  3ist  August,    1942.     It  shall   take 

the  said  Agreement  should  be  put  effect  in  respect  of  each  signatory 

in  force  between  those  Governments  Government  on  the  date  of  signa- 

which  have  ratified  it,  ture. 

Now  therefore,  the  undersigned  IN  ^TNESS  WHEREOF  the  under- 
being  duly  authorised  by  their  re-  s;  d  being  duly  authorised  thereto 
spective  Governments  have  agreed  b*  their  r*spective  Governments, 
as  loiiows.  have  signed  the  present  Protocol. 

Article  i.  The  Agreement  shall  Done  in  London  on  the  22nd  day 
be  regarded  as  having  come  into  of  July,  1942  Jn  a  single  copy  which 
force  in  respect  of  the  Governments  shal]  be  deposited  in  the  archives  of 
signatories  of  the  present  Protocol,  the  Government  of  the  United  King- 
on  the  ist  September,  1937.  dom  of  Great  Britain  and  Northern 

Art.   2.    After   the  aist  August,  Ireland,  and  of  which  certified  copies 

1942,  the  Agreement  shall  continue  shall  be  furnished  to  the  signatory 

in  force  among  the  said  Governments  Governments. 

[Signed:]  For  the  Government  of  the  Union  of  South  Africa:  SIDNEY  F. 
WATERSON;  for  the  Government  of  the  Commonwealth  of  Australia:  S.  M. 
BRUCE;  for  the  Government  of  Brazil:  J.  C.  DE  ALENCAR  NETTO;  for  the 
Government  of  Belgium:  P.  KRUNACKER;  for  the  Government  of  the 
United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ireland:  ANTHONY  EDEN; 
for  the  Government  of  the  Republic  of  Cuba:  G.  DE  BLANCK;  for  the  Gov- 
ernment of  Czechoslovakia:  V.  JANSA ;  for  the  Government  of  the  Dominican 
Republic:  R.  P£REZ-ALFONSECA ;  for  the  Government  of  Haiti:  JOHN  G. 
WINANT;  for  the  Government  of  the  Netherlands:  E.  MICHIELS  v.  VER- 
DUYNEN;  for  the  Government  of  Peru:  E.  LETTS  S.;  for  the  Government  of 
Portugal:  ARMTNDO  MONTEIRO;  for  the  Government  of  the  Union  of  Soviet 
Socialist  Republics:  J.  MAISKY;  for  the  Government  of  the  United  States  of 
America:  JOHN  G.  WINANT;  (In  respect  of  the  Commonwealth  of  the 
Philippines):  JOHN  G.  WINANT. 


No.  616a 

Protocol  concerning  the  1937  Agreement  on  the  Regulation  of  Pro- 
duction and  Marketing  of  Sugar.  Opened  for  signature  at 
London,  August  31,  1944. 

Protocole  concernant  P Accord  de  1937  Pour  la  reglementation  de  la 
production  et  de  1'ecoulement  du  sucre  sur  le  marche.  Ouvert 
&  la  signature  &  Londres,  31  aoftt  1944. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Protocol  continued  in  force  the  London  agreement  of  May  6,  1937 
(No.  479,  ante),  as  prolonged  by  the  protocol  of  July  22,  1942  (No  616,  ante).  The  duration 
of  the  agreement  was  further  extended  for  one-year  periods  by  similar  protocols  of  August 


26 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  6i6a 


3*»  '945,  August  30,  1946,  August  29,  1947,  and  August  31,  1948.  U.S.  Treaties  and  Other 
International  Acts  Series,  Nos.  1523,  1614,  and  1755;  British  Treaty  Series,  No.  73  (i94^)» 
Cmd.  7542. 

RATIFICATIONS.  Only  the  United  States  signed  this  Protocol  subject  to  ratification;  its 
ratification  of  March  9,  1945,  was  deposited  with  effect  as  from  August  31,  1944. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Protocol  is  also  published  in  British  Treaty  Series,  No. 
45  (1946),  Cmd.  6949,  p.  2. 

Entered  into  force  August  31,  1944. 

Text  from  U.S.  Treaty  Series,  No.  990. 


Whereas  an  International  Agree- 
ment regarding  the  Regulation  of  the 
Production  and  Marketing  of  Sugar 
(hereinafter  referred  to  as  "the 
Agreement")  was  signed  in  London 
on  the  6th  May,  1937; 

And  whereas  by  a  Protocol  signed 
in  London  on  the  22nd  July,  1942,  the 
Agreement  was  regarded  as  having 
come  into  force  on  the  ist  September, 
I937»  in  respect  of  the  Governments 
signatory  of  the  Protocol; 

And  whereas  it  was  provided  in 
the  said  Protocol  that  the  Agreement 
should  continue  in  force  between  the 
said  Governments  for  a  period  of  two 
years  after  the  3ist  August,  1942; 

Now,  therefore,  the  Governments 
signatory  of  the  present  Protocol, 
considering  that  it  is  expedient  that 
the  Agreement  should  be  prolonged 
for  a  further  term  as  between  them- 
selves, subject,  in  view  of  the  present 
emergency,  to  the  conditions  stated 
below,  have  agreed  as  follows: 

Article  z.  Subject  to  the  provi- 
sions of  Article  2  hereof,  the  Agree- 
ment shall  continue  in  force  between 
the  Governments  signatory  of  this 
Protocol  for  a  period  of  one  year 
after  the  3ist  August,  1944. 

Art.  2.  During  the  period  speci- 
fied in  Article  I  above  the  provisions 
of  Chapters  III,  iy  and  V  of  the 
Agreement  shall  be  inoperative. 

Art.  3. — i.  The  Governments  sig- 
natory of  the  present  Protocol 
recognise  that  revision  of  the  Agree- 


ment is  necessary  and  should  be 
undertaken  as  soon  as  the  time  ap- 
pears opportune.  Discussion  of  any 
such  revision  should  take  the  exist- 
ing Agreement  as  the  starting  point. 

2.  For  the  purposes  of  such  revi- 
sion due  account  shall  be  taken  of 
any  general  principles  of  commodity 
policy  embodied  in  any  agreements 
which  may  be  concluded  under  the 
auspices  of  the  United  Nations. 

Art.  4.  Before  the  conclusion  of 
the  period  of  one  year  specified  in 
Article  I  the  contracting  Govern- 
ments, if  the  steps  contemplated  in 
Article  3  have  not  been  taken,  will 
discuss  the  question  of  a  further  re- 
newal of  the  Agreement. 

Art.  5.  The  present  Protocol  shall 
bear  the  date  the  3ist  August,  1944, 
and  shall  remain  open  for  signature 
until  the  3Oth  September,  1944;  pro- 
vided however  that  any  signatures 
appended  after  the  3ist  August, 
1944,  shall  be  deemed  to  have  effect 
as  from  that  date. 

IN  WITNESS  WHEREOF  the  under- 
signed being  duly  authorised  thereto 
by  their  respective  Governments 
have  signed  the  present  Protocol. 

Done  in  London  on  the  3ist  day 
of  August,  1944,  in  a  single  copy 
which  shall  be  deposited  in  the 
archives  of  the  Government  of  the 
United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain 
and  Northern  Ireland,  and  of  which 
certified  copies  shall  be  furnished  to 
the  signatory  Governments. 


[Signed:]  For  the  Government  of  the  Union  of  South  Africa:  DENEYS 
REITZ:  for  the  Government  of  the  Commonwealth  of  Australia:  S.  M. 


Aug.  IO,  1942      DANUBE-SAVA-ADRIATIC  RAILWAY  COMPANY  27 

BRUCE;  for  the  Government  of  Belgium:  VTE  DE  LANTSHEERE;  for  the  Gov- 
ernment of  Brazil:  MONIZ  DE  ARAGXO;  for  the  Government  of  the  United 
Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ireland:  ANTHONY  EDEN;  for  the 
Government  of  the  Republic  of  Cuba:  G.  DE  BLANCK;  for  the  Government 
of  Czechoslovakia:  DR.  V.  JANSA;  for  the  Government  of  the  Dominican 
Republic:  R.  P£REZ-ALFONSECA;  for  the  Government  of  Haiti:  JOHN  G. 
WINANT;  for  the  Government  of  the  Netherlands:  E.  TEIXEIRA  DE  MATTOS; 
for  the  Government  of  Peru:  F.  BERCKEMEYER;  for  the  Government  of 
Portugal:  PALMELLA;  for  the  Government  of  the  Union  of  Soviet  Socialist 
Republics:  F.  GOUSEV;  for  the  Government  of  the  United  States  of  America: 
JOHN  G.  WINANT,  subject  to  ratification;  (In  respect  of  the  Commonwealth 
of  the  Philippines):  JOHN  G.  WINANT;  for  the  Government  of  Poland: 
Z.  MERDINGER. 


No.  617 

TREATY   concerning   the   Reorganization   of  the   Danube-Sava- 
Adriatic  Railway  Company.    Signed  at  Brioni,  August  10,  1942. 

TRAITfi  concernant  la  reorganisation  de  la  Compagnie  des  Chemins 
de  Fer  Danube-Save-Adriatique.    Signe  &  Brioni,  10  aoftt  1942. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Treaty  between  Croatia,  Germany,  Italy,  and  Hungary,  and  the 
accompanying  agreement  between  these  states  and  the  Danube-Sava-Adriatic  Railway 
Company  were  intended  to  supersede  the  agreement  signed  at  Rome,  March  29,  1923,  which 
reorganized  the  Railway  Company.  23  League  of  Nations  Treaty  Series,  pp.  255-375.  The 
conclusion  of  agreements  on  this  subject  was  foreseen  in  Article  320  of  the  treaty  of  peace 
with  Austria  signed  at  St.  Germain-en-Laye,  September  10,  1919,  and  in  Article  304  of  the 
treaty  of  peace  with  Hungary,  signed  at  Trianon,  June  4,  1920.  In  the  treaties  of  peace  of 
February  10,  1947,  with  Hungary  (Article  26,  §  10)  and  Italy  (Annex  XIV,  §  15),  the  Hun- 
garian and  Italian  governments  recognized  that  the  Brioni  Agreement  of  1942  was  "null 
and  void,"  and  undertook  "to  participate  with  the  other  signatories  of  the  Rome  Agreement 
of  May  29,  1923,  in  any  negotiations  having  the  purpose  of  introducing  into  its  provisions 
the  modifications  necessary  to  ensure  the  equitable  settlement  of  the  annuities  which  it 
provides."  V.S.  Treaties  and  Other  International  Acts  Series,  No.  1648,  p.  228,  and  No. 
1651,  p.  60. 

RATIFICATIONS.  On  April  22,  1943,  ratifications  had  been  deposited  by  the  four  signatory 
states. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  texts  of  this  Treaty,  the  accompanying  agreement,  the  statute  of 
the  Company,  and  five  related  protocols  are  published  in  German  Rcichsgesetzblatt,  1943, 
Part  II,  pp.  206-41 ;  Italian  Raccolta  ufficiale  deUe  leggi  e  dei  decreti,  1942,  Vol.  V,  pp.  3897- 
3918. 

Anon.,  "Accord  de  Brioni  du  10  aoflt  1942  entre  les  gouvernements  allemand,  italien, 
croate,  hongrois,  et  la  Compagnie  des  Chemins  de  Fer  Danube-Save-Adriatique,"  52 
Bulletin  des  transports  internationaux  par  chemins  defer  (1944),  pp.  41-48. 

Entered  into  force  April  22,  1943.* 

[Text  not  reproduced.] 
1  Retroactive  to  January  i,  1942. 


28  INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION  No.  619 

No.  618 

AGREEMENT  concerning  the  Star  Insurance  Company  at  Prague. 
Signed  at  Berlin,  August  12,  1942. 

ACCORD  concernant  la  Compagnie  d'Assurances  "Star"  &  Prague. 
Signe  a  Berlin,  12  aoftt  1942. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Agreement  between  Germany,  Hungary,  and  Slovakia  was  con- 
cluded in  consequence  of  the  partition  of  the  territory  of  the  Czechoslovak  Republic  in  1938 
and  1939.  Agreements  concerning  the  settlement  of  social  insurance  obligations  were  con- 
cluded by  Germany  with  the  Government  of  the  Protectorate  of  Bohemia  and  Moravia  on 
March  14,  1940,  with  Hungary  on  June  24,  1940  and  March  27,  1941,  and  with  Slovakia  on 
April  13,  1940  and  December  6,  1940.  German  Reichsgesetzblatt,  1940,  Part  II  p.  108; 
idem,  1941,  Part  II,  p.  333;  idem,  1942,  Part  II,  p  118;  idem,  1943,  Part  II,  p.  253.  Article 
25  of  the  treaty  of  peace  with  Hungary  of  February  10,  1947,  provides  that  the  annulment 
of  the  Vienna  Award  of  November  2,  1938  (No.  536,  ante)  "shall  entail  the  annulment  of 
the  agreements,  as  well  as  the  legal  consequences  ensuing  therefrom,  relating  to  matters  of 
finance  and  public  and  private  insurance,  concluded  between  or  on  behalf  of  the  two  States 
concerned."  U.S.  Treaties  and  Other  International  Acts  Series,  No.  1651,  p.  56. 

RATIFICATIONS.    Ratifications  of  this  Agreement  were  exchanged  at  Berlin  on  June  17, 

1943- 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Agreement  is  published  in  German  Reichsgesetzblatt, 
1943,  Part  II,  pp.  364-78. 

Entered  into  force  June  17,  1943. 

[Text  not  reproduced.] 


No.  619 

CONVENTION  on  Education  in  Central  America.    Signed  at  San 
Jose,  September  5,  1942. 

CONVENCION  sobre  educacidn  en  Centre  America.    Finnada  en 
San  Jose,  5  de  septiembre  de  1942. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Convention  was  concluded  at  the  First  Conference  of  the  Minis- 
ters of  Public  Education  of  the  States  of  Central  America  and  Panama  held  at  San  Jos£, 
Costa  Rica,  August  31 -September  5,  1942.  That  conference  adopted  also  a  convention  on 
the  exercise  of  liberal  professions  (No.  620,  post).  The  San  Jose"  conference  was  preceded 
by  a  preliminary  conference  held  at  Managua,  August  21-28,  1942,  at  which  the  annexes  to 
this  Convention  were  formulated.  Conventions  for  the  establishment  of  a  Central  Amer- 
ican Pedagogical  Institute  were  concluded  at  San  Jos£  on  September  24,  1906,  at  Washing- 
ton, December  20,  1907,  and  at  San  Salvador,  February  2,  1910.  Descamps  &  Renault, 
Recueil  international  des  traites  du  XXe  siecle,  1906,  p.  759;  3  Tejada,  Coleccidn  de  tratados 
de  Guatemala  (Guatemala,  1919),  pp.  428,  436.  A  Central  American  convention  on  the  unifi- 
cation of  primary  and  secondary  education  was  signed  at  Guatemala  City,  January  12,  1911. 
Idem,  p.  449.  A  convention  to  establish  an  Inter-American  University  was  signed  at 
Panama,  October  4,  1943  (No.  626,  post). 


Sept.  5,  1942 


EDUCATION  IN  CENTRAL  AMERICA 


RATIFICATIONS.  On  January  I,  1949,  this  Convention  had  been  ratified  by  Costa  Rica, 
£1  Salvador,  Honduras,  and  Panama. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Convention  is  also  published  in  Costa  Rica,  Colcc- 
cidn  de  leyes,  1942,  II,  p.  324;  Honduras,  Decretos  del  Congreso  National,  1942-1943,  pp. 
31-40;  4  Panama,  Leyes  (1943),  pp.  285-305;  135  El  Salvador,  Diario  oficial  (1943),  No. 
245,  pp.  3179-80.  Cf.  El  Salvador,  Memoria  de  relaciones  exteriores  y  justiciat  1942,  pp. 
47-50. 

Anon.,  "International  Agreements  on  Education  between  the  Central  American  Re- 
publics/' 47  Int.  Labour  Rev.  (1943),  p.  223;  F.  Men&ndez  Pacas,  "Sobre  la  unificaci6n  de 
estudios  en  Centre  America,"  10  El  Salvador,  La  Republica,  Suplemento  del  Diario  oficial 
(1942),  No.  2848,  pp.  2-3. 

Entered  into  force  December  9,  1943. 

Text  supplied  by  the  Pan  American  Union. 


Los  Gobiernos  dc  las  Reptiblicas 
de  Guatemala,  El  Salvador,  Hon- 
duras, Nicaragua,  Panama  y  Costa 
Rica,  considerando  que  los  seis  pafses 
constituyen  una  unidad  geografica 
en  el  coraz6n  del  Continente  de  la 
Democracia  y  aspiran  a  formar  una 
sola  nacionalidad ;  que  la  Escuela, 
como  una  de  las  bases  de  la  cultura, 
es  el  vehiculo  mas  eficaz  y  mas 
poderoso  para  la  preparation  del 
ambiente  necesario  a  la  realizaci6n 
de  ese  ideal  de  unidad,  para  lo  cual 
debe  adaptar  su  organizaci6n  y  sus 
actividades  a  la  realidad  viva  de 
nuestros  pueblos;  y  que  la  diversidad 
de  sistemas  y  de  planes  de  ensenanza 
de  los  seis  pafses  del  Istmo  dificulta 
el  intercambio  de  estudiantes,  tan 
beneficioso  para  fortalecer  los  vfn- 
culos  de  fraternidad  y  ampliar  su 
conocimiento  mutuo,  ban  convenido 
en  celebrar  una  Convenci6n  al  efecto, 
y  con  ese  prop6sito  ban  designado 
como  Delegados  Plenipotenciarios:  l 

El  de  Guatemala,  Alfonso  Her- 
nandez Polanco,  en  representaci6n 
del  Jos6  Antonio  Villacorta; 

El  de  El  Salvador,  Jos6  Andres 
Orantes; 

El  de  Honduras,  Angel  G.  Her- 
nandez; 

El  de  Nicaragua,  Ger6nimo  Ra- 
mfrez  Brown; 

El  de  Panama,  Victor  Florencio 
Goytfa; 


Y  el  de  Costa  Rica,  Luis  Demetrio 
Tinoco  Castro; 

Quienes,  reunidos  en  Conferencia 
de  Ministros  de  Educaci6n  de  Centro 
America,  y  despu6s  de  comunicarse 
sus  respectivos  plenos  poderes,  que 
fueron  hallados  en  buena  y  debida 
forma,  han  convenido  en  llevar  a 
efecto  el  prop6sito  indicado,  for- 
mulando  las  declaraciones  y  cele- 
brando  los  convenios  siguientes: 

I.  La  Educaci6n  en  Centro  Am6- 
rica  sera  democratica  en  su  esen- 
cia  y  en  su  orientaci6n  general,  en 
todos  sus  aspectos  y  etapas,  y,  por 
tanto,  adoptara  en  cuanto  ello  sea 
posible,  como  base  de  su  organiza- 
ci6n  y  funcionamiento,  los  principios 
y  las  prdcticas  de  la  Nueva  Educa- 
ci6n. 

Como  corolario  de  este  principio 
fundamental,  la  Escuela  Centro- 
americana  tendra  por  objetivo  ca- 
pacitar  a  los  ciudadanos  para  el 
ejercicio  de  los  derechos  y  el  cumpli- 
miento  de  los  deberes  cfvicos  dentro 
del  espfritu  de  fraternidad  que  debe 
ligar  a  estos  pueblos  hermanos, 
formando  su  caracter  y  preparan- 
dolos  para  la  vida,  tanto  ffsica  como 
espiritual,  artfstica  y  vocacional- 
mente. 

II.  Dentro  de  las  normas  demo- 
craticas  y  los  principios  pedag6gicos 
de  la  Nueva  Educaci6n,  la  Escuela 
Centroamericana  adoptara  aquellas 


1  The  titles  of  plenipotentiaries  are  omitted. — ED. 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  619 


modalidades  y  caracteristicas  que 
requieran  las  necesidades  peculiares 
de  cada  pafs,  regidn  o  comunidad, 
teniendo  presente  que  la  educaci6n 
del  pueblo  es  un  derecho  del  cual 
deben  disfrutar  todos  los  ciudadanos 
y  que  los  Estados  Centroamericanos 
deben  procurar  ofrecer  a  todos  sus 
habitantes  lo  que  el  mejor  padre  de 
familia  desea  para  su  hijo  en  materia 
de  educaci6n. 

III.  En  relaci6n  con  los  factores 
principales   del    proceso   educativo, 
la  Escuela  Centroamericana  tendrA 
siempre  presente: 

A)  Que  la  educaci6n  es  un  proceso 
activo  de  crecimiento  y  de  expresi6n 
y  no  pasivo  de  simple  asimilaci6n. 

B)  Que  el  educando  es  el  centro 
del  proceso  educativo  y,  por  tanto, 
la  educaci6n  debe  inspirarse  en  sus 
capacidades,  tendencias  e  intereses 
con  el  fin  de  obtener  su  eficiencia 
social;  y  considerar  en  todo  caso  que 
la  escuela  debe  ser  para  el  educando 
y  no  el  educando  para  la  escuela. 

C)  Que  la  Escuela  Democr&tica 
Centroamericana  debe  ser  el  centro 
social  de  la  colectividad  y  su  influen- 
cia  no  debe  confinarse  dentro  de  las 
paredes  escolares,  sino  trascender  a 
la  comunidad  en  general ;  y  que,  para 
ser  eficaz,  ha  de  fundamentarse  en 
los  principios  de  correlaci6n  y  con- 
tinuidad,   y,   ademAs,   ha  de   tener 
programas  flexibles  que  dosifiquen 
los  conocimientos. 

D)  Que  el  maestro  es  un  agente 
civilizador,    no   tan   solo   un    mero 
ensefiador,  pues  su  misi6n  es  la  de 
dirigir  el  aprendizaje  y  las  experien- 
cias  de  los  educandos,  de  acuerdo 
con  las  capacidades  de  6stos  y  las 
cambiantes    posibilidades    de    cada 
regi6n    o   comunidad,    inspirindose 
en  la  disciplina  de  la  libertad  y  en  los 
m£todos  activos. 

IV.  La   Educaci6n   Primaria  se 
a  jus  tar  A  a  las  siguientes  bases  fun- 
damentales  en  los  seis  pafses  Centro- 
americanos: 

i.  El   mfnimo  de  edad   para  el 
ingreso  a  la  escuela  seri  de  siete  anos. 


2.  El  periodo  escolar  de  educaci6n 
primaria  serd  de  seis  anos. 

3.  Las  actividades  fundamentals 
de    la   escuela    primaria    ser&n    las 
siguientes: 

Educaci6n  Moral  y  Cfvica. 
Educaci6n  Agrfcola  e  Industrial. 
Educaci6n  Ffsica  y  Artfstica. 
Idioma  Nacional. 
Matem&ticas. 
Geograffa  e  Historia. 
Estudio  de  la  Naturaleza. 

4.  La  distribuci6n  de  materias  por 
grados  y  horas  serd  determinada  por 
cada  pals  en  vista  de  las  diferentes 
costumbres  y  climas,  asf  como  de 
las  necesidades  particulares  de  cada 
uno. 

5.  Las   actividades  no  compren- 
didas  en   la  enumeraci6n   anterior, 
quedan  al  arbitrio  de  cada  pals  lo 
mismo    que    su    distribuci6n     por 
grados  y  horas. 

6.  Los  sistemas  de  calificaci6n  y 
promoci6n  serin  determinados  por 
cada  pafs. 

7.  El  minimum  de  conocimientos 
y  requisites  necesarios  para  la  obten- 
ci6n  del  certificado  de  conclus56n  de 
estudios  primarios  serd  el  siguiente: 

a)  Saber  leer  corrientemente  y 
darse  cuenta  de  lo  lefdo;  saber  ex- 
presar  con  relativa  correcci6n  lo  que 
se  conoce  de  cualquier  asunto,  y 
saber  redactar  y  escribir  cartas  y 
documentos  sencillos. 

V)  Dominar  las  cuatro  operaciones 
fundamentales  con  mimeros  enteros 
y  con  fracciones  decimales,  hasta 
donde  sea  necesario  para  resolver  los 
problemas  que  ofrecen  las  activi- 
dades de  la  vida  diaria.  Saber 
aplicar  los  conocimientos  adquiridos 
a  problemas  sencillos  de  interns,  de 
descuento  y  repartimientos  propor- 
cionales.  Conocer  y  saber  aplicar 
las  f6rmulas  que  determinan  las 
superficies  de  tri&ngulos  y  cuadrild- 
teros,  del  circulo  y  de  los  polfgonos 
regulares,  asi  como  los  volfimenes 
del  cubo,  del  prisma  y  del  cilindro. 

c)  Poseer  nociones  elementales  su- 
ficientes  de  los  seis  pafses  centro- 


Sept.  5,  1942 


EDUCATION  IN  CENTRAL  AMERICA 


americanos:  territorio,  actividades 
agrfcolas  e  industrials,  comunica- 
ciones,  colocaci6n  de  las  seis  re- 
ptiblicas  en  el  Continente  Americano 
y  de  6ste  en  el  mundo,  y  relaciones 
de  estos  pafses  con  los  restantes. 

d)  Conocer  la   actuaci6n   de   los 
grandes   hombres  de   las   seis   Re- 
pfiblicas  y  los  hechos  culminantes  de 
su  historia,  asf  como  el  significado  de 
los  sfmbolos   nacionales,   y  de   las 
fiestas  patrias  de  todas  ellas. 

e)  Tener  nociones  del  cuerpo  hu- 
mano,   conocer  los  animales  y  las 
plantas  mas  comunes  en  los  pafses 
del  Istmo,  asf  como  las  industrias  que 
de  ellos  se  derivan. 

/)  Conocer  los  deberes  y  derechos 
del  ciudadano  y  las  funciones  de  los 
principales  organismos  y  autoridades 
del  pafs. 

g)  Poseer  habitos  morales  y  cono- 
cer y  practicar  las  reglas  de  higiene  y 
urbanidad  indispensables. 

V.  La  Educaci6n  Secundaria  se 
considcra  como  continuadora  y  am- 
pliatoria  de  la  Primaria,  y  en  tal 
concepto  tiene  como  fines  completar 
la  formaci6n  individual  y  social  del 
educando,  y  perfeccionar  su  aptitud 
mental  para  el  conocimiento  de  las 
ciencias,  las  letras  y  las  artes,  pro- 
porcionandole  las  nociones  funda- 
mentales  de  la  cultura  humana. 

Por  consiguiente,  con  el  objeto  de 
establecer  la  mayor  uniformidad  en 
los  estudios  de  esta  naturaleza,  re- 
servando  a  la  vez  a  cada  pals  la 
posibilidad  de  adaptarlos  a  sus 
necesidades  y  modalidades,  la  Edu- 
caci6n  Secundaria  se  ajustard  en 
cada  uno  de  ellos  a  las  siguientes 
bases  fundamen tales: 

1.  El  plan  de  estudios  compren- 
dera  un  mfnimum  de  150  cr&iitos, 
entendtendose  por  cr6dito  el  estudio 
realizado    durante    una    hora    por 
semana  en  un  ano  lectivo. 

2.  En  ese  mimero  total  de  cr6ditos, 
las    siguientes    materias    figuraran 
con  el  mimero  mfnimo  que  se  indica 
a   continuaci6n,    distribufdo   en   la 
forma  que  cada  pafs  establezca: 


Castellano  (Gram&tica,  Com- 
posici6n,  Literatura,Precep- 
tiva,  Historia  de  la  Litera- 
tura)  20  cr&litos 

Matematicas  (AritmStica,  Al- 
gebra, Geometrla,  Trigo- 
nometrfa) 20  " 

Ingles 15       " 

Frances 10       " 

Ciencias  (Ffsica,  Qufmica, 
Anatomfa,  Fisiologfa,  Bota- 
nica  y  Zoologfa) 25  " 

Geograffa  (del  pafs,  Centro^ 
americana,  Americana,  Uni- 
versal)    10  " 

Historia  (idem) 10       " 

Psicologfa  y  Logica 4       " 

Total 114  erudites 

3.  Los  sistemas  de  promoci6n  y 
exdmenes  de  curso  asf  como  la  con- 
veniencia  de  establecer  p  no  los  de 
grado  quedan  al  arbitrio  de  cada 
pafs.    Sin  embargo  se  recomienda 
que  la  promoci6n  sea  por  asignaturas 
y  que  los  examenes  o  pruebas  se 
realicen  en  forma  que  aseguren  una 
cuidadosa  selecci6n  de  los  alumnos 
que  han  de  pasar  a  los  centros  uni- 
versitarios. 

4.  Al  terminar  su  educaci6n  secun- 
daria,  los  alumnos  recibiran  en  las 
condiciones  y  dentro  de  las  normas 
que  cada  pafs  establezca,  un  certifi- 
cado,  diploma  o  tftulo  que  asf  lo 
acredite,   el   cual   sera   considerado 
por  las  demas  naciones  concurrentes 
con  valor  igual  a  los  certificados  o 
diplomas  de  esa  naturaleza  que  ex- 
tiendan    sus    institucipnes    oficiales 
de  educaci6n  secundaria. 

5.  Todos  los  pafses  representados 
en  esta  Conferencia  reconoceran  la 
validez  de  los  estudios  parciales  o 
completos  realizados  en  las  institu- 
ciones  de  educaci6n  secundaria  re- 
conocidas    oficialmente    por    cual- 
quiera  de  ellos,  previa  autenticaci6n 
de   los   documentos   que   acreditan 
dichos  estudios  y  comprobaci6n  de 
la  identidad  del  interesado. 

Las  certificaciones  que  se  expidan 
con  el  objeto  de  facilitar  dicho 
reconocimiento  comprenderan  los 
siguientes  extremos: 

a)  Materias  fundamentals  y  mi- 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  619 


meros  de  crfeditos  obtenidos  en  su 
estudio  que,  con  arreglo  a  la  legisla- 
ci6n  del  pais  de  origen,  se  consideren 
aprobadas  por  el  alumno. 

b)  Materias  no  comprendidas  en 
este  convenio  y  ntimero  de  cr£ditos 
obtenidos  en  su  estudio,  de  acuerdo 
con  la  Iegislaci6n  del  pais  de  origen. 

Es  entendido  que  para  la  equiva- 
lencia  a  que  se  refiere  este  artfculo  en 
cuanto  a  estudios  completes,  se 
tomaran  en  cuenta  las  materias  es- 
tudiadas  por  el  alumno  en  los  estab- 
lecimientos  de  segunda  ensenanza, 
cualquiera  que  ellas  sean,  para  com- 
pletar  el  mfnimo  de  150  cr6ditos  a 
que  se  ha  hecho  referencia  siempre 
que  las  materias  fundamentals  indi- 
cadas  comprendan  el  mfnimo  estable- 
cido  por  cada  una  de  ellas. 

VI.  Para  la  distribuci6n  de  las 
materias  o  actividades  por  grados  y 
su  respectiva   programaci6n,   tan  to 
en    lo    referente    a    la    Ensenanza 
Primaria  como  a  la  Secundaria,  cada 
pafs  designard  dos  o  tres  tecnicos  en 
Primaria  y  dos  tecnicos  en  Secun- 
daria, quienes  se  reuniran  con  ese 
exclusivo  objeto  en  el  lugar  que  se 
elija  oportunamente. 

De  la  misma  manera  y  a  fin  de 
mantener  la  escuela  al  unisono  con 
el  progreso  cientifico,  comisiones  in- 
tegradas  en  igual  forma,  se  reuniran 
peri6dicamente  para  revisar  y  mejorar 
cliches  programas  y  planes  de  estudio. 

VII.  La  educaci6n  en  las  Escue- 
las  Normales  o  de  Pedagogia  debe 
comprender,  ademas  de  las  materias 
fundamentals  que  se  exigen  en  los 
establecimientos  de  educaci6n  secun- 
daria,  con  excepci6n  del  Frances,  un 
minimum  de  30  cr£ditos  en  estudios 
especializados  de  las  Ciencias  Peda- 
g6gicas. 

VIII.  En  cuanto  a  la  educaci6n 
universitaria  o  profesional,  se  adop- 
tan  las  siguientes  normas: 

i.  Se  acogen  con  recomendaci6n 
de  que  sean  puestos  en  vigencia  por 
los  paises  que  no  tengan  dificultades 
fundamentals  en  hacerlo,  los  planes 
de  estudios  formulados  por  la  Con- 


ferencia  Preliminar  de  Managua  que 
figuran  como  anexos  A,  B,  C,  D  y  E 
de  esta  convenci6n. 

2.  En  cuanto  a  los  pafses  que  no 
pudieren  adoptar  dichos  planes,  se 
conviene    en    que    las    respectivas 
Secretarias   de   Educaci6n   comuni- 
quen  a  los  organismos  similares  de 
los  otros  paises  las  dificultades  que  se 
presenten  y  las  modificaciones  que 
consideren  necesario  introducir  a  los 
planes  recomendados  para  su  adop- 
ci6n. 

3.  De  la  misma  manera,  y  en  aten- 
ci6n  a  la  marcha  progresiva  de  las 
ciencias,  se  conviene  en  adoptar  el 
procedimiento  de  consulta  entre  las 
Secretarias    de    Educaci6n    de    los 
paises  representados,  para  modificar 
los  planes  de  estudio  referidos. 

4.  Una  vez  realizada  la  unificaci6n 
de  los  planes  de  estudio  profesion- 
ales,  se  convocard  a  un  Congreso  de 
T6cnicos  en  Ensenanza  Universitaria 
para  que  formule  los  programas  de 
la  ensenanza  profesional. 

5.  Igualmente  se  conviene  en  cele- 
brar  congresos  de  tecnicos  en  en- 
senanza Universitaria  que  estudien 
y  revisen  peri6dicamente  los  planes 
y  programas  de  las  diferentes  ramas 
de  la  educaci6n  universitaria. 

IX.  Para  facilitar  la  permanen- 
cia  y  el  perfeccionamiento  de  la  pbra 
de  unificaci6n  a  que  este  Convenio  se 
refiere,  se  establecera  en  San  Jos6 
de  Costa  Rica  una  Oficina  Centro- 
americana  de  Educaci6n,  que  tendra 
por  misi6n  recoger,  conservar  y  dis- 
tribuir  toda  clase  de  informaciones 
sobre  planes  de  estudio,  programas  y 
textos  de  educaci6n  de  los  paises 
representados,  para  darlos  a  conocer 
a  las  Secretarias  de  Educaci6n  de  los 
mismos. 

X.  El  canje  de  las  ratificaciones 
de  la  presente  Convenci6n  se  har4 
por  medio  de  comunicaciones  que 
dirigirdn  los  Gobiernos  representados 
al  Gobierno  de  Costa  Rica,  para  que 
gste  lo  haga  saber  a  los  demas  Esta- 
dps  participantes.    Asimismo,  el  Go- 
bierno de  Costa  Rica  comunicara  a 


Sept.  5,  1942  PRACTICE  OF  LIBERAL  PROFESSIONS  33 

cada  uno  de  ellos  su  ratificaci6n,  tan  rios,    quedard    depositado    en    los 

pronto  la  otorgue.  archives  de  la  Secretarfa  de  Rela- 

XI.  La  presente  Convenci6n  en-  ciones  Exteriores  de  Costa  Rica;  y 
trard  en  vigencia  para  los  Estados  dos  ejemplares  de  la  misma,  firmados 
que  la  ratifiquen,  tan  pronto  como  lo  de  igual  manera  por  todos  los  Pleni- 
hagan  por  lo  menos  dos  de  los  pafses  potenciarios,  seran  remitidos  a  cada 
que  la  suscriben;  y  los  obligard  mien-  uno  de  los  Gobiernos  participantes. 
tras  no  la  denuncien  formalmente.  EN  FE  DE  LO  CUAL  firmamos  en  la 

XII.  Un  ejemplar  original  de  la     ciudad  de  San  Jos6  de  Costa  Rica  el 
presente    Convenci6n    firmado    por     dfa    cinco    de    septiembre    de    mil 
todos  los  Delegados  Plenipotencia-     novecientos  cuarenta  y  dos. 

[Firmada:]  Luis  D.  TINOCO  H.,  ANGEL  G.  HERNANDEZ,  ORANTES,  AL- 
FONSO HERNANDEZ  POLANCO,  G.  RAM{REZ  BROWN,  VfcxoR  F.  GovrfA. 

[Annexes  omitted.] 


No.  620 

CONVENTION  on  the  Practice  of  Liberal  Professions.    Signed  at 
San  Jose,  September  5,  1942. 

CONVENCION  sobre  el  ejercicio  de  profesiones  liberates.    Firmada 
en  San  Jos£,  5  de  septiembre  de  1942. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Convention  was  concluded  at  the  First  Conference  of  the  Ministers 
of  Public  Education  of  the  States  of  Central  America  and  Panama  held  at  San  Jos£,  Costa 
Rica,  August  3i-September  5,  1942.  A  Central  American  convention  on  this  subject  had 
been  signed  at  Washington,  February  7,  1923  (No.  87,  ante).  South  American  conventions 
on  the  exercise  of  liberal  professions  were  signed  at  Montevideo  on  February  4,  1889,  and 
on  August  4,  1939.  18  Martens,  N.R.G.  (2d  ser.),  p.  441 ;  No.  571,  ante.  An  inter-American 
convention  on  the  subject,  adopted  at  Mexico  City,  January  27,  1902,  was  ratified  by  all 
Central  American  states  with  the  exception  of  Panama.  Scott,  The  International  Confer- 
ences of  American  States,  2889-1928  (New  York,  1931),  p.  71;  6  Martens,  N.R.G.  (3d  ser.), 
p.  191.  An  agreement  on  academic  titles  was  signed  at  Caracas,  July  17,  191 1.  I  Coleccion 
de  tratados  vigentes  de  la  Republica  de  Bolivia  (La  Paz,  1941),  p.  389. 

RATIFICATIONS.  On  January  I,  1949,  this  Convention  had  been  ratified  by  Costa  Rica, 
Honduras,  and  £1  Salvador. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Convention  is  also  published  in  Costa  Rica,  Coleccidn 
de  leyes,  1942,  II,  p.  331;  Honduras,  Decretos  del  Congreso  National,  1942-1943,  pp.  29-30; 
135  El  Salvador,  Diario  oficial  (1943),  No.  245,  pp.  3178-79.  Cf.  El  Salvador,  Memoria  de 
relaciones  exterior es  y  justicia,  1942,  pp.  47-50. 

See  also  the  bibliography  under  No.  619,  ante. 

Entered  into  force  December  9,  1942. 

Text  supplied  by  the  Pan  American  Union. 

Los  Gobiernos  de  las  Repiiblicas  Rica,  considerando  que  los  seis 
de  Guatemala,  El  Salvador,  Hon-  pafses  constituyen  una  unidad  geo- 
duras,  Nicaragua,  Panami  y  Costa  grdfica  en  el  coraz6n  del  Continente 


34 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  620 


de  la  Democracia  y  aspiran  a  formar 
una  sola  nacionalidad ;  que  la  Es- 
cuela,  como  una  de  las  bases  de  la 
cultura,  es  el  vehfculo  m&s  eficaz  y 
mis  poderoso  para  la  preparation  del 
ambiente  necesario  a  la  realizaci6n  de 
ese  ideal  de  unidad,  para  lo  cual  debe 
adaptar  su  organization  y  sus  ac- 
tividades  a  la  realidad  viva  de  nues- 
tros  pueblos;  y  que  la  diversidad  de 
sistemas  y  de  planes  de  ensenanza 
de  los  seis  pafses  del  Istmo  dificulta 
el  intercambio  de  estudiantes,  tan 
beneficioso  para  fortalecer  los  vfn- 
culos  de  fraternidad  y  ampliar  el 
conocimiento  mutuo  de  nuestros 
pueblos,  ban  convenido  en  celebrar 
una  Convenci6n  al  efecto,  y  con  ese 
prop6sito  han  designado  como  Dele- 
gados  Plenipotenciarios: 1 

El  de  Guatemala,  Alfonso  Her- 
nindez  Polanco,  en  representaci6n 
del  Jose  Antonio  Villacorta; 

El  de  El  Salvador,  Jos6  Andres 
Orantes; 

El  de  Honduras,  Angel  G.  Her- 
nindez; 

El  de  Nicaragua,  Ger6nimo  Ra- 
mirez Brown; 

El  de  Panamd,  Vfctor  Florencio 
Goytia; 

Y  el  de  Costa  Rica,  Luis  Demetrio 
Tinoco  Castro; 

Quienes  reunidos  en  Conferencia 
de  Ministros  de  Educaci6n  de  Centro 
America,  y  despu6s  de  comunicarse 
sus  respectivos  plenos  poderes,  que 
fueron  hallados  en  buena  y  debida 
forma,  han  convenido  en  llevar  a 
efecto  el  proposito  indicado,  formu- 
lando  las  declaraciones  y  celebrando 
los  convenios  siguientes: 

Artfculo  i.  Los  nacionales  de  las 
RepiSblicas  representadas  que  hayan 
adquirido  en  cualquiera  de  ellas 
tftulo  o  diploma  que  los  habilite 
legalmente  para  el  ejercicio  de  pro- 
fesiones  liberates  inclusive  el  Magis- 
terio,  Comercio  y  Hacienda  serin  ad- 
mitidos  al  ejercicio  de  su  profesi6n 
en  el  territorio  de  los  otros  pafses 
siempre  que  se  sometan  a  los  mismos 


requisites  y  que  cumplan  las  mismas 
formalidades  que  exigen  a  sus  na- 
cionales las  leyes  del  pafs  en  donde 
pretendan  ejercer  su  profesi6n. 

Al  ejercitar  este  derecho,  el  in- 
teresado  presentard  su  diploma  de- 
bidamente  autenticado,  los  docu- 
mentos  de  identificaci6n  necesarios, 
y  una  certificaci6n  de  haber  cursado, 
con  aprobaci6n,  los  estudios  uni- 
versitarios  correspondientes. 

Art.  2.  Los  nacionales  de  cual- 
quiera de  los  pafses  representados, 
que  fueren  autorizados  para  ejercer 
su  profesi6n  en  alguno  de  los  otros 
paises,  quedar&n  sujetos  a  todas  las 
leyes,  reglamentos,  impuestos  y  de- 
beres  que  se  exigen  a  los  nacionales 
de  ese  pafs. 

Art.  3.  Las  disposiciones  ante- 
riores  se  aplican  tambi£n  a  los  tftulos 
adquiridos  por  los  nacionales  de  estos 
pafses  en  Universidades  existentes 
fuera  de  las  Republicas  representa- 
das, siempre  que  previamente  hu- 
bieren  sido  incorporados,  mediante 
examen,  en  la  respectiva  facultad  o 
colegio  de  su  propio  pafs. 

Art.  4.  El  canje  de  las  ratifica- 
ciones  de  la  presente  Convenci6n  se 
hard  por  medio  de  comunicaciones 
que  dirigirin  los  Gobiernos  repre- 
sentados al  Gobierno  de  Costa  Rica, 
para  que  este  lo  haga  saber  a  los 
demis  Estados  participantes.  Asi- 
mismo,  el  Gobierno  de  Costa  Rica 
comunicard  a  cada  uno  de  ellos  su 
ratificaci6n,  tan  pronto  la  otorgue. 

Art.  5.  La  presente  Convenci6n 
entrari  en  vigencia  para  los  Estados 
que  la  ratifiquen,  tan  pronto  como 
lo  hagan  por  lo  menos  dos  de  los 
pafses  que  la  suscriben;  y  los  obligarA 
mientras  no  la  denuncien  formal- 
men  te. 

Art.  6.  Un  ejemplar  original  de  la 
presente  Convenci6n  firmado  por 
tpdos  los  Delegados  Plenipotencia- 
rios, quedarA  depositado  en  los 
archivos  de  la  Secretarfa  de  Rela- 
ciones  Exteriores  de  Costa  Rica; 
y  dos  ejemplares  de  la  misma,  fir- 


1  The  titles  of  plenipotentiaries  are  omitted. — ED. 


Sept.  9,  1942  PRODUCTION  AND  EXPORT  OF  TIN  35 

mados  de  igual  man  era,  por  todos  los  EN  FE  DE  LO  CUAL  firmamos  en  la 

Plenipotentiaries,    serin    remitidos  ciudad  de  San  Jos6  de  Costa  Rica  el 

a  cada  uno  de  los  Gobiernos  partici-  dfa  cinco  de  setiembre  de  mil  noveci- 

pantes.  entos  cuarenta  y  dos. 

[Firmada:]  Luis  D.  TINOCO  H.,  ANGEL  G.  HERNANDEZ,  ORANTES,  AL- 
FONSO HERNANDEZ  POLANCO,  G.  RAM{REZ  BROWN,  VfcroR  F.  GovrfA. 


No.  621 

AGREEMENT  for  the  International  Control  of  the  Production  and 
Export  of  Tin.    Signed  at  London,  September  9,  1942. 

ARRANGEMENT  pour  le  contrple  international  de  la  production  et 
de  Pexportation  de  1'gtain.    Signe  &  Londres,  9  septembre  1942. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Agreement,  prepared  by  the  International  Tin  Committee,  re- 
placed the  agreement  signed  at  London,  January  5,  1937  (No.  475,  ante),  which  had  expired 
on  December  31 , 1941 .  Prior  agreements  on  the  subject  were  signed  at  London  on  February 
27,  1931  (International  Labor  Office,  Intergovernmental  Commodity  Control  Agreements,  p. 
73),  and  on  October  27,  1933  (No.  349,  ante).  Agreements  with  respect  to  tin  buffer  stock 
schemes  were  signed  at  The  Hague,  July  10,  1934  (No.  349b,  ante),  and  at  London,  June  20, 
1938  (No.  475b,  ante).  An  agreement  on  a  tin  research  scheme,  signed  at  London,  January 
25f  *938  (No.  475c,  ante)  was  continued  in  force  until  January  i,  1946.  An  international 
conference  on  tin,  held  at  London,  October  8-12,  1946,  led  to  the  creation  of  an  International 
Tin  Study  Group,  which  held  its  first  meeting  at  Brussels,  April  15-18,  1947.  An  arrange- 
ment concerning  Siamese  tin  was  signed  at  Washington,  December  10,  1946.  15  U.S.  De- 
partment of  State  Bulletin  (1946),  p.  1186. 

RATIFICATIONS.     This  Agreement  was  not  subject  to  ratification. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  and  a  French  translation  of  this  Agreement  are  published  in 
205  League  of  Nations  Treaty  Series,  p.  137,  and  in  112  Momteur  beige  (1942),  p.  480.  See 
also  International  Labor  Office,  Intergovernmental  Commodity  Control  Agreements,  p.  95. 
Cf.  144  Peru,  Boletin  del  Ministeno  de  Relaciones  Exteriores  (1941),  pp.  341-42. 

J.  VV.  Barnet,  "Tin  in  the  Far  East,"  13  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1947),  pp. 

401-4; ,  "Tin  in  the  Transitional  Period,"  15  idem  (1946),  pp.  195-96,  238;  E.  Hexner, 

International  Cartels  (Chapel  Hill,  1945),  pp.  238-48;  K.  E.  Knorr,  Tin  Under  Control 
(Stanford,  1945),  314  pp.;  C.  K.  Leith,  J.  W.  Furness,  and  C.  Lewis,  World  Minerals  and 
World  Peace  (Washington,  1943),  pp.  122-26;  E.  S.  Mason,  Controlling  World  Trade  (New 
York,  1946),  pp.  191-92;  Tin  Producers'  Association,  International  Tin  Control  and  "Buffer 
Stocks  (London,  1942;  2d  ed.,  London,  1944);  U.S.  Department  of  State,  International 
Agencies  in  Which  the  United  States  Participates  (Washington,  1946;  Publ.  2699),  pp.  90-94; 
P.  L.  Yates,  Commodity  Control  (London,  1943),  pp.  130-56. 

Entered  into  force  September  9,  1042. T 
Text  from  British  Treaty  Series,  No.  9  (1942),  Cmd.  6396. 

The  Governments  of  the  Kingdom  the  United  Kingdom  of  Great  Brit- 
of  Belgium,  the  Republic  of  Bolivia,  ain  and  Northern  Ireland  (herein- 

1  Retroactive  to  January  I,  1942  (Article  3).  Registered  with  the  Secretariat  of  the 
League  of  Nations,  No.  4831,  October  2,  1944. 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  621 


after  referred  to  as  the  United  King- 
dom), and  the  Kingdom  of  the 
Netherlands: 

Considering  that  it  is  necessary 
and  advisable  that  steps  should  be 
taken  to  regulate  the  production  and 
export  of  tin  in  and  from  producing 
countries  with  the  object  of  keeping 
world  stocks  at  a  normal  figure,  ad- 
justing in  an  orderly  manner  supply 
to  demand,  while  at  the  same  time 
making  available  all  the  tin  that  may 
be  required  and  preventing  rapid  and 
severe  oscillations  of  price,  and  being 
desirous  of  concluding  an  agreement 
for  this  purpose : 

Have  accordingly  agreed  to  the 
following  Scheme : 

ARTICLE  i. — Participants 

The  obligations  under  this  agree- 
ment of  the  Government  of  the 
Kingdom  of  Belgium  apply  to  the 
Belgian-Congo,  those  of  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  Republic  of  Bolivia  to 
Bolivia,  those  of  the  Government  of 
the  United  Kingdom  to  the  Feder- 
ated Malay  States,  the  Unfederated 
Malay  States  and  the  Colony  of 
Malacca  in  the  Straits  Settlements 
(constituting,  for  the  purposes  of  the 
present  agreement,  a  single  group  of 
territories  and  hereinafter  referred 
to  as  Malaya)  and  to  Nigeria,  and 
those  of  the  Government  of  the 
Kingdom  of  the  Netherlands  to  the 
Netherlands  Indies. 

ARTICLE  2. — Definitions 
For  the  purposes  of  the  Scheme: 

(a)  "Standard  tonnages"  means 
the  annual  rate  of  permissible  export 
of  metallic  tin  when  the  quota  is  100 
per  cent. 

(b)  "Quota"  means  the  percent- 
age of  the  standard  tonnages  which 
may    be    exported    in    any    quota 
period. 

(c)  ' '  Q  uota  period ' '  means  a  quar- 
ter   (i.e.,    three    calendar    months) 
commencing   on    the   first   day    of 
January,  April,  July  and  October. 

(d)  "International  Tin  Commit- 


tee" means  the  Committee  referred 
to  in  Article  10. 

(e)  "Control  year"  means  any 
calendar  year  during  the  continuance 
of  this  agreement. 

(/)  "Tin"  means  metallic  tin  in 
ingot  form. 

(g)  "True  tin  assay"  means  the 
percentage  of  pure  tin  metal  con- 
tained in  concentrates  before  any 
deductions  are  made  by  the  smelter. 
The  value  of  the  assay  shall  be 
adopted  to  the  nearest  one-tenth  of 
a  unit.  If  the  figure  in  the  second 
decimal  place  is  a  5  the  adoption 
shall  be  made  by  taking  the  first 
decimal  figure.  The  tonnage  of 
metallic  tin  exported  as  concentrates 
shall  be  calculated  by  converting  the 
concentrates  into  metallic  tin  on  the 
basis  of  the  true  tin  assay. 

(h)  "Territory"  means  a  territory 
(or  group  of  territories)  to  which  the 
obligations  of  the  present  agreement 
apply  in  accordance  with  Article  i. 

ARTICLE  3. — Enforcement  of  Scheme 

(a)  The  contracting  Governments 
undertake  to  take  such  measures  as 
may  be  necessary  to  maintain  and 
enforce  the  Scheme  in  the  territories 
to  which  their  respective  obligations 
apply  as  defined  in  Article  i,  so  that 
the  production  and  export  of  each 
territory  shall  correspond  as  closely 
as  possible  throughout  the  year  to 
the  quota,  allowance  being  made  in 
the  case  of  production  for  the  per- 
mitted stocks,  as  defined  in  Article  6. 

(b)  The  said  Scheme  shall  be  re- 
garded as  having  come  into  operation 
from  the  1st  January,  1942,  and  shall 
remain  in  force  until  the  3ist  Decem- 
ber, 1946,  as  a  minimum  period. 

(c)  Not  less  than  twelve  calendar 
months  prior  to  the  3ist  December, 
1946,  the  Committee  shall  make  a 
recommendation  to  the  contracting 
Governments  as  to  the  continuation 
or  otherwise  of  the  Scheme.    The 
recommendation,  if  in  favour  of  con- 
tinuation, may  suggest  amendments 
to  the  Scheme  and  include  proposals 


Sept.  9,  1942 


PRODUCTION  AND  EXPORT  OF  TIN 


37 


relating  to  the  other  provisions  of 
this  agreement. 

(d)  Each  contracting  Government 
shall  signify  to  the  Committee  its 
acceptance  or  rejection  of  the  recom- 
mendation referred   to  in   the  im- 
mediately preceding  paragraph  with- 
in three  calendar  months  after  the 
date  of  the  receipt  of  such  recom- 
mendation. 

(e)  If  the  said  recommendation  is 
accepted  by  all  the  contracting  Gov- 
ernments, the  contracting  Govern- 
ments undertake  to  take  such  meas- 
ures as  may  be  necessary  to  carry 
out  the  said  recommendation.     The 
Committee  shall  inform  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  United  Kingdom,  which 
shall  draw  up  a  declaration  certifying 
the  terms  of  the  said  recommenda- 
tion and  its  acceptance  by  all  the 
contracting  Governments,  and   the 
present  agreement  shall  be  deemed 
to  be  amended  in  accordance  with 
this  declaration  as  from   the  date 
specified    in    that    declaration.     A 
certified  copy  of  the  declaration,  to- 
gether with  a  certified  copy  of  the 
agreement    as    amended,    shall    be 
communicated  to  all  the  other  con- 
tracting Governments. 

(/)  If  the  said  recommendation  is 
not  accepted  by  all  the  contracting 
Governments,  the  Committee  shall 
decide  as  soon  as  possible  whether 
they  desire  to  submit  to  the  con- 
tracting Governments  an  amended 
recommendation.  If  the  Commit- 
tee submits  an  amended  recom- 
mendation each  contracting  Govern- 
ment shall  signify  to  the  Committee 
its  acceptance  or  rejection  of  the 
amended  recommendation  within 
one  calendar  month  after  the  date  of 
its  receipt.  If  the  amended  recom- 
mendation is  accepted  by  all  the 
contracting  Governments  the  provi- 
sions of  paragraph  (e)  above  shall 
apply. 

(g)  If  the  said  recommendation  is 
not  accepted  and  the  Committee  de- 
cides not  to  submit  an  amended 
recommendation,  or  if  the  amended 


recommendation  is  not  accepted  by 
all  the  contracting  Governments,  the 
Committee  shall  so  inform  the  Gov- 
ernment of  the  United  Kingdom, 
which  may  of  its  own  accord  and 
shall  if  requested  by  any  other  con- 
tracting Government  convoke  a  con- 
ference of  the  contracting  Govern- 
ments to  consider  the  situation. 

(h)  Unless  a  recommendation  to 
continue  the  Scheme  is  accepted 
under  paragraphs  (d),  (e)  and  (/) 
above,  or  unless  an  agreement  for 
continuation  is  concluded  between 
the  contracting  Governments  at  the 
conference  referred  to  in  paragraph 
(g)  above,  the  Scheme  and  all  the 
obligations  arising  out  of  this  agree- 
ment shall  terminate  on  the  3ist 
December,  1946.  If  at  the  confer- 
ence referred  to  in  paragraph  (g) 
above  an  agreement  for  continuation 
is  concluded  between  some  but  not 
all  of  the  contracting  Governments, 
the  Scheme  and  all  the  obligations 
arising  out  of  this  agreement  shall 
terminate  on  the  3ist  December, 
1946  in  respect  of  any  contracting 
Government  not  a  party  to  the 
agreement  for  continuation. 

(i)  Without  prejudice  to  the  pro- 
visions of  paragraph  (c)  of  this  Arti- 
cle, the  Committee  may  at  any  time 
make  a  recommendation  to  the 
contracting  Governments  for  the 
amendment  of  any  part  of  the 
Scheme  or  any  of  the  other  provi- 
sions of  the  present  agreement. 
The  recommendations  of  the  Com- 
mittee under  this  paragraph  may 
include  a  recommendation  that  the 
present  agreement  should  be  made 
open  to  the  accession  of  a  non- 
signatory  Government  and  proposals 
for  such  additions  and  amendments 
to  the  present  agreement  as  may  be 
necessary  to  determine  the  condi- 
tions of  the  participation  of  such 
Government.  The  provisions  of 
paragraphs  (d)  and  (e)  of  this  Article 
shall  apply  as  regards  any  recom- 
mendations made  under  the  provi- 
sions of  this  paragraph.  Recom- 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  621 


mendations  under  this  paragraph  if 
not  accepted  and  put  into  force  un- 
der paragraphs  (d)  and  (e)  shall  fall, 
but  without  prejudice  to  the  power 
of  the  Committee  to  present  all  or 
any  of  them  again  under  paragraph 
(c)  at  the  appropriate  time. 

ARTICLE  4. — Standard  Tonnages 

The  exports  of  tin  shall  be  regu- 
lated in  accordance  with  the  follow- 
ing provisions: 

(a)  The  following  annual  quanti- 
ties in  tons  of  2,240  English  pounds 
avoirdupois  shall  be  adopted  as 
standard  tonnages  for  each  terri- 
tory: 


Table  of  Standard  Tonnages 


Tons 


Belgian  Congo 20,178 

Bolivia .  46,768 

Malaya....    .         95474 

Netherlands  Indies 55fH3 

Nigeria 15.367 

232,900 

(b)  The    Committee    shall    from 
time  to  time  fix  the  quota  which 
may  be  exported  during  each  quota 
period.     If  no  positive  decision  to 
change  the  quota  is  taken  the  quota 
shall  remain  unchanged. 

(c)  In  each  control  year  the  quan- 
tity of  tin  which  is  represented  by 
the  total  of  the  quotas  of  each  terri- 
tory during  that  year  constitutes  for 
that   territory   the   permissible   ex- 
portable amount  for  such  territory. 

ARTICLE  5.— Exports 

The  nett  exports  of  tin  from  each 
territory  for  any  control  year  shall  be 
limited  to  the  permissible  exportable 
amount. 

Provided  that — 

(a)  If  the  permissible  exportable 
amount  is  exceeded  in  any  control 
year  the  nett  exports  for  the  im- 
mediately following  control  year 
shall  be  limited  to  the  permissible 
exportable  amount  for  such  year  less 
the  amount  of  such  excess  for  the 
previous  year. 


(b)  If  any  territory  has  exported 
in  any  control  year  less  than  its  per- 
missible exportable  amount,  the  net 
exports  from  such  territory  for  the 
immediately  following  year  may  be 
permitted  to  exceed  the  permissible 
exportable  amount  for  such  year  by 
an  amount  equal  to  the  deficiency 
below  the  permissible  exportable 
amount  for  the  previous  year  if  such 
deficiency  was  less  than  8>£  per 
cent,  of  such  permissible  exportable 
amount  or  equal  to  8>£  per  cent,  of 
such  permissible  exportable  amount 
if  the  deficiency  exceeded  8y£  per 
cent.,  provided  that  the  quantity  by 
which  the  exports  may  be  permitted 
to  exceed  the  permissible  exportable 
amount  for  such  year  shall  in  no  case 
exceed  8^3  per  cent,  of  the  standard 
tonnage  of  the  territory  concerned. 

ARTICLE  6. — Stocks 

The  stock  of  tin  and  tin  in  concen- 
trates within  any  territory  shall  not 
at  any  time  exceed  25  per  cent,  of  the 
standard  tonnage  of  that  territory. 

The  Committee  may,  however, 
permit  this  percentage  to  be  ex- 
ceeded in  particular  cases. 

ARTICLE  7. — Statistics 

(a)  Each    territory   shall    furnish 
the  Committee   with   the   monthly 
figures  of  production  and  export  and 
of  the  assay  value  used  in  their  de- 
termination within   15  days  of  the 
end  of  each  month. 

(b)  Each    territory   shall    furnish 
not  later  than  three  calendar  months 
after  the  end  of  each  half-year  the 
true  tin  assay  of  the  concentrates 
actually  exported  from  the  territory 
during  each  half-year  commencing 
the  1st  January  and  the  1st  July. 

(c)  Each    territory   shall    furnish 
such  additional  statistics  as  will  en- 
able   the    Committee    to    estimate 
world's  production  and  stocks. 

ARTICLE  8, — Adjustment  of  Statistics 

(a)  On  receipt  of  the  detailed 
figures  specified  in  Article  7  (b)  the 


Sept.  9,  1942 


PRODUCTION  AND  EXPORT  OF  TIN 


39 


excess  or  deficiency  due  to  change  in 
assay  value  shall  be  determined  for 
each  territory  and  the  figures  of  ex- 
port adjusted  accordingly. 

(b)  Within  three  months  of  the 
commencement  of  the  Scheme  the 
total  exports  of  each  territory  during 
the  period  of  the  Scheme  terminating 
on  the  3 1st  December,  1941  shall  be 
calculated  finally,  in  metallic  tin,  on 
the  true  assay  basis.  The  total  ex- 
ports so  determined  shall  be  com- 
pared with  the  permissible  exporta- 
ble amount,  and  any  excesses  or 
deficiencies,  subject  in  the  case  of  the 
latter  to  a  limit  of  8^  per  cent,  of 
the  permissible  exportable  amount  or 
8>^  per  cent,  of  the  standard  ton- 
nage, whichever  is  the  less,  shall  be 
brought  forward  for  adjustment  in 
the  first  year  of  this  Scheme. 

ARTICLE  9. — Irregularities 

The  contracting  Governments  and 
the  administrations  of  the  territories 
to  which  the  present  agreement  ap- 
plies shall  co-operate  with  each  other 
to  prevent  smuggling,  evasion  and 
other  abuses  of  the  Scheme. 

ARTICLE  10. — Administration 

(a)  A  Committee  to  be  designated 
the    International    Tin    Committee 
shall  be  constituted  as  soon  as  pos- 
sible. 

(b)  The  said  Committee  shall  be 
composed  of  delegations  representing 
the  territories  to  which  the  present 
agreement  applies.     Each  delegation 
shall  consist  of  not  more  than  three 
members,  and  its  composition  may 
be  changed  by  formal  intimation  to 
the  Chairman.     Members  may  be 
nominated  as  alternates  to  such  sub- 
stantive members  of  delegations. 

(c)  Each  territory  may  associate 
with  its  delegation  such  advisers,  not 
exceeding  two  in  number,  as  it  may 
consider  desirable  and  may  change 
such  advisers.    The  Chairman  may, 
at  the  request  of  any  delegation,  in- 
vite any  other  person  to  attend  a 
meeting  in  an  advisory  capacity. 


(d)  The  Government  of  the  United 
Kingdom  shall  be  informed  as  soon 
as  possible  by  the  other  contracting 
Governments   of   the   persons   first 
designated  as  members  of  delega- 
tions representing   their  respective 
territories. 

(e)  The  Government  of  the  United 
Kingdom    shall    convoke    the    first 
meeting  of  the  Committee  as  soon  as 
possible. 

ARTICLE  n. — Committee 

(a)  The    principal    office    of    the 
Committee  shall  be  in  London.     The 
Committee  shall  make  such  arrange- 
ments as  may  be  necessary  for  office 
accommodation   and    may   appoint 
and  pay  such  officers  and  staff  as 
may  be  required.     The  remunera- 
tion and  expenses  of  members  or 
delegations  shall  be  defrayed  by  the 
Government    by    whom    they    are 
designated. 

(b)  The  proceedings  of  the  Com- 
mittee shall  be  conducted  in  English. 

(c)  The   Committee  shall   at  its 
first  meeting  elect  its  Chairman  and 
Vice-Chairman.     The  Chairman  need 
not  necessarily  be  a  member  of  a 
delegation. 

(d)  The  Committee  may  pay  the 
Chairman  such  remuneration  as  they 
consider  appropriate. 

ARTICLE  12. — Procedure 

(a)  Meetings  shall  be  convened  by 
the  Chairman  or  in  his  absence  by 
the  Vice-Chairman.     Not  more  than 
three  calendar  months  shall  normally 
elapse  between  any  two  consecutive 
meetings.    An  extraordinary  meet- 
ing shall  be  convened  at  any  time  at 
the  request  of  any  delegation  within 
fourteen  days  of  the  receipt  of  the 
request  by  the  Chairman. 

(b)  If  no  delegation  opposes,  deci- 
sions of  the  Committee  may  be  taken 
without  a  meeting  by  correspondence 
between  the  Chairman  and  all  dele- 
gations.   Notice    of    any    decision 
taken  shall  be  given  to  all  delega- 
tions as  soon  as  possible;  such  deci- 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  621 


sion  shall  be  recorded  in  the  minutes 
of  the  next  meeting. 

(c)  The  Committee  shall  carry  out 
the  provisions  of  this  Scheme  and 
shall  in  addition  collect  and  publish 
such    statistical    information    and 
make  such  other  recommendations 
to  Governments  relevant  to  the  sub- 
ject matter  of  this  agreement  as  may 
seem     desirable.    The     Committee 
shall  do  all  such  other  lawful  things 
as  may  be  necessary,  incidental  or 
conducive  to  the  carrying  out  of  its 
functions  and  give  such  publicity  to 
its  actions  as  it  may  deem  necessary 
or  desirable. 

(d)  Any  delegation  may  at  any 
time,  if  it  considers  that  any  con- 
tracting Government  has  failed  to 
comply  with   its  obligations  under 
this  agreement,  request  the  Chair- 
man to  call  a  special  meeting  of  the 
Committee    to    decide    whether    a 
major  infringement  of  the  agreement 
has  taken   place  and,   if  so,   what 
recommendations  should  be  made  to 
the  contracting  Governments  in  view 
of  that  infringement.     On  receipt  of 
such  a  request  the  Chairman  shall 
immediately  convene  a  meeting  of 
the  Committee. 

(e)  The    Committee    shall    have 
power  to  decide  what  constitutes  a 
major  infringement  within  the  mean- 
ing of  this  agreement  and  may  in 
their  discretion  decide  that  a  number 
of  minor  infringements  shall  in  the 
aggregate   constitute   a    major    in- 
fringement.    In  particular,  a  major 
infringement  is  constituted  if,  sub- 
ject to  the  provisions  of  Article  5  (ft), 
the  exports  from  any  territory,  for 
any    period    of    three    consecutive 
months,  exceed  the  quota  for  that 
period  by  an  amount  equal  to  10  per 
cent,  of  that  quota. 

ARTICLE  13. — Consumers9 
Representation 

The  Committee  shall,  within  one 
month  of  its  first  meeting,  invite 

(i)  two  persons  to  represent  the 
tin  consuming  interest  of  the 


United  States  of  America,  of 
whom  one  shall  be  appointed 
by  the  Government  of  the 
United  States  of  America  and 
the  other  shall  be  appointed 
as  the  direct  representative  of 
the  tin  consumers  in  the 
United  States  of  America;  and 
(ii)  one  person  appointed  to  repre- 
sent the  tin  consumers  other 
than  the  tin  consumers  of  the 
United  States  of  America 

to  attend  its  meetings  and  to  tender 
advice  to  the  Committee  regarding 
world  stocks  and  consumption. 

ARTICLE  14. — Voting 

(d)  Each  delegation  shall  vote  as 
one  unit.  In  case  of  delegations 
composed  of  more  than  one  member 
the  name  of  the  member  entitled  to 
exercise  the  vote  shall  be  communi- 
cated in  case  of  the  first  meeting  to 
the  Government  of  the  United  King- 
dom and  thereafter  to  the  Chairman 
of  the  Committee.  The  voting 
member  may,  in  case  of  absence,  by 
communication  to  the  Chairman 
nominate  another  member  to  act  for 
him.  The  delegations  shall  be  en- 
titled to  cast  the  following  number 
of  votes,  namely : 

Belgian  Congo 2 

Bolivia 4 

Malaya 5 

Netherlands  Indies 4 

Nigeria 2 

(6)  The  presence  of  voting  mem- 
bers of  at  least  three  delegations 
shall  be  necessary  to  constitute  a 
quorum  at  any  meeting,  provided 
that  if  within  an  hour  of  the  time 
appointed  for  the  meeting  a  quorum 
as  above  defined  is  not  present,  the 
meeting  may  be  adjourned  by  the 
Chairman  to  the  same  day  in  the 
next  week,  and  if  at  such  adjourned 
meeting  a  quorum  as  defined  above 
is  not  present,  those  delegations  who 
are  present  at  the  adjourned  meeting 
shall  constitute  a  quorum. 

(c)  At  such  an  adjourned  meeting 
decisions  shall  be  taken  by  a  simple 


Sept.  9,  1942 


PRODUCTION  AND  EXPORT  OF  TIN 


majority  of  votes.  If  at  such  an 
adjourned  meeting  the  votes  are 
equally  divided,  the  Chairman  shall 
have  an  additional  casting  vote. 

(d)  At  any  meeting  other  than 
such  an  adjourned  meeting,  a  total 
of  ten  votes  in  favour  shall  carry  any 
proposal. 

ARTICLE  15. — Financial 

(a)  The  Committee  shall  at  the 
beginning  of  each  control  year  draw 
up  its  budget  for  the  forthcoming 
year.    The  budget  shall  show  under 
appropriate  headings  and  in  reason- 
able detail  the  estimate  of  the  Com- 
mittee of  its  expenses  for  that  year. 
The  budget  shall  be  communicated 
to  the  contracting  Governments  and 
to  the  administrations  of  the  terri- 
tories to  which  the  present  agree- 
ment applies,  and   shall   show   the 
share  of  the  expenses  falling  upon 
each  territory. 

(b)  The  expenses  of  the  Commit- 
tee shall  be  defrayed  by  the  adminis- 
trations of  all  territories  to  which  the 
present     agreement     applies.     The 
contribution  of  each  territory  shall 
bear   the   same   proportion   to   the 
total  contributions  as  the  standard 
tonnage  of  the  territory  bears  to  the 
total  of  the  standard  tonnages. 

(c)  The  Committee  may  draw  up, 
put  into  force,  modify  or  abrogate 
rules  for  the  conduct  of  its  business 
and  procedure  as  may  from  time  to 
time  be  necessary,  provided  that  its 
rules  of  procedure  shall  be  at  all 
times  in  conformity  with  the  provi- 
sions of  this  Scheme. 

ARTICLE  16. — Withdrawal  from  and 
Suspension  or  Abandonment  of 
Scheme 

(a)  If  the  Committee  is  satisfied 
that  the  estimated  production  of  all 
territories  not  specified  in  Article  4 
has,  over  a  period  of  six  consecutive 
months,  exceeded  20  per  cent,  of  the 
estimated  world  production  during 
that  period,  or  18,000  tons  of  me- 
tallic tin,  whichever  is  the  less 


amount,  it  shall  be  competent  for 
any  contracting  Government  to  give 
six  months'  notice  to  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  United  Kingdom  of  its 
intention  to  withdraw  from  the 
Scheme. 

(b)  Any  contracting  Government 
may  at  any  time,  if  it  considers  that 
its  national  security  is  endangered 
and  that  the  continuance  of  its  obli- 
gations under  this  agreement  would 
be   inconsistent   with    the   require- 
ments of  its  national  security,  give 
notice  to  the  Government  of  the 
United  Kingdom  that  it  desires  the 
suspension    for   the   period    of   the 
emergency  of  all  its  rights  and  obli- 
gations under  the  agreement,  and  all 
such    rights   and    obligations   shall 
thereupon   be  suspended  until   the 
Government  which  has  given  notice 
informs    the    Government    of    the 
United  Kingdom  of  the  termination 
of  the  emergency. 

(c)  If,  in  accordance  with  Article 
12  (d)  and  12  (e)  of  this  agreement, 
either  the  Committee  should  decide 
that  a  major  infringement  of  the 
agreement   has   taken   place,   or   a 
major  infringement  is  proved  to  the 
satisfaction  of  the  Committee,  the 
Committee  shall  at  once  notify  the 
Government  of  the  United  Kingdom, 
who  shall  inform  the  other  contract- 
ing Governments.    Any  contracting 
Government  may  then,  by  written 
notice  given  to  the  Government  of 
the  United  Kingdom,  withdraw  from 
this    agreement;    such    withdrawal 
shall  take  effect  from  the  end  of  the 
three  months1  quota  period  following 
that  in  which  the  notice  of  with- 
drawal is  received. 

(d)  The  Government  of  the  United 
Kingdom  shall  immediately  inform 
all  the  other  contracting  Govern- 
ments on  receipt  of  any  notice  of 
withdrawal    or    suspension    under 
paragraphs  (a),   (b)  or  (c)  of  this 
Article,  and  each  of  the  other  con- 
tracting Governments  shall  have  the 
right  to  notify  the  Government  of 
the    United    Kingdom   within   one 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  62  ia 


month  of  the  receipt  of  this  informa- 
tion that,  in  the  circumstances,  it  de- 
sires to  withdraw  from  the  Scheme  or 
to  suspend  its  rights  and  obligations. 

(e)  If  notifications  of  suspension 
are  received  under  paragraphs  (&) 
and  (d)  from  two  or  more  contracting 
Governments,  the  agreement  shall  be 
suspended  in  respect  of  all  contract* 
ing  Governments  until  the  suspen- 
sion is  terminated  by  the  Govern- 
ment which  first  gave  notice  under 
paragraph  (b) .  Otherwise  the  agree- 
ment will  remain  in  full  force  between 
the  contracting  Governments  who 
have  not  given  notice  of  suspension. 

(/)  If  the  Committee  at  any  time, 
at  a  meeting  at  which  all  delegations 
are  represented,  adopts  by  an  unani- 
mous vote  a  resolution  that  it  is 
desirable  that  the  scheme  should  be 
abandoned  forthwith,  the  Chairman 
of  the  Committee  shall  at  once  in- 
form the  Government  of  the  United 
Kingdom  of  this  resolution.  The 
Government  of  the  United  Kingdom 
shall,  without  delay,  communicate 
this  resolution  to  all  the  other  con- 


tracting Governments,  and  the  whole 
of  the  present  agreement  shall  termi- 
nate as  from  the  end  of  the  quota 
period  current  at  the  date  of  the 
communication  from  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  United  Kingdom. 

ARTICLE  17. — Research 

The  continuance  of  international 
co-operation  in  research  into  prob- 
lems connected  with  the  tin  industry 
and  stimulation  of  consumption  of 
tin  is  accepted  as  most  desirable. 

IN  WITNESS  WHEREOF  the  under- 
signed plenipotentiaries,  being  au- 
thorised to  this  effect  by  their  re- 
spective Governments,  have  signed 
the  present  Agreement  and  affixed 
thereto  their  seals. 

Done  in  London  this  9th  day  of 
September,  1942,  in  a  single  copy, 
which  shall  remain  deposited  in  the 
archives  of  the  Government  of  the 
United  Kingdom,  and  of  which  duly 
certified  copies  shall  be  communi- 
cated by  the  Government  of  the 
United  Kingdom  to  each  of  the  other 
contracting  Governments. 


[Signed:]  For  the  Government  of  the  Kingdom  of  Belgium:  TH.  DE 
LANTSHEERE;  for  the  Government  of  the  Republic  of  Bolivia:  A.  PATINO  R. ; 
for  the  Government  of  the  United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and  Northern 
Ireland:  ANTHONY  EDEN;  for  the  Government  of  the  Kingdom  of  the 
Netherlands:  E.  TEIXEIRA  DE  MATTOS. 


No.  621a 

Protocol  of  Signature  of  the  International  Tin  Control  Agreement. 
Signed  at  London,  September  9,  1942. 

Protocole  de  signature  de  I9 Arrangement  pour  le  contr&le  interna- 
tional de  retain.    Sign6  &  Londres,  9  septembre  1942. 

Entered  into  force  September  9,  X042.1 
Text  from  British  Treaty  Series,  No.  9  (1942),  Cmd.  6396,  p.  10. 

AT  the  moment  of  signing  the     Control  of  the  Production  and  Ex- 
Agreement    for    the    International     port  of  Tin  of  this  day's  date,  the 
1  Registered  with  the  Secretariat  of  the  League  of  Nations,  under  No.  4831,  October  2, 1944. 


Oct.  19,  1942      EUROPEAN  POSTAL  AND  TELECOMMUNICATIONS  UNION  43 

undersigned  Plenipotentiaries,  being  the  administrations  of  all  the  terri- 

duly  authorised  thereto,  have  agreed  tories  to  which  the  above-mentioned 

as  follows:  Agreement  applies  until  the  status  of 

(1)  It  is  understood  that  the  pro-  Malaya  and  the  Netherlands  East 
visions  of  Articles  4(0)  and  14  of  the  Indies  prior  to  the  occupation  of 
Agreement  shall  be  reconsidered  as  those   territories   by   the   Japanese 
soon  as  the  status  of  Malaya  and  the  forces,  has  been  re-established. 
Netherlands  East  Indies  prior  to  the  ~         .     T       ,        ,.       .     ,         - 
occupation  of  those  territories  by  the  0  DONEU  m  Londo?  this  ?*  day  of 
Japanese  forces  has  been  re-estab-  September,  1942,  in  a  single  copy, 
lished  and  it  has  become  possible  to  wh£h  shall  remain  deposited  in  the 
determine    the    actual    productive  archives  of  the  Government  of  the 
capacity  of  those  territories.  United  Kingdom,  and  of  which  duly 

(2)  Notwithstanding    the    provi-  certified  copies  shall  be  communi- 
sions  of  Article  15(6)  of  the  Agree-  cated   by  the  Government  of  the 
ment,  the  expenses  of  the  Committee  United  Kingdom  to  each  of  the  other 
shall  be  defrayed  in  equal  shares  by  contracting  Governments. 

[Here  follow  the  same  signatures  as  those  affixed  to  the  Agreement.] 


No.  622 

AGREEMENT  concerning  a  European  Postal  and  Telecommunica- 
tions Union.    Signed  at  Vienna,  October  19,  1942. 

ACCORD  relatif  ft  PUnion  europeenne  des  Postes  et  des  T£l£com~ 
munications.    Signe  ft  Vienne,  19  octobre  1942. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Agreement  was  concluded  at  a  conference  held  at  Vienna,  October 
12-24,  I942»  it  was  accompanied  by  postal  and  telegraphic  regulations.  German  Reichs- 
gesetzblatt,  1943,  Part  II,  pp.  124,  126.  The  conference  also  established  three  permanent 
committees  on  postal  services,  telecommunication  services,  and  telecommunication  tech- 
niques; for  their  regulations,  see  Europaischer  Postkongress,  Wien  1942,  Berichte  und 
Vereinbarungen,  pp.  232-35,  294-97,  300-5.  The  Permanent  Postal  Committee  of  the 
European  Union  held  its  first  session  at  Copenhagen,  June  24-30,  1943.  The  Permanent 
Telecommunication  Services  Committee  of  the  European  Union  held  its  first  session  at 
Vienna,  September  1-7,  1943.  The  establishment  of  the  Union  was  preceded  by  numerous 
postal  service  agreements  and  telegraphic  service  agreements  between  Germany  and  other 
European  states;  e.g.,  the  German- Italian  agreements  of  October  8,  1941,  Italian  Gazzetta 
ufficiale,  1942,  pp.  955,  957;  9  Journal  des  telecommunications  (1942),  p.  151.  Special  unions 
of  this  nature  are  envisaged  by  Article  5  of  the  Universal  Postal  Union  Convention  of  May 
23»  *939  (No-  558,  ante),  and  by  Article  13  of  the  Madrid  Telecommunication  Convention 
of  December  9,  1932  (No.  316,  ante). 

RATIFICATIONS.  On  March  31, 1943,  this  Agreement  had  been  ratified  by  all  states  which 
had  signed  subject  to  ratification. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Agreement  is  also  published  in  Europaischer  Postkon- 
gress, Wien  1942,  Berichte  und  Vereinbarungent  pp.  98-103.  The  Italian  version  is  pub- 
lished in  Italian  Gazzetta  ufficiale,  May  28,  1943,  No.  124. 

Anon.,  "Congres  europeen  de  Vienne,11  67  Union  postal*  (1942),  pp.  290-95;  Anon., 
"Pro jet  de  creation  d'un  nouvel  organisme  europeen  dans  le  dornaine  postal  et  tele- 


44 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  622 


graphique,"  9  Journal  des  telecommunications  (1942),  pp.  125-28;  Anon.,  " A  propos  du  projet 
de  creation  d'un  nouvel  organisme  europeen  dans  le  domaine  postal  et  telegraphique,"  9 
idem  (1942),  pp.  151-52;  Anon.,  "L'Union  europeenne  des  Postes  et  des  T61ecommunica- 
tions,1'  9  idem  (1042),  pp.  161-63, 193-202;  A.  S.  Angwin,  "Les  telecommunications  interna- 
tionales,"  II  idem  (1944),  pp.  137-46;  K.  von  Forster,  "Die  Aufgaben  des  europaischen 
Post-  und  Fernmeldevereins,"  n  Ausw&rtigc  Politik  (1944),  pp.  352-58;  G.  Gneme,  "La 
Conference  de  Vienne  de  1 'Union  europeenne  des  Postes  et  des  Telecommunications,"  10 
Journal  des  telecommunications  (1943),  pp.  29-35;  Ohnesorge,  "L'Unione  postale  e  telegrafica 
euro  pea,"  8  Relation*  inter  nasionali  (1942),  p.  1242;  G.  Pession,  "L'Unione  europea  postale 
e  delle  telecommunicazioni,"  23  Echi  e  commenti  (1942),  pp.  550-52;  F.  Risch,  "Les  inches 
et  les  buts  d'une  Union  postale  europeenne,"  67  Union  postale  (1942),  pp.  246-53. 

Entered  into  force  April  i,  1943. 

German  version  from  German  Reichsgesefablatt,  1943,  Part  II,  p.  122;  French  translation  from 
9  Journal  des  telecommunications  (1942),  p.  162. 


Die  unterzeichneten  Bevollmach- 
tigten  der  Post-  und  Fernmeldever- 
waltungen  der  nachstehenden  Lan- 
der: Albanien,  Bulgarien,  Dane- 
mark,  Deutschland,  Finnland,  Ita- 
lien,  Kroatien,  Niederlande,  Nor- 
wegen,  Rumanien,  San  Marino, 
Slowakei,  Ungarn,  haben  zur  Forde- 
rung  der  europaischen  Zusammenar- 
beit  auf  dem  Gebiete  des  Post-  und 
Fernmeldewesens  —  gestiitztauf  den 
Weltpostvertrag  und  den  Weltnach- 
richtenvertrag  —  im  gegenseitigen 
Einverstandnis  folgendes  beschlos- 
sen: 

ARTIKEL  i. — Europdischer  Post-  und 
Fernmddeverein 

Die  beteiligten  Verwaltungen  bilden 
den  "  Europaischen  Post-  und  Fern- 
meldeverein  ",  der  zum  Ziel  hat,  die 
einzelnen  Dienstzweige  im  gegensei- 
tigen Post-  und  Fernmeldedienst  zu 
verbessern  und  zu  vervollkommnen. 


ARTIKEL  2. — Vottzugsordnungen 

Die  zur  Durchfilhrung  dieses  Ube- 
reinkommens  und  zur  Ausfuhrung 
des  Post-  und  Fernmeldedienstes  im 
Vereinsbereich  notwendigen  Dienst- 
vorschriften  werden  in  Vollzugsord- 
nungen  zusammengefaBt,  die  auf 
den  Tagungen  des  Vereins  (Artikel 
3)  von  den  Verwaltungen  miteinan- 
der  vereinbart  werden. 


[Traduction] 

Les  pl£nipotentiaires  soussign6s 
des  administrations  postales  et  des 
t£16communications  des  pays  ci- 
apr&s:  Albanie,  Bulgarie,  Danemark, 
Allemagne,  Finlande,  Italic,  Croatie, 
Pays-Has,  Norv£ge,  Roumanie,  S. 
Marin,  Slovaquie,  Hongrie  ont,  en 
accord  r£ciproque,  pour  le  progr£s  de 
la  cooperation  europ6enne  dans  le 
domaine  de  la  poste  et  des  t£16com- 
muni cations,  en  se  basant  sur  la 
Convention  postale  universelle  et  la 
Convention  internationale  des  tcl£- 
communications,  d6cid6,  ce  qui  suit: 

ARTICLE   i. — Union  europfenne  des 
pastes  et  des  tilicommunications 

Les  administrations  participantes 
forment  1'  "Union  europeenne  des 
postes  et  des  telecommunications", 
qui  a  pour  but  d'am61iorer  et  de  per- 
fectionner  les  diverses  branches  des 
services  de  la  poste  et  des  telecom- 
munications. 

ARTICLE  2. — Rkglements  d1  execution 

Les  prescriptions  de  service  neces- 
saires  pour  appliquer  cet  accord  et 
pour  executer  le  service  de  la  poste  et 
des  telecommunications  dans  le  do- 
maine de  TUnion  sont  rassembiees 
dans  des  rfeglements  d 'execution  qui 
sont  etablis  en  accord  par  les  ad- 
ministrations dans  les  sessions  de 
1'Union. 


Oct.  19,  1942      EUROPEAN  POSTAL  AND  TELECOMMUNICATIONS  UNION 


45 


ARTIKEL  3. — Vereinstagungen 

Die  Vertreter  der  Vereinsverwal- 
tungen  vereinigen  sich  zu  gegebener 
Zeit  zu  Tagungen,  um  (iber  die  An- 
derung  oder  ErgSnzung  der  Vor- 
schriften  dieses  Ubereinkommens, 
(iber  die  Aufstellung,  Anderung  und 
Erg^nzung  der  im  Artikel  2  genann- 
ten  Vollzugsordnungen  oder  iiber 
sonstige,  den  Verein  betreffende 
Angelegenheiten  zu  beraten  und  zu 
beschlieBen. 

Die  Verhandlungssprachen  auf 
den  Tagungen  sind  deutsch  und 
italienisch;  dabei  werden  die 
deutschen  Ausfiihrungen  sofort  ins 
Italienische  iibersetzt  und  umge- 
kehrt.  Die  Vertreter  konnen  sich 
anderer  Sprachen  bedienen :  sie  mils- 
sen  aber  ftir  unmittelbare  pber- 
setzung  in  die  deutsche  oder  italie- 
nische  Sprache  sorgen. 

Die  Niederschriften  und  Akten  der 
Tagungen  sind  in  deutscher  und 
italienischer  Sprache  zu  verfassen. 

Bei  den  Abstimmungen  auf  den 
Tagungen  entfallt  auf  jedes  Land 
einschliefilich  der  abhangigen  Ge- 
biete  usw.  eine  Stimme. 

Jede  Tagung  bestimmt  das  Jahr 
und  das  Land  der  nachsten  Ta- 
gung. Die  Verwaltung  des  Landes, 
in  dem  getagt  werden  soil,  setzt 
nach  Verstandigung  mit  der  Ve- 
reinsgeschaftsstelle  (Artikel  5)  den 
Zeitpunkt  und  den  Ort  der  Tagung 
fest. 

Die  Tagung  kann  auf  einen  frii- 
heren  oder  spateren  Zeitpunkt  fest- 
gelegt  werden,  wenn  zwei  Drittel 
der  Verwaltungen  bei  der  die  Ta- 
gung abhaltenden  Verwaltung  den 
Antrag  stellen. 

ARTIKEL  4. — Stdndige  Ausschusse 

Zur  Priifung  und  Erorterung  von 
Fragen  des  Post-  und  Fernmelde- 
dienstes  konnen  Standige  Ausschusse 
eingesetzt  werden.  Sie  werden  aus 
Sachverstandigen  derjenigen  Post- 
und  Fernmeldeverwaltungen  gebildet, 
die  sich  zur  Teilnahme  an  ihren 
Arbeiten  bereit  erklaren  und  sich 


ARTICLE  3. — Sessions  de  V  Union 

Les  repr£sentants  des  administra- 
tions de  T  Union  se  r£unissent  £  une 
6poque  d6termin6e,  pour  discuter  et 
prendre  des  decisions  en  vue  de 
modifier  ou  de  computer  les  pre- 
scriptions de  cet  accord,  d'£tablir,  de 
modifier  et  de  computer  les  rdgle- 
ments  d'ex^cution  mentionn^s  & 
Tarticle  2  pu  pour  discuter  et  prendre 
des  decisions  sur  d'autres  affaires 
concernant  1'Union. 

Les  langues  des  discussions  au 
cours  des  sessions  sont  1'allemand  et 
Titalien. 

Les  explications  fournies  en  alle- 
mand  sont  imm6diatement  traduites 
en  italien  et  inversement. 

Les  repr6sentants  peuvent  se  servir 
d'autres  langues  mais  il  doivent  se 
charger  d'en  faire  assurer  la  traduction 
immediate  en  allemand  ou  en  italien. 

Les  rapports  et  les  actes  des  r6- 
unions  doivent  £tre  r£dig£s  en  alle- 
mand et  en  italien. 

Lors  des  votes  au  cours  des  ses- 
sions, chaque  pays,  y  compris  les  ter- 
ritoires  qui  en  dependent,  etc.,  dis- 
pose d'une  voix. 

Au  cours  de  chaque  reunion  sont 
indiqu6s  Tann6e  et  le  lieu  de  la  r£- 
union  suivante.  Celle-ci  est  con- 
voqu6e,  apr^s  entente  avec  le  bureau 
de  1'Union  (art.  5),  par  Tadministra- 
tion  du  pays  dans  lequel  elle  doit 
avoir  lieu.  La  reunion  peut  etre 
fix^e  i  une  date  plus  rapproch6e  ou 
plus  61oign6e  si  deux  tiers  des  ad- 
ministrations en  font  la  proposition 
4  Tadministration  qui  doit  1'or- 
ganiser. 


ARTICLE  4. — Comitis  permanents 

Pour  Texamen  et  la  discussion  de 
questions  du  service  de  la  poste  et 
des  t616communications,  des  comit6s 
permanents  peuvent  Stre  institu^s. 
Ils  sont  formes  d'experts  des  admin- 
istrations des  postes  et  des  t61£com- 
munications  qui  se  d£clarent  pretes  ^ 
participer  ^  leurs  travaux,  et  s'en- 


46 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  622 


verpflichten,    zu    den    allgemeinen 
Kosten  ihrer  Tagungen  beizutragen. 
Fiir  das  Stimmrecht  und  die 
Sprache  gelten  die   Bestimmungen 
des  Artikels  3. 

ARTIKEL  5. — GescMftsstelle  des  Euro- 
pdischen  Post-  und  Fernmeldevereins 

Eine  Dienststelle,  die  in  Wien 
unter  dem  Namen  "Geschaftsstelle 
des  Europaischen  Post-  und  Fern- 
meldevereins "  tatig  ist  und  unter  der 
Oberaufsicht  der  deutschen  Post- 
verwaltung  steht,  dient  den  Verein- 
sverwaltungen  als  Verbindungs-, 
Auskunfts-  und  Beratungsstelle.  Ihr 
fallen  im  wesentlichen  die  gleichen 
Aufgaben  fiir  den  Bereich  des  Euro- 
paischen Post-  und  Fernmeldeve- 
reins zu,  wie  sic  fiir  das  Biiro  des 
Weltpostvereins  und  das  Biiro  des 
Wcltnachrichtenvereins  vorgesehen 
sind. 

Die  amtlichen  Sprachen  fiir  die 
Akten  des  Vereins  sind  deutsch  und 
italienisch.  Der  amtliche  Schrift- 
wechsel  zwischen  der  Geschaftsstelle 
und  den  Verwaltungen  wird  deutsch 
oder  italienisch  gefiihrt. 

Vom  Tage  des  Inkrafttretens  des 
Obereinkommens  an  werden  die  Ko- 
sten fiir  den  Betrieb  der  Geschafts- 
stelle sowie  die  auBerordentlichen 
Kosten,  die  der  Zusammentritt  einer 
Tagung  verursacht,  und  die  Kosten, 
die  etwa  durch  die  der  Geschaftsstelle 
iibertragenen  besonderen  Arbeiten 
entstehen,  von  samtlichen  Vereinsver- 
waltungen  gemeinsam  getragen. 

Die  Lander  der  beteiligten  Ver- 
waltungen werden  hierfiir  in  7  Klas- 
sen  eingeteilt,  deren  jede  ihren 
Kostenbeitrag  nach  folgendem  Ver- 
bal tnis  leistet: 


gagent  £  contribuer  aux  frais  g£ne- 
raux  de  leurs  reunions. 

En  ce  qui  concerne  le  droit  de  vote 
et  la  langue,  les  prescriptions  de 
1'article  3  sont  applicables. 

ARTICLE  5. — Bureau  de  V  Union  euro- 
ptenne  des  posies  et  des  ttlicom- 
munications 

Un  bureau,  qui  fonctionne  & 
Vienne  sous  le  nom  de  "Bureau  de 
TUnion  europ6enne  des  postes  et  des 
telecommunications M  et  est  place 
sous  la  surveillance  de  1'Administra- 
tion  des  postes  allemande,  sert  aux 
administrations  de  TUnion  de  service 
de  liaison,  de  renseigncments  et  de 
conseil.  II  lui  incombe,  essentielle- 
ment,  les  m£mes  tiches  dans  le 
domaine  de  1'Union  europ^enne  des 
postes  et  des  telecommunications 
que  celles  qui  sont  prevues  pour  le 
Bureau  de  1'Union  postale  univer- 
selle  et  pour  le  Bureau  de  1'Union  in- 
ternationale  des  telecommunications. 

Les  langues  officielles  pour  la  re- 
daction des  actes  de  1'Union  sont 
1'allemand  et  Titalien.  L'echange 
des  correspondances  officielles  entre 
le  bureau  et  les  administrations  se 
fait  en  allemand  ou  en  italien. 

A  partir  du  jour  de  la  mise  en 
vigueur  de  Taccord,  les  depenses 
pour  Texploitation  du  bureau,  de 
m6me  que  les  depenses  extraordi- 
naires  occasionn6es  par  1'organisa- 
tion  d'une  r6union  et  les  depenses 
qui  peuvent  resulter,  eventuelle- 
ment,  de  travaux  particuliers  as- 
sures par  le  bureau  sont  supporters 
eri  commun  par  toutes  les  adminis- 
trations de  1' Union. 

Les  pays  des  administrations  par- 
ticipantes  sont  ranges,  £  cet  effet,  en 
7  classes  dont  chacune  fournit  la 
contribution  aux  frais  communs 
d'apr&s  le  rapport  suivant: 


I.  Klasse 25  Einheitcn      I"  classe 25  unites 


2. 

3. 

4- 
5- 
6. 

7- 


20 

15 
10 

5 
3 
I  Einheit. 


2* 

3" 
4e 
5' 
6- 

7' 


20 

15 
10 

5 


unit£. 


Oct.  19,  1942      EUROPEAN  POSTAL  AND  TELECOMMUNICATIONS  UNION 


47 


Jede  Verwaltung  teilt  der  Ge- 
schaftsstelle  mit,  in  welche  Klasse  sie 
eingereiht  zu  warden  wiinscht. 

ARTIKEL  6. — Schiedsgericht 

Meinungsverschiedenheiten,  die 
sich  aus  diesem  Ubereinkommen  und 
den  Vollzugsordnungen  zwischen  den 
Vereinsverwaltungen  ergeben,  sind 
durch  ein  Schiedsgericht  zu  schlich- 
ten,  das  aus  Mitgliedern  des  Euro- 
paischen Post-  und  Fernmeldeve- 
reins  entsprechend  der  im  Welt- 
postvertrag  vorgeschriebenen  Weise 
gebildet  wird  und  auch  nach  den  in 
diesem  Vertrag  gegebenen  Vorschrif- 
ten  verf ahrt.  Wenn  nach  dem 
Vertrag  die  Ernennung  der  Schieds- 
richter  dem  Hiiro  des  Weltpostve- 
reins  obliegt,  werden  die  Schieds- 
richter  von  der  Geschaftsstelle  des 
Europaischen  Post-  und  Fernmel- 
devereins  bestcllt. 

ARTIKEL  7. — Beitritt 

Jede  europaische  oder  dem  europai- 
schen  Raum  benachbarte  Post-  und 
Fernmeldeverwaltung  kann  jederzeit 
diesem  Ubereinkommen  beitreten. 

Die  Beitrittserklarung  ist  der  Ve- 
reinsgeschaftsstelle  zu  iibersendcn, 
die  ihrerseits  die  Vereinsverwaltun- 
gen verstandigt. 

ARTIKEL  8. — Austria 

Jede  beteiligte  Verwaltung  ist  bei 
Einhaltung  einer  einjahrigen  Kiln- 
digungsfrist  berechtigt,  durch  eine 
an  die  Vereinsgeschaftsstelle  zu  rich- 
tende  schriftliche  Erklarung  ihren 
Austritt  aus  dem  Europaischen  Post- 
und  Fernmeldeverein  anzuzeigen. 
Diese  Erklarung  gilt  nur  fur  die 
Verwaltung,  von  der  sie  eingereicht 
worden  ist;  das  Obereinkommen 
bleibt  fiir  die  anderen  teilnehmenden 
Verwaltungen  in  Kraft. 

ARTIKEL  9. — Anwendung  des  Welt- 
postvertrags  und  des  Weltnach- 
richtenvertrags 

Die  Bestimmungen  des  Weltpost- 
vertrags,  der  besonderen  Abkommen 


Chaque  administration  commu- 
nique au  bureau  la  classe  dans 
laquelle  elle  desire  ttre  rang^e. 

ARTICLE  6. — Arbitrage 

Les  divergences  d'avis  qui  se  mani- 
festent  entre  les  administrations  de 
TUnion  au  sujet  de  cet  accord  et  des 
r^glements  d 'execution  doivent  £tre 
aplanies  par  un  tribunal  d 'arbitrage 
qui  est  form6  de  membres  de  1'Union 
europ6enne  des  postes  et  des  t61£- 
communications  suivant  le  mode 
present  par  la  Convention  postale 
universelle,  et  qui  procfede  d'aprfes 
les  prescriptions  indiqu£es  6galement 
dans  cette  convention. 

Lorsque,  d'apres  cette  convention, 
la  nomination  de  Tarbitre  incombe 
au  Bureau  de  lv Union  postale  uni- 
verselle, les  arbitres  sont  d6sign£s 
par  le  Bureau  de  TUnion  europ^enne 
des  postes  et  des  telecommunications. 

ARTICLE  7. — Adhesion 

Toute  administration  des  postes  et 
des  telecommunications  europeenne 
ou  voisine  de  1'espace  europ6en  peut 
adherer  en  tout  temps  a  cet  accord. 
La  declaration  d 'adhesion  doit  £tre 
transmise  au  bureau  de  1'Union  qui, 
de  son  c6te,  en  avise  les  administra- 
tions de  TUnion. 

ARTICLE  8. — Sortie  de  V  Union 

Chaque  administration  partici- 
pante  a  le  droit,  sous  reserve  d'un 
pr6avis  d'un  an,  de  declarer  par  une 
notification  ecrite  adressee  au  Bu- 
reau de  1'Union  qu'elle  sort  de 
TUnion  europeenne  des  postes  et  des 
telecommunications.  Cette  notifi- 
cation n'est  valable  que  pour  Tad- 
ministration  de  qui  elle  emane. 
L'accord  reste  en  vigueur  pour  les 
autres  administrations  participantes. 

ARTICLE  9. — Application  de  la  Con- 
vention postale  universelle  et  de  la 
Convention  international  des  tili- 
communications 

Les  prescriptions  de  la  Convention 
postale  universelle,  des  accords  par- 


48 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  622 


hierzu,  des  Weltnachrichtenvertrags 
und  der  dazugehorigen  Vollzugsord- 
nungen  bleiben  unberiihrt,  soweit 
der  Gegenstand  nicht  durch  dieses 
Obereinkommen  oder  die  Vollzugs- 
ordnungen  (Artikel  2)  ausdrticklich 
geregelt  ist. 

ARTIKEL  10. — Inkrafttreten  des  Uber- 
einkommens  und  Vorbehalt  der  Ge- 
nehmigung 

Dieses  Ubereinkommen  wird  am 
I.  April  1943  in  Kraft  treten. 

Fiir  eine  Verwaltung,  die  unter 
Vorbehalt  einer  Genehmigung  unter- 
zeichnet  hat,  tritt  das  Obereinkom- 
men  nur  in  Kraft,  wenn  die  Mit- 
teilung  von  dem  Vorliegen  der 
Genehmigung  bis  zum  31.  Marz  1943 
bei  der  deutschen  Postverwaltung 
eingeht. 

ARTIKEL  n. — Gultigkeit  der  Texte 

Dieses  Ubereinkommen  wird  in 
deutscher  und  italienischer  Sprache 
ausgefertigt.  Beide  Fassungen  gel- 
ten  als  Urschrift. 

UNTERZEICHNET  in  einem  Stiick, 
das  im  Archiv  der  deutschen  Post- 
verwaltung aufbewahrt  und  von  dem 
jeder  Verwaltung  eine  beglaubigte 
Abschrift  iibersandt  werden  wird. 

Wien,  am  19.  Oktober  1942. 


ticuliers  additionnels  y  relatifs,  de  la 
Convention  Internationale  des  t616- 
communications  et  des  Rfeglements  y 
annexes  restent  inchang6es  pour 
autant  que  1'objet  nfen  est  pas  ex- 
pressfiment  r6gl6  par  le  present  ac- 
cord ou  les  riglements  d'ex6cution 
(art.  2). 

ARTICLE    10. — Mise  en   vigueur  de 
V accord  et  reserve  d' approbation 

Le  present  accord  entrera  en 
vigueur  le  ier  avril  1943.  Pour  une 
administration  qui  a  sign6  sous 
reserve  d 'approbation,  Taccord  entre 
en  vigueur  seulement  si  la  notifica- 
tion de  cette  approbation  est  faite 
avant  le  31  mars  1943  auprfes  de 
I'Administration  des  postes  d'Alle- 
magne. 

ARTICLE  u.—Validiti  du  texte 

Get  accord  est  r6dig6  en  allemand 
et  en  italien.  Les  deux  redactions 
sont  valables  comme  texte  original. 


VIENNE,  le  19  octobre  1942. 


[Unterzeichnet:]  Albanien:  unter  Vorbehalt  der  Genehmigung,  N.  NARACI; 
Bulgarien:  Dipl.-Ing.  W.  PISSOMOFF;  DKnemark:  K.  J.  JENSEN;  Deutsch- 
land:  OHNESORGE;  Finnland:  G.  E.  F.  ALBRECHT;  Italien:  unter  Vorbehalt 
der  Genehmigung,  G.  PESSION  ;  Kroatien :  unter  Vorbehalt  der  Genehmigung, 
FRANJO  POLJAN;  Niederlande:  W.  L.  Z.  VAN  DER  VEGTE;  Norwegen: 
SVEIN  SVENSEN,  ANDR.  HADLAND;  Rumfinien:  unter  Vorbehalt  der  Geneh- 
migung, Col.  G.  TEODORESCU;  San  Marino:  unter  Vorbehalt  der  Geneh- 
migung, Ing.  Pio  VENTURINI;  Slowakei:  Ing.  KUDLAK;  Ungarn:  unter 
Vorbehalt  der  Genehmigung,  Dr.  FORSTER  KAROLY. 


Jan.  5,  1943       DISPOSSESSION  UNDER  ENEMY  OCCUPATION  49 

No.  623 

AGREEMENT  concerning  the  Regulation  of  International  Military 
Traffic  on  the  Emergency  Military  Highway.  Signed  at  San 
Salvador,  December  15,  1942. 

ACUERDO  sobre  la  reglamentaci6n  del  trafico  international  militar 
de  la  carretera  militar  de  emergencia.  Firmado  en  San  Salva- 
dor, 15  de  diciembre  de  1942. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Agreement  was  preceded  by  bipartite  agreements  made  by  the 
United  States  of  America  with  Panama  on  March  23,  1940,  with  Costa  Rica  on  January  16, 
1942,  with  El  Salvador  on  February  13,  1942,  with  Nicaragua  on  April  8,  1942,  and  with 
Honduras  on  October  26,  1942.  U.S.  Executive  Agreement  Series,  Nos.  293-296,  449.  In 
addition,  agreements  with  respect  to  the  Inter- American  Highway  were  concluded  by  the 
United  States  with  Guatemala  on  May  19,  1943,  and  May  18,  1948,  and  with  Panama  on 
June  7,  1943.  Idem,  Nos.  345,  365.  A  convention  on  the  Pan  American  Highway  was 
signed  at  Buenos  Aires,  December  23,  1936  (No.  469,  ante).  An  agreement  concerning  a 
Trans- Isthmian  Highway  was  concluded  by  Panama  and  the  United  States  on  September  6, 
1940.  U.S.  Executive  Agreement  Series,  No.  448. 

RATIFICATIONS.  This  Agreement  was  signed  on  behalf  of  Costa  Rica,  £1  Salvador, 
Guatemala,  Honduras,  Nicaragua,  and  the  United  States  of  America.  On  January  I,  1949, 
it  had  been  approved  by  Honduras. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Agreement  is  published  in  Honduras,  Boletin  del  Con- 
greso  National  Legislative,  March  2,  1943,  No.  8,  p.  i;  68  Honduras,  La  Gaceta  (1943),  No. 
11.966,  p.  i;  Honduras,  Decretos  del  Congreso  National,  1942-1943,  pp.  41-44. 

E.  W.  James,  "A  Quarter  Century  of  Road  Building  in  the  Americas,"  79  Bulletin  of  the 
Pan  American  Union  (1945),  pp.  609-18. 

Not  entered  into  force  (January  i,  1949). 

[Text  not  reproduced.] 


No.  624 

INTER-ALLIED  DECLARATION  against  Acts  of  Dispossession 
Committed  in  Territories  under  Enemy  Occupation  or  Control. 
Approved  at  London,  January  5,  1943. 

DECLARATION  INTER-ALLlfiE  pour  mettre  en  6chec  les  m&hodes 
d'expropriation  pratiquSes  dans  les  territoires  sous  Poccupation 
ou  le  controle  ennemi.  Approuv6e  ft  Londres,  5  Janvier  1943. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Declaration  was  accompanied  by  an  explanatory  memorandum. 
Br.  Par/.  Papers,  Misc.  No.  I  (1943),  Cmd.  6418.  In  the  peace  treaties  of  February  10, 
1947,  with  Italy  (Article  75),  Bulgaria  (Article  22),  Hungary  (Article  24),  and  Rumania 
(Article  23),  those  states  accepted  the  principles  of  this  Declaration  and  agreed  to  ''return, 
in  the  shortest  possible  time,  property  removed  from  the  territory  of  any  of  the  United 
Nations.11  U.S.  Treaties  and  Other  International  Acts  Series,  Nos.  1648-1651. 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  625 


ACCESSIONS.  On  January  1, 1949,  accessions  to  or  approvals  of  this  Declaration  had  been 
notified  to  the  British  Government  by  Argentina,  Bolivia,  Brazil,  Colombia,  Ecuador, 
Egypt,  Guatemala,  Haiti,  Honduras,  Nicaragua,  Panama,  Paraguay,  Peru,  Uruguay,  and 
Venezuela. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Declaration  is  also  published  in  8  U.S.  Department  of 
State  Bulletin  (1943),  p.  21 ;  i  Soviet  Foreign  Policy  during  the  Patriotic  War:  Documents  and 
Materials,  p.  197;  Canada,  Treaty  Series,  1943,  No.  I.  For  a  French  translation,  see  67-72 
Jour,  du  dr.  int.  (1945),  p.  464;  for  a  Spanish  translation,  see  3  Rcvista  peruana  de  derecho 
international  (1943),  p.  89.  For  correspondence  relating  to  the  Declaration,  see  Colombia, 
Memoria  de  relaciones  exterior es,  1943,  pp.  202-4,  213-14. 

Entered  into  force  January  5,  1943. 

Text  from  Br.  Par/.  Papers,  Misc.  No.  I  (1943),  Cmd.  6418. 


The  Governments  of  the  Union  of 
South  Africa;  the  United  States  of 
America;  Australia;  Belgium;  Can- 
ada; China;  the  Czechoslovak  Re- 
public; the  United  Kingdom  of 
Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ire- 
land; Greece;  India;  Luxemburg;  the 
Netherlands;  New  Zealand;  Nor- 
way; Poland;  the  Union  of  Soviet 
Socialist  Republics;  Yugoslavia;  and 
the  French  National  Committee : 

Hereby  issue  a  formal  warning  to 
all  concerned,  and  in  particular  to 
persons  in  neutral  countries,  that 
they  intend  to  do  their  utmost  to 
defeat  the  methods  of  dispossession 
practised  by  the  Governments  with 
which  they  are  at  war  against  the 
countries  and  peoples  who  have  been 
so  wantonly  assaulted  and  despoiled. 

Accordingly,  the  Governments 
making  this  Declaration  and  the 
French  National  Committee  reserve 


all  their  rights  to  declare  invalid  any 
transfers  of,  or  dealings  with,  prop- 
erty, rights  and  interests  of  any 
description  whatsoever  which  are,  or 
have  been,  situated  in  the  territories 
which  have  come  under  the  occupa- 
tion or  control,  direct  or  indirect,  of 
the  Governments  with  which  they 
are  at  war,  or  which  belong,  or  have 
belonged,  to  persons  (including  ju- 
ridical persons)  resident  in  such 
territories.  This  warning  applies 
whether  such  transfers  or  dealings 
have  taken  the  form  of  open  looting 
or  plunder,  or  of  transactions  ap- 
parently legal  in  form,  even  when 
they  purport  to  be  voluntarily  ef- 
fected. 

The  Governments  making  -this 
Declaration  and  the  French  National 
Committee  solemnly  record  their 
solidarity  in  this  matter. 

LONDON,  January  5,  1943. 


No.  625 

CONDITIONS  of  an  Armistice  with  Italy.    Signed  at  Fairfield 
Camp,  Sicily,  September  3,  1943. 

CONDITIONS  de  Parmistice  avec  Italie.    Signees  ft  Fairfield  Camp, 
Sicile,  3  septembre  1943. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  was  the  first  of  the  series  of  instruments  which  ended  the  hostilities 
in  World  War  II.  It  was  supplemented  by  the  additional  conditions  of  September  29, 1943, 
as  modified  on  November  9, 1943  (Nos.  6*5a  and  62 5b,  post).  For  a  memorandum  of  agree- 


Sept.  3,  1943  ARMISTICE  WITH  ITALY  51 

ment  on  employment  and  disposition  of  Italian  fleet  and  mercantile  marine  of  September  23, 
1943,  and  an  amendment  of  November  17,  1943,  see  U.S.  Treaties  and  Other  International 
Acts  Series,  No.  1604,  pp.  28-34;  *3  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1945),  pp.  755-57- 
Italy,  having  declared  war  on  Germany  on  October  13,  1943,  was  acknowledged  by  the 
Allied  Governments  as  a  "co-belligerent."  An  Allied  Control  Commission  for  Italy  was 
established  on  November  10,  1943.  The  transfer  of  control  to  the  Italian  Government  was 
outlined  in  an  aide-memoire  of  February  24,  1945,  from  the  President  of  the  Allied  Control 
Commission  to  the  Italian  Government.  13  idem  (1945),  p.  757.  On  the  execution  of  the 
Italian  armistice,  see  idem,  p.  759.  The  peace  treaty  with  Italy,  signed  at  Paris,  February 
10,  1947,  came  into  force  on  September  15,  1947.  U.S.  Treaties  and  Other  International 
Acts  Series,  No.  1648. 

RATIFICATIONS.    This  instrument  was  not  subject  to  ratification. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  instrument  is  also  published  in  U.S.  Treaties  and  Other 
International  Acts  Series,  No.  1604;  Br.  Parl.  Papers,  Italy  No.  i  (1945),  Cmd.  6693,  p.  I; 
I  Soviet  Foreign  Policy  during  the  Patriotic  War:  Documents  and  Materials,  p.  235;  United 
States  and  Italy,  1936-1946,  U.S.  Department  of  State  Publication  2669  (European  Series 
i?).  P-  5i;  40  Am.  Jour.  Int.  Law  (Supp.,  1946),  p.  I.  See  also  12  Rivista  di  studi  politici 
internazionali  (1945),  p.  179. 

Allied  Commission,  A  Review  of  Allied  Military  Government  and  of  the  Allied  Commission 
in  Italy  (Rome,  1945),  127  pp.;  Anon.,  "Allied  Control  Commission  for  Italy,"  11  U.S. 
Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1944),  pp.  137-38;  M.  W.  Graham,  "Two  Armistices  and  a 
Surrender,"  40  Am.  Jour.  Int.  Law  (1946),  pp.  148-58;  R.  Monaco,  "La  convenzione  di 
armistizio  secondo  la  legge  italiana  di  guerra,"  10  Rivista  di  studi  politici  internazionali 
(*943),  PP.  283-358;  G.  Salvemini,  "Documents,  Public  and  Secret,"  I  Free  Italy  (1945), 
No.  12,  pp.  1-5;  E.  Wiskemann,  "The  Breaking  of  the  Axis,"  22  International  Affairs  (1946), 
pp.  227-39. 

Entered  into  force  September  3,  1943.* 

Text  from  13  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1945),  p.  748. 

FAIRFIELD  CAMP,  SICILY  United  Nations  to  be  immediately 

September  3,1943  turned    over    to    the    Allied    Com- 
mander in  Chief,  and  none  of  these 

The   following   conditions   of  an  may  now  or  at  any  time  be  evacu- 

Armistice  are  presented  by  General  ated  to  Germany. 
Dwight  D.  Eisenhower,  Commander-         4.  Immediate  transfer  of  the  Ital- 

in-Chief  of  the  Allied  Forces,  acting  ian  Fleet  and  Italian  aircraft  to  such 

by  authority  of  the  Governments  of  points  as  may  be  designated  by  the 

the  United  States  and  Great  Britain  Allied   Commander  in   Chief,  with 

and  in  the  interest  of  the  United  Na-  details  of  disarmament  to  be  pre- 

tions,  and  are  accepted  by  Marshal  scribed  by  him. 
Pietro  Badoglio,  Head  of  the  Italian         5.  Italian  merchant  shipping  may 

Government.  be  requisitioned  by  the  Allied  Com- 

1.  Immediate  cessation  of  all  hos-  mander  in  Chief  to  meet  the  needs  of 
tile  activity  by  the  Italian  armed  his  military-naval  program, 
forces.  6.  Immediate  surrender  of  Corsica 

2.  Italy  will  use  its  best  endeavors  and   of  all    Italian   territory,   both 
to  deny,  to  the  Germans,  facilities  islands  and  mainland,  to  the  Allies, 
that    might    be    used    against    the  for  such  use  as  operational  bases  and 
United  Nations.  other  purposes  as  the  Allies  may  see 

3.  All  prisoners  or  internees  of  the  fit. 

1  Published  on  November  6,  1945. 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  625a 


7.  Immediate   guarantee   of   the 
free  use  by  the  Allies  of  all  airfields 
and  naval  ports  in  Italian  territory, 
regardless  of  the  rate  of  evacuation 
of  the  Italian  territory  by  the  Ger- 
man forces.    These  ports  and  fields 
to  be  protected  by  Italian  armed 
forces  until  this  function  is  taken 
over  by  the  Allies. 

8.  Immediate  withdrawal  to  Italy 
of  Italian  armed  forces  from  all  par- 
ticipation in  the  current  war  from 
whatever  areas  in  which  they  may 
be  now  engaged. 

9.  Guarantee  by  the  Italian  Gov- 
ernment that  if  necessary  it  will  em- 
ploy all  its  available  armed  forces  to 
insure  prompt  and  exact  compliance 
with  all  the  provisions  of  this  armis- 
tice. 

10.  The  Commander  in  Chief  of 
the  Allied  Forces  reserves  to  himself 
the  right  to  take  any  measure  which 
in  his  opinion  may  be  necessary  for 
the  protection  of  the  interests  of  the 


Allied  Forces  for  the  prosecution  of 
the  war,  and  the  Italian  Government 
binds  itself  to  take  such  administra- 
tive or  other  action  as  the  Com- 
mander in  Chief  may  require,  and  in 
particular  the  Commander  in  Chief 
will  establish  Allied  Military  Gov- 
ernment over  such  parts  of  Italian 
territory  as  he  may  deem  necessary 
in  the  military  interests  of  the  Allied 
Nations. 

11.  The  Commander  in  Chief  of 
the  Allied  Forces  will  have  a  full 
right   to  impose   measures  of  dis- 
armament, demobilization,  and  de- 
militarization. 

12.  Other  conditions  of  apolitical, 
economic  and  financial  nature  with 
which  Italy  will  be  bound  to  comply 
will  be  transmitted  at  a  later  date. 

The  conditions  of  the  present 
Armistice  will  not  be  made  public 
without  prior  approval  of  the  Allied 
Commander  in  Chief.  The  English 
will  be  considered  the  official  text. 


[Signed:]  MARSHAL  PIETRO  BADOGLIO,  Head  of  Italian  Government,  by: 
GUISEPPE  CASTELLANO,  Brigadier  General,  attached  to  the  Italian  High 
Command;  D WIGHT  D.  EISENHOWER,  General,  U.  S.  Army,  Commander  in 
Chief,  Allied  Forces,  by:  WALTER  B.  SMITH,  Major  General,  U.  S.  Army, 
Chief  of  Staff. 

Present:  RT.  HON.  HAROLD  MACMILLAN,  British  Resident  Minister, 
A.F.H.Q.;  ROBERT  MURPHY,  Personal  Representative  of  the  President  of  the 
United  States;  ROVER  DICK,  Commodore,  R.N.,  Chief  of  Staff  to  the  C.  in  C. 
Med.;  LOWELL  W.  ROOKS,  Major  General,  U.  5.  Army,  Assistant  Chief  of 
Staff,  G-3  A.F.H.Q.;  FRANCO  MONTANARI,  Official  Italian  Interpreter; 
BRIGADIER  KENNETH  STRONG,  Assistant  Chief  of  Staff,  G-3  A.F.H.Q. 


No.  625a 

Instrument  of  Surrender  of  Italy.    Signed  at  Malta,  September  29, 

1943- 

Acte  de  reddition  de  1'Italie.    Signe  &  Malte,  29  septembre  1943. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Instrument,  which  supplements  the  conditions  of  armistice  of 
September  3,  1943  (No.  625,  ante),  was  modified  by  a  protocol  of  November  9,  1943  (No. 
62 5b,  post).  For  a  letter  of  the  Allied  Commander  in  Chief  interpreting  this  Instrument, 
see  13  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1945),  p.  754.  See  also  a  commentary  on  the 
execution  of  this  Instrument,  idem,  pp.  759-61. 


Sept.  29,  1943 


SURRENDER  OF  ITALY 


53 


BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Instrument  is  also  published  in  Br.  Parl.  Papers,  Italy 
No.  i  (1945),  Cmd.  6693,  p.  4;  United  States  and  Italy,  1936-1946,  U.S.  Department  of  State 
Publication  2669  (European  Series  17),  p.  55.  See  also  12  Rivista  di  stvdi  potttici  inter- 
nazionali  (1945),  p.  181. 

Entered  into  force  September  29,  1943.* 
Text  from  U.S.  Treaties  and  Other  International  Acts  Series,  No.  1604,  p.  3. 


Whereas  in  consequence  of  an 
armistice  dated  September  3rd,  1943, 
between  the  United  States  and  the 
United  Kingdom  Governments  on 
the  one  hand  and  the  Italian  Govern- 
ment on  the  other  hand,  hostilities 
were  suspended  between  Italy  and 
the  United  Nations  on  certain  terms 
of  a  military  nature; 

And  whereas  in  addition  to  those 
terms  it  was  also  provided  in  the  said 
Armistice  that  the  Italian  Govern- 
ment bound  themselves  to  comply 
with  other  conditions  of  a  political, 
economic  and  financial  nature  to  be 
transmitted  later; 

And  whereas  it  is  convenient  that 
the  terms  of  a  military  nature  and 
the  said  other  conditions  of  a  politi- 
cal, economic  and  financial  nature 
should  without  prejudice  to  the  con- 
tinued validity  of  the  terms  of  the 
said  Armistice  of  September  3rd, 
1943,  be  comprised  in  a  further  in- 
strument; 

The  following  together  with  the 
terms  of  the  Armistice  of  September 
3rd,  1943,  are  the  terms  on  which  the 
United  States  and  United  Kingdom 
Governments  acting  on  behalf  of  the 
United  Nations  are  prepared  to 
suspend  hostilities  against  Italy  so 
long  as  their  military  operations 
against  Germany  and  her  Allies  are 
not  obstructed  and  Italy  does  not 
assist  these  Powers  in  any  way  and 
complies  with  the  requirements  of 
these  Governments. 

These  terms  have  been  presented 
by  General  Dwight  D.  Eisenhower, 
Commander-in-Chief,  Allied  Forces, 
duly  authorised  to  that  effect; 

And  have  been  accepted  by  Mar- 


shal Pietro  Badoglio,  Head  of  the 
Italian  Government. 

i. — (A)  The  Italian  Land,  Sea  and 
Air  Forces  wherever  located,  hereby 
surrender  unconditionally. 

(B)  Italian   participation   in   the 
war  in  all  Theaters  will  cease  im- 
mediately.    There  will  be  no  opposi- 
tion to  landings,  movements  or  other 
operations  of  the  Land,  Sea  and  Air 
Forces  of  the  United  Nations.    Ac- 
cordingly, the  Italian  Supreme  Com- 
mand will  order  the  immediate  cessa- 
tion of  hostilities  of  any  kind  against 
the  Forces  of  the  United  Nations  and 
will  direct  the  Italian  Navy,  Military 
and   Air   Force   authorities   in    all 
Theaters  to  issue  forthwith  the  ap- 
propriate instructions  to  those  under 
their  Command. 

(C)  The   Italian  Supreme   Com- 
mand will  further  order  all  Italian 
Naval,  Military  and  Air  Forces  or 
authorities  and  personnel  to  refrain 
immediately  from  destruction  of  or 
damage  to  any  real  or  personal  prop- 
erty, whether  public  or  private. 

2.  The  Italian  Supreme  Command 
will  give  full  information  concerning 
the  disposition  and  condition  of  all 
Italian  Land,  Sea  and  Air  Forces, 
wherever  they  are  situated  and  of  all 
such  forces  of  Italy's  Allies  as  are 
situated  in  Italian  or  Italian  occu- 
pied territory. 

3.  The  Italian  Supreme  Command 
will  take  the  necessary  measures  to 
secure  airfields,  port  facilities,  and 
all  other  installations  against  seizure 
or  attack  by  any  of  Italy's  Allies. 
The  Italian  Supreme  Command  will 
take  the  necessary  measures  to  in- 
sure Law  and  Order,  and  to  use  its 


1  Published  on  November  6,  1945. 


54 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  625a 


available  armed  forces  to  insure 
prompt  and  exact  compliance  with 
all  the  provisions  of  the  present  in- 
strument. Subject  to  such  use  of 
Italian  troops  for  the  above  pur- 
poses, as  may  be  sanctioned  by  the 
Allied  Commander-in-Chief ,  all  other 
Italian  Land,  Sea  and  Air  Forces  will 
proceed  to  and  remain  in  their  bar- 
racks, camps  or  ships  pending  direc- 
tions from  the  United  Nations  as  to 
their  future  status  and  disposal. 
Exceptionally  such  Naval  personnel 
shall  proceed  to  shore  establishments 
as  the  United  Nations  may  direct. 

4.  Italian    Land,    Sea    and    Air 
Forces  will  within  the  periods  to  be 
laid  down  by  the  United  Nations 
withdraw    from    all    areas    outside 
Italian    territory    notified    to    the 
Italian  Government  by  the  United 
Nations  and  proceed  to  areas  to  be 
specified    by    the    United    Nations. 
Such  movement  of  Italian  Land,  Sea 
and  Air  Forces  will  be  carried  out 
in  conditions  to  be  laid  down  by  the 
United  Nations  and  in  accordance 
with  the  orders  to  be  issued  by  them. 
All    Italian    officials    will    similarly 
leave  the  areas  notified  except  any 
who  may  be  permitted  to  remain  by 
the    United    Nations.     Those    per- 
mitted to  remain  will  comply  with 
the  instructions  of  the  Allied  Com- 
mander-in-Chief. 

5.  No  requisitioning,  seizures  or 
other    coercive    measures    shall    be 
effected  by  Italian  Land,  Sea  and 
Air  Forces  or  officials  in  regard  to 
persons   or   property   in    the   areas 
notified  under  Article  4. 

6.  The  demobilization  of  Italian 
Land,  Sea  and  Air  Forces  in  excess 
of  such  establishments  as  shall  be 
notified  will  take  place  as  prescribed 
by  the  Allied  Commander-in-Chief. 

7.  Italian  warships  of  all  descrip- 
tions, auxiliaries  and  transports  will 
be  assembled  as  directed  in  ports  to 
be   specified    by   the   Allied    Com- 
mander-in-Chief and  will  be  dealt 
with   as   prescribed   by   the  Allied 
Commander-in-Chief.    (Note.    If  at 


the  date  of  the  Armistice  the  whole 
of  the  Italian  Fleet  has  been  assem- 
bled in  Allied  ports,  this  article 
would  run — "  Italian  warships  of  all 
descriptions,  auxiliaries,  and  trans- 
ports will  remain  until  further  notice 
in  the  ports  where  they  are  at  present 
assembled,  and  will  be  dealt  with 
as  prescribed  by  the  Allied  Com- 
mander-in-Chief.") 

8.  Italian  aircraft  of  all  kinds  will 
not  leave  the  ground  or  water  or 
ships,  except  as  directed  by  the  Al- 
lied Commander-in-Chief. 

9.  Without  prejudice  to  the  pro- 
visions 14,  15  and  28  (A)  and  (D) 
below,  all  merchant  ships,  fishing  or 
other  craft  of  whatever  flag,  all  air- 
craft and  inland  transport  of  what- 
ever nationality  in  Italian  or  Italian- 
occupied    territory   or   waters   will, 
pending  verification  of  their  identity 
and  status,  be  prevented  from  leaving. 

10.  The    Italian    Supreme    Com- 
mand  will   make   available   all   in- 
formation about  naval,  military  and 
air  devices,    installations,    and   de- 
fences, about  all  transport  and  inter- 
communication systems  established 
by  Italy  or  her  allies  on  Italian  terri- 
tory or  in  the  approaches  thereto, 
about  minefields  or  other  obstacles 
to  movement  by  land,  sea  or  air  and 
such  other  particulars  as  the  United 
Nations  may  require  in  connection 
with  the  use  of  Italian  bases,  or  with 
the  operations,  security,  or  welfare 
of  the  United   Nations  Land,   Sea 
or  Air  Forces.     Italian  forces  and 
equipment  will  be  made  available  as 
required  by  the  United  Nations  for 
the  removal  of  the  above  mentioned 
obstacles. 

11.  The  Italian  Government  will 
furnish  forthwith  lists  of  quantities 
of  all  war  material  showing  the  loca- 
tion of  the  same.     Subject  to  such 
use   as   the  Allied   Commander-in- 
Chief  may  make  of  it,  the  war  mate- 
rial will  be  placed  in  store  under  such 
control  as  he  may  direct.     The  ulti- 
mate disposal  of  war  material  will  be 
prescribed  by  the  United  Nations. 


Sept.  29,  1943 


SURRENDER  OF  ITALY 


55 


12.  There  will  be  no  destruction  of 
nor  damage  to  nor  except  as  author- 
ized or  directed  by  the  United  Na- 
tions any  removal  of  war  material, 
wireless,  radio  location  or  meteoro- 
logical   stations,    railroad,    port   or 
other    installations    or    in    general, 
public  or  private  utilities  or  property 
of  any  kind,  wherever  situated,  and 
the  necessary  maintenance  and  re- 
pair will  be  the  responsibility  of  the 
Italian  authorities. 

13.  The  manufacture,  production 
and  construction  of  war  material  and 
its  import,  export  and  transit  is  pro- 
hibited, except  as  directed  by  the 
United  Nations.     The  Italian  Gov- 
ernment will  comply  with  any  direc- 
tions given  by  the  United  Nations 
for  the  manufacture,  production  or 
construction  and  the  import,  export 
or  transit  of  war  material. 

14. — (A)  All  Italian  merchant 
shipping  and  fishing  and  other  craft, 
wherever  they  may  be,  and  any  con- 
structed or  completed  during  the 
period  of  the  present  instrument  will 
be  made  available  in  good  repair  and 
in  seaworthy  condition  by  the  com- 
petent Italian  authorities  at  such 
places  and  for  such  purposes  and 
periods  as  the  United  Nations  may 
prescribe.  Transfer  to  enemy  or 
neutral  flags  is  prohibited.  Crews 
will  remain  on  board  pending  further 
instructions  regarding  their  con- 
tinued employment  or  dispersal. 
Any  existing  options  to  repurchase 
or  re-acquire  or  to  resume  control  of 
Italian  or  former  Italian  vessels  sold 
or  otherwise  transferred  or  chartered 
during  the  war  will  forthwith  be 
exercised  and  the  above  provisions 
will  apply  to  all  such  vessels  and 
their  crews. 

(B)  All  Italian  inland  transport 
and  all  port  equipment  will  be  held 
at  the  disposal  of  the  United  Nations 
for  such  purposes  as  they  may  direct. 

15.  United  Nations  merchant  ships, 
fishing  and  other  craft  in  Italian 
hands  wherever  they  may  be  (includ- 
ing for  this  purpose  those  of  any 


country  which  has  broken  off  diplo- 
matic relations  with  Italy)  whether 
or  not  the  title  has  been  transferred 
as  the  result  of  prize  court  proceed- 
ings or  otherwise,  will  be  surrendered 
to  the  United  Nations  and  will  be 
assembled  in  ports  to  be  specified  by 
the  United  Nations  for  disposal  as 
directed  by  them.  The  Italian  Gov- 
ernment will  take  all  such  steps  as 
may  be  required  to  secure  any  neces- 
sary transfers  of  title.  Any  neutral 
merchant  ship,  fishing  or  other  craft 
under  Italian  operation  or  control 
will  be  assembled  in  the  same  man- 
ner pending  arrangements  for  their 
ultimate  disposal.  Any  necessary 
repairs  to  any  of  the  above  men- 
tioned vessels  will  be  effected  by  the 
Italian  Government,  if  required,  at 
their  expense.  The  Italian  Govern- 
ment will  take  the  necessary  meas- 
ures to  insure  that  the  vessels  and 
their  cargo  are  not  damaged. 

1 6.  No  radio  or  telecommunica- 
tion installations  or  other  forms  of 
intercommunication,  shore  or  afloat, 
under  Italian  control  whether  be- 
longing to  Italy  or  any  nation  other 
than  the  United  Nations  will  trans- 
mit until  directions  for  the  control  of 
these  installations  have  been  pre- 
scribed by  the  Allied  Commander- 
in-Chief.     The    Italian    authorities 
will  conform  to  such  measures  for 
control  and  censorship  of  press  and 
of  other  publications,  of  theatrical 
and  cinematograph  performances,  of 
broadcasting,  and  also  of  all  forms  of 
intercommunication    as   the   Allied 
Commander-in-Chief     may    direct. 
The   Allied   Commander-in-Chief 
may,  at  his  discretion,   take  over 
radio,  cable  and  other  communica- 
tion stations. 

17.  The  warships,  auxiliaries,  trans- 
ports and  merchant  and  other  vessels 
and  aircraft  in  the  service  of  the 
United  Nations  will  have  the  right 
freely  to  use  the  territorial  waters 
around  and  the  air  over  Italian  terri- 
tory. 

1 8.  The  forces  of  the  United  Na- 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  625a 


tions  will  require  to  occupy  certain 
parts  of  Italian  territory.  The  terri- 
tories or  areas  concerned  will  from 
time  to  time  be  notified  by  the 
United  Nations  and  all  Italian  Land, 
Sea  and  Air  Forces  will  thereupon 
withdraw  from  such  territories  or 
areas  in  accordance  with  the  instruc- 
tions issued  by  the  Allied  Com- 
mander-in-Chief. The  provisions  of 
this  article  are  without  prejudice  to 
those  of  article  4  above.  The  Italian 
Supreme  Command  will  guarantee 
immediate  use  and  access  to  the 
Allies  of  all  airfields  and  Naval  ports 
in  Italy  under  their  control. 

19.  In  the  territories  or  areas  re- 
ferred to  in  article  18,  all  Naval, 
Military  and  Air  installations,  power 
stations,  oil  refineries,  public  utilky 
services,  all  ports  and  harbors,  all 
transport  and  all  intercommunication 
installations,    facilities   and    equip- 
ment and  such  other  installations  or 
facilities  and  all  such  stocks  as  may 
be  required  by  the  United  Nations 
will  be  made  available  in  good  condi- 
tion by  the  competent  Italian  au- 
thorities with  the  personnel  required 
for  working  them.    The  Italian  Gov- 
ernment will  make  available  such 
other  local  resources  or  services  as 
the  United  Nations  may  require. 

20.  Without  prejudice  to  the  pro- 
visions of  the  present  instrument  the 
United    Nations    will    exercise    all 
the  rights  of  an  occupying  power 
throughout  the  territories  or  areas 
referred  to  in  article  18,  the  adminis- 
tration of  which  will  be  provided  for 
by  the  issue  of  proclamations,  orders 
or    regulations.    Personnel    of    the 
Italian  administrative,  judicial  and 
public  services  will  carry  out  their 
functions  under  the  control  of  the 
Allied    Commander-in-Chief   unless 
otherwise  directed. 

21.  In  addition  to  the  rights  in 
respect  of  occupied  Italian  territories 
described  in  articles  18  to  20, 

(A)  Members  of  the  Land,  Sea  or 
Air  Forces  and  officials  of  the  United 
Nations  will  have  the  right  of  pas- 


sage in  or  over  non-occupied  Italian 
territory  and  will  be  afforded  all  the 
necessary  facilities  and  assistance  in 
performing  their  functions. 

(B)  The  Italian  authorities  will 
make  available  on  non-occupied 
Italian  territory  all  transport  facili- 
ties required  by  the  United  Nations 
including  free  transit  for  their  war 
material  and  supplies,  and  will  com- 
ply with  instructions  issued  by  the 
Allied  Commander-in-Chief  regard- 
ing the  use  and  control  of  airfields, 
ports,  shipping,  inland  transport 
systems  and  vehicles,  intercommuni- 
cation systems,  power  stations  and 
public  utility  services,  oil  refineries, 
stocks  and  such  other  fuel  and  power 
supplies  and  means  of  producing 
same,  as  United  Nations  may  spec- 
ify t  together  with  connected  repair 
and  construction  facilities. 

22.  The  Italian  Government  and 
people  will  abstain  from  all  action 
detrimental  to  the  interests  of  the 
United  Nations  and  will  carry  out 
promptly  and  efficiently  all  orders 
given  by  the  United  Nations. 

23.  The  Italian  Government  will 
make  available  such  Italian  currency 
as  the  United  Nations  may  require. 
The  Italian  Government  will  with- 
draw and  redeem  in  Italian  currency 
within  such  time  limits  and  on  such 
terms  as  the  United  Nations  may 
specify  all  holdings  in  Italian  terri- 
tory  of  currencies   issued    by   the 
United  Nations  during  military  oper- 
ations or  occupation  and  will  hand 
over  the  currencies  withdrawn  free  of 
cost  to  the  United  Nations.    The 
Italian  Government  will  take  such 
measures  as  may  be  required  by  the 
United  Nations  for  the  control  of 
banks  and  business  in  Italian  terri- 
tory, for  the  control  of  foreign  ex- 
change and  foreign  commercial  and 
financial  transactions  and   for  the 
regulation  of  trade  and  production 
and  will  comply  with  any  instruc- 
tions issued  by  the  United  Nations 
regarding  these  and  similar  matters. 

24.  There  shall  be  no  financial, 


Sept.  29,  1943 


SURRENDER  OF  ITALY 


57 


commercial  or  other  intercourse  with 
or  dealings  with  or  for  the  benefit  of 
countries  at  war  with  any  of  the 
United  Nations  or  territories  occu- 
pied by  such  countries  or  any  other 
foreign  country  except  under  au- 
thorisation of  the  Allied  Commander- 
in-Chief  or  designated  officials. 

25. — (A)  Relations  with  countries 
at  war  with  any  of  the  United  Na- 
tions, or  occupied  by  any  such  coun- 
try, will  be  broken  off.  Italian 
diplomatic,  consular  and  other  offi- 
cials and  members  of  the  Italian 
Land,  Sea  and  Air  Forces  accredited 
to  or  serving  on  missions  with  any 
such  country  or  in  any  other  terri- 
tory specified  by  the  United  Nations 
will  be  recalled.  Diplomatic  and 
consular  officials  of  such  countries 
will  be  dealt  with  as  the  United  Na- 
tions may  prescribe. 

(B)  The  United  Nations  reserve 
the  right  to  require  the  withdrawal  of 
neutral  diplomatic  and  consular  offi- 
cers from  occupied  Italian  territory 
and  to  prescribe  and  lay  down  regu- 
lations governing  the  procedure  for 
the  methods  of  communication  be- 
tween the  Italian  Government  and 
its  representatives  in  neutral  coun- 
tries and  regarding  communications 
emanating  from  or  destined  for  the 
representatives  of  neutral  countries 
in  Italian  territory. 

26.  Italian  subjects  will  pending 
further   instructions    be    prevented 
from  leaving  Italian  territory  except 
as  authorised  by  the  Allied  Com- 
mander-in-Chief  and  will  not  in  any 
event  take  service  with  any  of  the 
countries  or  in  any  of  the  territories 
referred  to  in  article  25  (A)  nor  will 
they  proceed  to  any  place  for  the 
purpose  of  undertaking  work  for  any 
such  country.    Those  at  present  so 
serving  or  working  will  be  recalled  as 
directed  by  the  Allied  Commander- 
in-Chief. 

27.  The  Military,  Naval  and  Air 
personnel  and  material  and  the  mer- 
chant shipping,   fishing  and  other 
craft  and  the  aircraft,  vehicles  and 


other  transport  equipment  of  any 
country  against  which  any  of  the 
United  Nations  is  carrying  on  hos- 
tilities or  which  is  occupied  by  any 
such  country,  remain  liable  to  attack 
or  seizure  wherever  found  in  or  over 
Italian  territory  or  waters. 

28. — (A)  The  warships,  auxiliaries 
and  transports  of  any  such  country  or 
occupied  country  referred  to  in  arti- 
cle 27  in  Italian  or  Italian-occupied 
ports  and  waters  and  the  aircraft, 
vehicles  and  other  transport  equip- 
ment of  such  countries  in  or  over 
Italian  or  Italian-occupied  territory 
will,  pending  further  instructions,  be 
prevented  from  leaving. 

(B)  The  Military,  Naval  and  Air 
personnel  and  the  civilian  nationals 
of  any  such  country  or  occupied 
country  in  Italian  or  Italian-occu- 
pied territory  will  be  prevented  from 
leaving  and  will  be  interned  pending 
further  instructions. 

(C)  All  property  in  Italian  terri- 
tory belonging  to  any  such  country 
or  occupied  country  or  its  nationals 
will  be  impounded  and  kept  in  cus- 
tody pending  further  instructions. 

(D)  The  Italian  Government  will 
comply  with  any  instructions  given 
by  the  Allied  Commander-in-Chief 
concerning  the  internment,  custody' 
or  subsequent  disposal,  utilisation  or 
employment  of  any  of  the  above 
mentioned  persons,  vessels,  aircraft, 
material  or  property. 

29.  Benito   Mussolini,    his    Chief 
Fascist  associates  and   all   persons 
suspected  of  having  committed  war 
crimes  or  analogous  offences  whose 
names  appear  on  lists  to  be  com- 
municated by  the  United  Nations 
will  forthwith  be  apprehended  and 
surrendered  into  the  hands  of  the 
United  Nations.    Any  instructions 
given  by  the  United  Nations  for  this 
purpose  will  be  complied  with. 

30.  All  Fascist  organisations,  in- 
cluding all  branches  of  the  Fascist 
Militia  (MVSN),  the  Secret  Police 
(OVRA),  all  Fascist  youth  organisa- 
tions will  insofar  as  this  is  not  al- 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  6253 


ready  accomplished  be  disbanded  in 
accordance  with  the  directions  of  the 
Allied  Commander-in-Chief.  The 
Italian  Government  will  comply 
with  all  such  further  directions  as  the 
United  Nations  may  give  for  aboli- 
tion of  Fascist  institutions,  the  dis- 
missal and  internment  of  Fascist  per- 
sonnel, the  control  of  Fascist  funds, 
the  suppression  of  Fascist  ideology 
and  teaching. 

31.  All  Italian  laws  involving  dis- 
crimination on  grounds  of  race,  color, 
creed  or  political  opinions  will  insofar 
as  this  is  not  already  accomplished 
be  rescinded,  and  persons  detained 
on  such  grounds  will,  as  directed  by 
the  United  Nations,  be  released  and 
relieved  from  all  legal  disabilities  to 
which  they  have  been  subjected. 
The  Italian  Government  will  comply 
with  all  such  further  directions  as 
the  Allied  Commander-in-Chief  may 
give  for  repeal  of  Fascist  legislation 
and  removal  of  any  disabilities  or 
prohibitions  resulting  therefrom. 

32. — (A)  Prisoners  of  war  belong- 
ing to  the  forces  of  or  specified  by  the 
United  Nations  and  any  nationals  of 
the  United  Nations,  including  Abys- 
sinian subjects,  confined,  interned,  or 
otherwise  under  restraint  in  Italian 
or  Italian-occupied  territory  will  not 
be  removed  and  will  forthwith  be 
handed  over  to  representatives  of  the 
United  Nations  or  otherwise  dealt 
with  as  the  United  Nations  may  di- 
rect. Any  removal  during  the  pe- 
riod between  the  presentation  and 
the  signature  of  the  present  instru- 
ment will  be  regarded  as  a  breach  of 
its  terms. 

(B)  Persons  of  whatever  national- 
ity who  have  been  placed  under  re- 
striction, detention  or  sentence  (in- 
cluding sentences  in  absentia)   on 
account  of  their  dealings  or  syn> 
pathies  with  the  United  Nations  will 
be  released  under  the  direction  of  the 
United  Nations  and  relieved  from 
all  legal  disabilities  to  which  they 
have  been  subjected. 

(C)  The  Italian  Government  will 


take  such  steps  as  the  United  Na- 
tions may  direct  to  safeguard  the 
persons  of  foreign  nationals  and 
property  of  foreign  nationals  and 
property  of  foreign  states  and  na- 
tionals. 

33. — (A)  The  Italian  Government 
will  comply  with  such  directions  as 
the  United  Nations  may  prescribe 
regarding  restitution,  deliveries,  serv- 
ices or  payments  by  way  of  repara- 
tion and  payment  of  the  costs  of 
occupation  during  the  period  of  the 
present  instrument. 

(B)  The  Italian  Government  will 
give  to  the  Allied  Commander-in- 
Chief  such  information  as  may 
be  prescribed  regarding  the  assets, 
whether  inside  or  outside  Italian 
territory,  of  the  Italian  state,  the 
Bank  of  Italy,  any  Italian  state  or 
semi-state  institutions  or  Fascist  or- 
ganisations or  residents  in  Italian 
territory  and  will  not  dispose  or 
allow  the  disposal,  outside  Italian 
territory  of  any  such  assets  except 
with  the  permission  of  the  United 
Nations. 

34.  The  Italian  Government  will 
carry  out  during  the  period  of  the 
present  instrument  such  measures  of 
disarmament,  demobilisation  and  de- 
militarisation as  may  be  prescribed 
by  the  Allied  Commander-in-Chief. 

35.  The  Italian  Government  will 
supply  all  information  and  provide 
all  documents  required  by  the  United 
Nations.    There  shall  be  no  destruc- 
tion   or   concealment    of    archives, 
records,  plans  or  any  other  docu- 
ments or  information. 

36.  The  Italian  Government  will 
take  and  enforce  such  legislative  and 
other  measures  as  may  be  necessary 
for  the  execution  of  the  present  in- 
strument.    Italian  military  and  civil 
authorities  will  comply  with  any  in- 
structions issued  by  the  Allied  Com- 
mander-in-Chief for  the  same  pur- 
pose. 

37.  There    will    be    appointed    a 
Control  Commission  representative 
of  the  United  Nations  charged  with 


Sept.  29,  1943 


SURRENDER  OF  ITALY 


59 


regulating  and  executing  this  instru- 
ment under  the  orders  and  general 
directions  of  the  Allied  Commander- 
in-Chief. 

38.— (A)  The  term  ''United  Na- 
tions1' in  the  present  instrument  in- 
cludes the  Allied  Commander-in- 
Chief,  the  Control  Commission  and 
any  other  authority  which  the 
United  Nations  may  designate. 

(B)  The  term  "Allied  Commander- 
jn-Chief "  in  the  present  instrument 
includes  the  Control  Commission 
and  such  other  officers  and  repre- 
sentatives as  the  Commander-in- 
Chief  may  designate. 

39.  Reference    to    Italian    Land, 
Sea  and  Air  Forces  in  the  present  in- 
strument shall  be  deemed  to  include 
Fascist  Militia  and  all  such  other 
military  or  para-military  units,  for- 
mations or  bodies  as  the  Allied  Com- 
mander-in-Chief  may  prescribe. 

40.  The  term  "War  Material "  in 
the  present  instrument  denotes  all 
material  specified  in  such  lists  or 
definitions  as  may  from  time  to  time 
be  issued  by  the  Control  Commis- 
sion. 

41.  The  term  "Italian  Territory " 
includes  all  Italian  colonies  and  de- 
pendencies and  shall  for  the  purposes 
of  the  present  instrument  (but  with- 
out  prejudice   to   the   question   of 
sovereignty)  be  deemed  to  include 
Albania.     Provided    however    that 
except  in  such  cases  and  to  such  ex- 
tent as  the  United  Nations  may  di- 

BADOGLIO 

Marshal  Pietro  Badoglio 
Head  of  the  Italian  Government 


rect  the  provisions  of  the  present  in- 
strument shall  not  apply  in  or  affect 
the  administration  of  any  Italian 
colony  or  dependency  already  occu- 
pied by  the  United  Nations  or  the 
rights  or  powers  therein  possessed  or 
exercised  by  them. 

42.  The  Italian  Government  will 
send  a  delegation  to  the  Headquar- 
ters of  the  Control  Commission  to 
represent   Italian  interests  and   to 
transmit  the  orders  of  the  Control 
Commission  to  the  competent  Italian 
authorities. 

43.  The  present  instrument  shall 
enter  into  force  at  once.     It  will  re- 
main in  operation  until  superseded 
by  any  other  arrangements  or  until 
the  voting  into  force  of  the  peace 
treaty  with  Italy. 

44.  The  present  instrument  may 
be  denounced  by  the  United  Nations 
with  immediate  effect  if  Italian  obli- 
gations thereunder  are  not  fulfilled 
or,  as  an  alternative,  the  United  Na- 
tions may  penalize  contravention  of 
it  by  measures  appropriate  to  the 
circumstances  such  as  the  extension 
of  the  areas  of  military  occupation 
or  air  or  other  punitive  action. 

The  present  instrument  is  drawn 
up  in  English  and  Italian,  the  Eng- 
list  text  being  authentic,  and  in  case 
of  any  dispute  regarding  its  inter- 
pretation, the  decision  of  the  Control 
Commission  will  prevail. 

SIGNED  at  Malta  on  the  29  day  of 
September,  1943. 

DWIGHT  D.  EISENHOWER 

Dwight  D.  Eisenhower 

General,  United  States  Army, 

Commander -in-Chief,  Allied  Force 


6o 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 

No.  625b 


Protocol  Amending  the  Instrument  of  Surrender  of  Italy. 
Brindisi,  November  9,  1943. 

Protocole  amendant  1'Acte  de  reddition  de  1'Italie. 

9  novembre  1943. 


No.  62sb 

Signed  at 
Signe  &  Brindisi, 


BIBLIOGRAPHY.    The  text  of  this  Protocol  is  also  published  in  Br.  Par/.  Papers,  Italy 
No.  I  (I945)»  Cmd.  6693,  p.  u. 

Entered  into  force  November  9,  1943. 

Text  from  U.S.  Treaties  and  Other  International  Acts  Series,  No.  1604,  p.  23. 


It  is  agreed  that  the  title  of  the 
document  signed  at  Malta  on  Sep- 
tember 29,  1943  by  Marshal  Pietro 
Badoglio,  Head  of  the  Italian  Gov- 
ernment, and  General  Dwight  D. 
Eisenhower,  Commander-in-Chief, 
Allied  Forces,  should  be  changed  to 
"additional  conditions  of  Armistice 
with  Italy/'  The  following  further 
amendments  to  this  document  are 
also  agreed : 

In  the  first  paragraph  of  the  Pre- 
amble the  words  "  acting  in  the  in- 
terests of  all  the  United  Nations  "  are 
inserted  between  the  words  "  gov- 
ernments "  and  "on  the  one  hand". 
The  paragraph  in  question  therefore 
reads  as  follows: 

"Whereas  in  consequence  of  an 
Armistice  dated  September  3,  1943 
between  the  United  States  and 
United  Kingdom  Governments  act- 
ing in  the  interests  of  all  the  United 
Nations  on  the  one  hand,  and  the 
Italian  Government  on  the  other 
hand,  hostilities  were  suspended  be- 
tween Italy  and  United  Nations  on 
certain  terms  of  a  military  nature." 

In  the  fourth  paragraph  of  the 
Preamble  the  words  "and  Soviet" 
are  inserted  between  the  words 
"United  Kingdom"  and  "Govern- 
ments", and  the  word  "and"  be- 
tween the  words  "United  States" 
and  "United  Kingdom"  is  deleted. 
The  paragraph  in  question  therefore 
reads  as  follows: 

"The  following,  together  with  the 


terms  of  the  Armistice  of  September 
3,  1943,  are  the  terms  on  which  the 
United  States,  United  Kingdom  and 
Soviet  Governments,  acting  on  be- 
half of  the  United  Nations,  are  pre- 
pared to  suspend  hostilities  against 
Italy  so  long  as  their  military  opera- 
tions against  Germany  and  the  Allies 
are  not  obstructed  and  Italy  does  not 
assist  these  powers  in  any  way  and 
complies  with  the  requirements  of 
these  governments." 

In  paragraph  six  of  the  Preamble 
the  word  "unconditionally"  is  in- 
serted between  the  word  "accepted" 
and  "by".  The  paragraph  in  ques- 
tion therefore  reads  as  follows : 

"and  have  been  accepted  uncon- 
ditionally by  Marshal  Pietro  Badog- 
lio, Head  of  the  Italian  Government 
representing  the  Supreme  Command 
of  the  Italian  land,  sea  and  air  forces 
and  duly  authorized  to  that  effect  by 
the  Italian  Government." 

In  Article  I  a  the  word  "uncondi- 
tionally" is  deleted.  The  Article  in 
question  therefore  reads  as  follows: 

4  The  Italian  land,  sea  and  air  forces 
wherever  located  hereby  surrender." 

Article  29  is  amended  to  read  as 
follows: 

"Benito  Mussolini,  his  chief  Fasc- 
ist associates,  and  all  persons  sus- 
pected of  having  committed  war 
crimes  or  analogous  offences  whose 
names  appear  on  lists  to  be  com- 
municated by  the  United  Nations 
and  who  now  or  in  the  future  are  on 


Oct.  4,  1943                          INTER-AMERICAN  UNIVERSITY  6l 

territory  controlled  by  the  Allied  The  present  Protocol  is  drawn  up 
Military  Command  or  by  the  Italian  in  English  and  Italian,  the  English 
Government,  will  forthwith  be  ap-  text  being  authentic,  and  in  case  of 
prehended  and  surrendered  into  the  any  dispute  regarding  its  interpreta- 
hands  of  the  United  Nations.  Any  tion  the  decision  of  the  Control  Corn- 
instructions  given  by  the  United  mission  will  prevail. 
Nations  to  this  purpose  will  be  com-  SIGNED  on  the  9th  November  1943 
plied  with."  at  Brindisi. 

NOEL  MACFARLANE  II  Capo  del  Governo  Italiano: 

Lt.  General  BADOGLIO 
For  the  Allied  Commander-in-Chief 


No.  626 

CONVENTION  on  the  Inter-American  University.    Signed  at  Pan- 
ama, October  4,  1943. 

CONVENCION  sobre  la  Universidad  Interamericana.    Firmada  en 
Panamd,  4  de  octubre  de  1943. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Convention  was  adopted  at  the  First  Conference  of  Ministers  and 
Directors  of  Education  of  the  American  Republics  held  at  Panama,  September  27-October 
4,  1943.  The  Statute  of  the  Inter- American  University  was  adopted  at  the  same  time  (No. 
626a,  post).  The  creation  of  a  Pan  American  University  had  been  recommended  by  the 
Third  Pan  American  Scientific  Congress  held  at  Lima,  December  20,  1924-January  6,  1925. 
The  Bolivarian  Congress,  held  at  Panama,  June  18-25,  1926,  adopted  a  proposal  for  the 
establishment  of  a  Bolivarian  University  at  Panama.  The  Inter-American  Congress  of 
Rectors,  Deans,  and  Educators,  held  at  Habana,  February  20-23,  I93°p  proposed  that  the 
Bolivarian  University  be  transformed  into  a  Pan  American  University.  The  Eighth  Amer- 
ican Scientific  Congress,  held  in  Washington,  May  10-18,  1940,  recommended  that  the  Pan 
American  Union  "study  the  most  adequate  measures  to  create  and  support  in  Panama  an 
autonomous  Inter-American  University."  On  March  3,  1943,  the  Governing  Board  of  the 
Pan  American  Union  adopted  a  resolution  giving  assurance  of  the  Union's  cooperation  in  the 
furtherance  of  this  object.  See  also  Resolution  No.  12  of  the  First  Conference  of  the  Minis- 
ters of  Public  Education  of  the  States  of  Central  America  and  Panama,  held  at  San  Jose", 
August  3i-September  5,  1942.  64  Costa  Rica,  La  Gaccta,  Diario  oficial  (1942),  No.  232, 
p.  1862. 

RATIFICATIONS.  On  January  i ,  1949,  a  ratification  of  this  Convention  had  been  deposited 
only  by  Venezuela;  it  had  also  been  ratified  by  Honduras. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  Spanish  version  of  this  Convention  is  also  published  in  Honduras, 
Decretos  del  Congreso  National,  1943-1944,  p.  57;  Libra  amaritto  de  los  Estados  Unidos  de 
Venezuela,  1944,  p.  151. 

Anon.,  "Ministers  and  Directors  of  Education  of  the  American  Republics,  First  Con- 
ference," 78  Bulletin  of  the  Pan  American  Union  (1944),  pp.  13-15;  Anon.,  "Primera  Con- 
ferencia  de  Ministros  y  Directores  de  Educaci6n  de  las  Republicas  Americanas,"  6  Boletin 
del  Ministerio  de  Justicia  e  Instruccidn  PubUca  de  la  Nacidn  Argentina  (1943),  pp.  1840-1915; 
N.  Garay,  "En  Camino  hacia  la  Universidad  Panamericana,"  4  Proceedings  of  the  Second 
Pan  American  Scientific  Congress  (Washington:  Government  Printing  Office,  1917),  pp. 
563-73;  O.  M6ndez  Pereira,  "La  Univereidad  Interamericana/1  12  Proceedings  of  the  Eighth 
American  Scientific  Congress  (Washington:  Department  of  State,  1943)1  PP-  53-6o. 


62 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  626 


Not  entered  into  force  (January  i,  1949). 

Text  from  Pan  American  Union,  Congress  and  Conference  Series,  No.  45,  p.  46. 


The  Governments  represented  at 
the  First  Conference  of  Ministers 
and  Directors  of  Education  of  the 
American  Republics, 

Considering: 

That  the  creation  and  effective 
establishment  of  an  inter-American 
center  of  higher  learning,  a  symbol 
of  the  moral  and  spiritual  unity  of 
the  Americas,  has  occupied  for  a  long 
time  the  attention  of  the  Govern- 
ments and  educators  in  particular; 

This  idea  has  taken  concrete 
form  at  various  Inter- American  Con- 
gresses, namely:  The  Third  and 
Eighth  Scientific  Congresses,  as  well 
as  the  Conference  of  Ministers  of 
Education  of  Central  America; 

The  Governing  Board  of  the  Pan 
American  Union,  by  means  of  a 
Resolution  approved  on  the  third  of 
March  of  the  present  year,  on  the 
establishment  of  the  Inter-American 
University  in  Panama,  expresses  its 
gratitude  to  the  Government  of 
Panama  for  having  taken  such  an 
important  initiative  and  assures  it, 
at  the  same  time,  that  the  Pan 
American  Union  shall  lend  its  most 
decided  support  and  cooperation  in 
carrying  out  the  plan;  and  recom- 
mends, moreover,  to  the  Govern- 
ments, members  of  the  Pan  Ameri- 
can Union,  that  they  cooperate  in 
the  manner  they  deem  appropriate 
in  order  to  assure  the  success  of  this 
project. 

Have  resolved  to  sign  the  present 
Convention,  and  to  that  end  have 
appointed  the  following  Ministers  of 
Education  or  their  representatives: l 

Haiti:  Max  Rigaud; 

Paraguay:  Jos6  Dahlquist; 

Dominican  Republic:  Victor  Gar- 
rido; 

Uruguay:  Alfredo  de  Castro; 

El  Salvador:  Jos6  Andr6s  Orantes; 

Brazil :  Paulo  Germano  Hasslocher ; 


Los  Gobiernos  representados  en  la 
Primera  Conferencia  de  Ministros  y 
Directores  de  Educaci6n  de  las 
Repflblicas  Americanas, 

Considerando: 

Que  la  creaci6n  y  el  establecimi- 
ento  efectivo  de  un  centro  de  cultura 
superior  interamericano,  simbolo  de 
unidad  espiritual  y  moral  dc  las 
Americas,  ha  ocupado  durante  largo 
tiempo  la  atenci6n  de  los  Gobiernos 
y  de  los  educadores  en  particular. 

Que  este  pensamiento  ha  tornado 
forma  concreta  durante  varios  Con- 
gresos  Interamericanos,  a  saber:  el 
Tercero  y  el  Octavo  Cientificos,  mds 
la  Conferencia  de  Ministros  de  Edu- 
caci6n  de  Centro  America ;  y 

Que  el  Consejo  Directive  de  la 
Uni6n  Panamericana,  mediante  Re- 
soluci6n  aprobada  el  dfa  3  de  Marzo 
del  presente  ano  sobre  el  estableci- 
miento  de  la  Universidad  Inter- 
americana  en  Panamd,  expresa  su 
reconocimiento  al  Gobierno  de  Pa- 
namd  por  haber  tornado  tan  impor- 
tante  iniciativa  y  le  asegura  al  mismo 
tiempo  que  la  Uni6n  Panamericana 
le  prestari  su  mds  decidido  apoyo  y 
cooperaci6n  a  fin  de  que  la  lleve  a  la 
pr&ctica,  y  encarece,  adem&s,  a  los 
Gobiernos  que  integran  la  Uni6n 
Panamericana,  que  cooperen  en  la 
forma  que  juzguen  conveniente  para 
garantizar  el  buen  6xito  de  este 
proyecto, 

Han  resuelto  suscribir  la  presente 
Convenci6n  para  cuyo  objeto  ban 
designado  a  los  siguientes  Ministros 
de  Educaci6n  o  sus  Representantes.1 

Haiti:  Max  Rigaud; 

Paraguay:  Jos6  Dahlquist; 

Reptiblica  Dominicana:  Victor 
Garrido; 

Uruguay:  Alfredo  de  Castro; 

El  Salvador:  Jos6  Andr6s  Orantes; 

Brasil:  Paulo  Germano  Hasslocher; 


1  The  titles  of  plenipotentiaries  are  omitted. — ED. 


Oct.  4,  1943 


INTER-AMERICAN  UNIVERSITY 


Cuba:  Jos6  Maria  Chac6n  y  Calvo; 

Honduras:  Angel  G.  Hernandez; 

United  States:  John  W.  Stude- 
baker; 

Bolivia:  Justo  Rodas  Eguino; 

Mexico:  Octavio  V6jar  Vdzquez; 

Colombia:  Carlos  Lozano  y  Lo- 
zano; 

Guatemala:  J.  Antonio  Villacorta; 

Venezuela:  Rafael  Vegas; 

Panama:  Victor  F.  Goytfa; 

Ecuador:  Abelardo  Montalvo; 

Argentina:  Juan  G.  Valenzuela; 

Chile:  Benjamfn  Claro  Velasco; 

Nicaragua:  Ger6nimo  Ramfrez 
Brown ; 

Peru:  Enrique  Laroza; 

Costa  Rica :  Luis  Demetrio  Tinoco. 

Who,  after  having  deposited  their 
credentials,  found  to  be  in  due  and 
proper  form,  have  agreed  as  follows: 

Article  i.  The  Government  of  the 
Republic  of  Panama  shall  donate  the 
lands  on  which  the  buildings  of  the 
Inter-American  University  will  be 
constructed;  it  shall  also  donate,  as  a 
special  contribution  to  the  Univer- 
sity, the  National  Museum  of  Pan- 
ama and  the  equipment,  libraries, 
laboratories,  furniture,  and  financial 
endowment  which  formerly  belonged 
to  the  National  University. 

Art.  2.  The  Governments  of  the 
American  Republics  shall  contribute 
to  the  expenses  of  maintenance  of 
the  University  a  sum  of  money 
which  they  may  decide  to  allocate,  a 
sum  that  shall  not  be  less  than  the 
quota  that  they  are  now  paying  for 
the  maintenance  of  the  Pan  Ameri- 
can Union. 

Art.  3.  The  expenses  for  the  con- 
struction and  equipment  which  shall 
be  done  according  to  a  progressive 
plan,  shall  be  distributed  among  the 
Governments  on  the  same  propor- 
tional basis  established  in  the  pre- 
ceding article.  The  Government  of 
the  Republic  of  Panama  shall  make 
known,  before  this  Convention  is 
ratified,  the  building  plans  and 
projects  and  the  respective  budgets. 


Cuba:  Jos6  Maria  Chac6n  y  Calvo; 

Honduras:  Angel  G.  Hernandez; 

Estados  Unidos  de  America:  John 
W.  Studebaker; 

Bolivia:  Justo  Rodas  Eguino; 

Mexico:  Octavio  Wjar  Vazquez; 

Colombia:  Carlos  Lozano  y  Lo- 
zano; 

Guatemala:  J.  Antonio  Villacorta; 

Venezuela:  Rafael  Vegas; 

PanamA:  Victor  F.  Goytfa; 

Ecuador:  Abelardo  Montalvo; 

Argentina:  Juan  G.  Valenzuela; 

Chile:  Benjamin  Claro  Velasco; 

Nicaragua:  Ger6nimo  Ramfrez 
Brown ; 

Peril:  Enrique  Laroza; 

Costa  Rica:  Luis  Demetrio  Tinoco. 

Quienes,  despu6s  de  haber  mos- 
trado  sus  Poderes  o  Credenciales,  que 
fueron  hallados  en  buena  y  debida 
forma,  han  convenido  lo  siguiente: 

Articulo  i.  El  Gobierno  de  la 
Republica  de  Panam&  donard  los 
terrenes  donde  se  construirdn  los 
edificios  de  la  Universidad  Intera- 
mericana;  donari  asimismo,  como 
contribuci6n  especial  a  la  Universi- 
dad, el  Musep  Nacional  de  Panamd 
y  las  instalaciones,  bibliotecas,  labo- 
ratories, mobiliario  y  dotaci6n  fiscal 
de  que  antes  disponfa  la  Universidad 
Nacional. 

Art.  2.  Los  Gobiernos  de  las 
Republicas  Americanas  contribuirdn 
a  los  gastos  de  mantenimiento  de  la 
Universidad  con  la  suma  de  dinero 
que  tengan  a  bien  erogar,  suma  que 
no  serd  inferior  a  la  cuota  que  actual- 
mente  pagan  para  el  mantenimiento 
de  la  Union  Panamericana. 

Art.  3.  Los  gastos  de  construc- 
ci6n  e  instalaci6n,  que  se  hardn  de 
acuerdo  con  un  plan  progresivo, 
se  distribuirdn  entre  los  Gobiernos 
sobre  la  misma  base  proporcional 
establecida  en  el  Artfculo  anterior. 
El  Gobierno  de  Panamd  comunicari, 
previamente  a  las  ratificaciones  de 
esta  Convenci6n,  los  planes  y  pro- 
yectos  de  edificaci6n  y  los  presupues- 
tos  respectivos. 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  626 


Art.  4.  The  Inter-American  Uni- 
versity shall  make  a  certain  number 
of  scholarships  available  to  students 
of  each  American  country,  in  propor- 
tion to  the  contribution  of  each  one 
of  these  countries  to  the  maintenance 
of  the  Institution.  In  this  same 
manner  students  shall  be  able  to 
receive  direct  help  in  the  form  of 
scholarships  from  the  Governments, 
universities,  and  other  institutions. 

Art.  5.  The  University  shall  en- 
joy all  customs,  postal,  telegraphic 
and  similar  privileges,  and  shall  be 
exempt  from  taxes,  imposts  and 
duties  of  every  kind,  stamped  paper, 
and  other  obligations,  in  all  the  sig- 
natory countries  where  the  Univer- 
sity may  solicit  these  exemptions  and 
facilities.  Likewise  it  shall  enjoy 
governmental  privileges  with  respect 
to  lower  tariffs  of  whatever  nature, 
which  may  have  direct  or  indirect 
relation  to  its  purposes. 

Art.  6.  For  the  functioning  of  the 
rotating  courses  established  by  the 
Statute  of  the  Inter-American  Uni- 
versity, a  common  fund  shall  be  cre- 
ated to  be  formed,  first,  by  the  quota 
that  the  Inter-American  University 
may  agree  to  allot  for  this  purpose, 
and  second,  by  the  contributions  of- 
fered by  the  countries  interested  in 
this  activity  of  the  University. 

Art.  7.  The  Governments  of  the 
signatory  countries  shall  make  an 
examination,  through  the  empow- 
ered organizations,  of  all  the  institu- 
tions or  offices  which  are  at  present 
developing  activities  similar  to  the 
purposes  of  the  Inter- American  Uni- 
versity, in  order  to  prevent  possible 
conflicts  and  to  establish  points  of 
coordination. 

Art.  8.  The  signatory  Govern- 
ments also  agree  to  prevent,  by  the 
legal  means  at  their  disposal,  the  use 
of  the  words,  " Inter- American  Uni- 
versity" either  in  its  present  form  or 
in  combination  with  other  names 
which  might  bring  about  confusion. 


Art.  4.  La  Universidad  Intera- 
mericana  mantendrd  una  cantidad 
de  becas  abiertas  para  estudiantes 
de  cada  pafs  americano,  en  pro- 
porci6n  a  la  contribuci6n  de  cada 
uno  de  6stos  al  sostenimiento  de  la 
Instituci6n.  Del  mismo  modo  los 
estudiantes  podran  recibir  ayuda 
directa  en  forma  de  becas  de  los 
Gobiernos,  las  Universidades  y  otras 
entidades. 

Art.  5.  La  Universidad  gozard  de 
toda  clase  de  franquicias  aduaneras, 
postales,  telegrAficas  y  similares  y 
estari  exenta  de  contribuciones,  im- 
puestos  y  derechos  de  toda  clase, 
timbres,  papel  sellado  y  otros  tribu- 
tos  en  todos  los  pafses  signatarios 
donde  la  Universidad  solicite  estas 
liberaciones  y  facilidades.  Igual- 
mente  gozara  de  los  privilegios  gu- 
bernativos  en  las  tarifas  rebajadas  de 
cualquier  naturaleza,  que  digan  rela- 
ci6n  directa  o  indirecta  con  sus 
finalidades. 

Art.  6.  Para  el  funcionamiento  de 
los  cursos  de  rotaci6n  establecidos 
por  el  Estatuto  de  la  Universidad 
Interamericana  se  creara  un  fondo 
comtin  formado:  primero,  por  la 
cuota  que  la  Universidad  Intera- 
mericana acordare  destinar  para  este 
fin,  y  segundo,  por  las  aportaciones 
que  los  paises  interesados  en  esta 
actividad  de  la  Universidad  desti- 
naren  especialmente. 

Art.  7.  Los  Gobiernos  de  los 
pafses  signatarios  gestionaran  la 
revisi6n  por  los  organismos  capaci- 
tados  de  todos  los  institutes  u  ofi- 
cinas  que  actualmente  desarrollan 
actividades  afines  o  conexas  a  los 
propositos  de  la  Universidad  Intera- 
mericana, con  los  tinicos  objetos  de 
evitar  posibles  interferencias  y  es- 
tablecer  puntos  de  coordinaci6n. 

Art.  8.  Se  comprometen,  asi- 
mismo,  los  Gobiernos  signatarios,  a 
impedir  por  las  vfas  legales  que  est6n 
a  su  alcance,  el  uso  de  las  palabras 
Universidad  Interamericana,  ya  sea 
unidas  las  dos,  o  combinadas  con  otras 
que  pudieren  engendrar  confusiones. 


Oct.  4,  1943 


INTER-AMERICAN  UNIVERSITY 


Art.  9.  This  Convention  shall  be 
ratified  by  the  high  contracting 
parties  in  accordance  with  their  con- 
stitutional procedures.  The  Minis- 
ter of  Foreign  Affairs  of  the  Republic 
of  Panama  shall  preserve  the  origi- 
nals of  this  Convention,  and  shall 
send  certified  copies  to  the  Govern- 
ments for  their  ratification.  The 
instruments  of  ratification  shall  be 
deposited  in  the  archives  of  the  Pan 
American  Union  in  Washington, 
which  shall  notify  the  signatory  Gov- 
ernments of  such  deposit;  this  notifi- 
cation shall  be  equivalent  to  an 
exchange  of  ratifications. 

Art.  10.  This  Convention  shall 
continue  in  force  for  an  initial  period 
of  ten  years.  After  that  time  each 
contracting  country  which  wishes  to 
do  so,  may  withdraw  from  this  Con- 
vention by  giving  advance  notice  of 
one  year  to  the  Pan  American  Union. 

IN  WITNESS  WHEREOF,  the  Min- 
isters of  Education  of  the  American 
Republics  or  their  representatives, 
by  virtue  of  the  authority  conferred 
upon  them,  sign  this  Convention  in 
Spanish,  English,  French  and  Portu- 
guese, in  the  city  of  Panama  on  the 
fourth  day  of  October  of  the  year 
1943- 


Art.  9.  La  presente  Convenci6n 
seri  ratificada  por  las  altas  partes 
contratantes  de  acuerdo  con  los  pro- 
cedimientos  constitucionales.  El 
Ministro  de  Relaciones  Exteriores 
de  la  Reptiblica  de  PanamA  conser- 
vard  los  originates  de  esta  Con- 
venci6n,  y  queda  encargado  de  en- 
viar  copias  aut6nticas  a  los  Gobier- 
nos,  con  el  referido  fin.  Los  instru- 
mentos  de  ratificaci6n  serdn  depo- 
sitados  en  los  archivos  de  la  Uni6n 
Panamericana,  en  Washington,  la 
cual  notificari  dicho  dep6sito  a  los 
Gobiernos  signatarios;  esta  notifica- 
ci6n  serd  equivalente  a  un  canje  de 
ratificaciones. 

Art.  ip.  Este  convenio  tendri  un 
plazo  inicial  de  diez  anos.  A  partir 
de  esta  fecha  cada  pafs  contratante 
que  desee  retirarse  de  este  Convenio 
podrd  hacerlo  con  aviso  anticipado 
de  un  afio,  dirigido  a  la  Uni6n 
Panamericana. 

EN  FE  DE  LO  CUAL  los  Ministros  de 
Educaci6n  de  las  Repfiblicas  Ameri- 
canas  o  sus  Representantes,  haciendo 
constar  su  caricter  y  poderes,  firman 
la  presente  Convenci6n  en  espafiol, 
ingl&s,  francos  y  portugu6s,  en  la 
ciudad  de  Panami,  a  los  cuatro  dias 
del  mes  de  octubre  de  mil  novecien- 
tos  cuarenta  y  tres. 


RESERVATIONS 

Reservation  of  the  Delegation  of  the 
United  States  of  America: 

The  Delegate  of  the  United  States  of 
America  votes  in  the  affirmative,  on  the 
understanding  that  he  will  refer  the  Draft 
Statute  and  the  Draft  Convention  of  the 
Inter-American  University  to  his  Govern- 
ment, and  that  neither  this  vote  nor  any 
provision  of  said  Draft  Statute  or  Draft 
Convention  of  the  Inter- American  Uni- 
versity shall  be  considered  to  commit  the 
Government  of  the  United  States  in  any 
way.  The  Delegate  requests  that  this 
reservation  be  incorporated  in  the  minutes 
of  this  session  and  in  any  document  of  the 
Conference  which  may  contain  the  text 
of  the  Draft  Statute  or  the  Draft  Con- 


RESERVAS 

Reserva  de  la  Delegacidn  de  los  Estados 
Unidos  de  America: 

El  delegado  de  los  Estados  Unidos  de 
America  vota  afirmativamente,  en  el 
entendimiento  de  que  referira  el  Proyecto 
del  Estatuto  y  el  Proyecto  de  Convenci6n 
de  la  Universidad  Interamericana  a  su 
Gobierno,  y  que  ni  este  voto  ni  cualquier 
disposici6n  de  dicho  Proyecto  del  Estatuto 
o  Proyecto  de  Convenci6n  de  la  Universi- 
dad Interamericana  deberd  ser  conside- 
rado  como  obligatorio,  en  ninguna  forma, 
para  el  Gobierno  de  los  Estados  Unidos. 
El  delegado  pide  que  esta  reserva  sea 
incorporada  en  el  Acta  de  esta  sesi6n  y  en 
cualquier  otro  documento  de  la  Con- 
ferencia  que  pueda  contener  el  texto  del 


66 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  626a 


vention  of  the  Inter- American  Univer- 
sity. 

Reservation  of  the  Delegation  of  Argen- 
tina: 

The  Argentine  Delegation  believes  that, 
with  the  creation  of  this  University, 
friendship  and  collaboration  among  the 
peoples  of  the  Continent  will  be  intensi- 
fied; and  consequently  approves  it  with 
great  pleasure,  subject  to  the  understand- 
ing presented  to  the  II  Commission,  that 
the  degrees  conferred  by  the  University 
shall  not  have  international  effect. 


Proyectode  Estatutooel  Proyectode  Con- 
venci6n  de  la  Universidad  Interamericana. 

Reserva  de  la  Delegacion  Argentina: 

La  Delegaci6n  Argentina  considera  que 
con  la  creaci6n  de  esta  Universidad  se 
intensificara  la  confraternidad  y  la  cola- 
boraci6n  entre  los  pueblos  del  Continente; 
y  por  consiguiente  la  aprueba  muy  com- 
placida,  de  acuerdo  con  la  aclaraci6n 
consignada  en  el  seno  de  la  II  Comisi6n  en 
el  sentido  de  que  los  diplomas  que  expida 
no  tendran  efecto  internacional. 


[Signed:]  For  Haiti:  ad  referendum,  MAX  RIGAUD;  for  Paraguay:  ad 
referendum  of  the  approval  of  my  Government,  JOSE  DAHLQUIST;  for  the 
Dominican  Republic:  VfcroR  GARRIDO;  for  Uruguay:  ALFREDO  DE  CASTRO; 
for  El  Salvador:  Jos6  ANDR&S  ORANTES;  for  Brazil:  PAULO  G.  HASSLOCHER  ; 
for  Cuba:  Jos6  MARfA  CnAc6N  Y  CALVO;  for  Honduras:  ANGEL  G.  HER- 
NANDEZ; for  the  United  States  of  America,  with  the  Reservation  set  forth 
above:  JOHN  W.  STUDEBAKER;  for  Bolivia:  JUSTO  RODAS  EGUINO;  for 
Mexico:  OCTAVIO  VEJAR  VAzqusz;  for  Colombia:  ad  referendum,  CARLOS 
LOZANO  Y  LOZANO;  for  Guatemala:  ad  referendum,  J.  ANTONIO  VILLACORTA; 
for  Venezuela:  ad  referendum,  RAFAEL  VEGAS;  for  Panama:  VferoR  F. 
GOYT!A;  for  Ecuador:  ABELARDO  MONTALVO;  for  Argentina:  with  the 
Reservation  set  forth  above,  JUAN  G.  VALENZUELA;  for  Chile:  BENJAMIN 
CLARO  VELASCO;  for  Nicaragua:  GERONIMO  RAM!REZ  BROWN;  for  Peru: 
ENRIQUE  LAROZA;  for  Costa  Rica:  Luis  D.  TINOCO. 


No.  626a 

Statute  of  the  Inter-American  University.    Adopted  at  Panama, 

October  4,  1943. 

Estatuto  de  la  Universidad  Interamericana.    Aprobado  en  Panam&, 

4  de  octubre  de  1943. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Statute  was  adopted  by  and  embodied  in  the  Final  Act  of  the 
First  Conference  of  Ministers  and  Directors  of  Education  of  the  American  Republics  held 
at  Panama,  September  27-October  4,  1943.  For  the  text  of  the  convention  on  this  subject, 
see  No.  626,  ante. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  Spanish  version  of  this  Statute  is  also  published  in  Libra  amarillo 
de  los  Estados  Unidos  de  Venezuela,  1944,  p.  157. 

Not  entered  into  force  (January  i,  1949). 

Text  from  Pan  American  Union,  Congress  and  Conference  Series,  No.  45,  p.  51. 

Los  Gobiernos  representados  en  la 
Conferencia  de  Ministros  y  Direc- 
tores  de  Educaci6n  de  las  Repiiblicas 
Americanas, 


Oct.  4,  1943 


INTER-AMERICAN  UNIVERSITY 


67 


Whereas:  The  creation  and  effec- 
tive establishment  of  an  inter-Amer- 
ican center  of  higher  learning,  a  sym- 
bol of  the  moral  and  spiritual  unity 
of  the  Americas,  has  occupied  for  a 
long  time  the  attention  of  the  Gov- 
ernments and  educators  in  particular; 

This  idea  has  taken  concrete  form 
at  various  Inter-American  Con- 
gresses, namely:  the  Third  and 
Eighth  Scientific  Congresses,  as  well 
as  the  Conference  of  Ministers  of 
Education  of  Central  America; 

The  Governing  Board  of  the  Pan 
American  Union,  by  means  of  a 
Resolution  approved  on  the  third  of 
March  of  the  present  year,  on  the 
establishment  of  the  Inter- American 
University  in  Panama,  expresses  its 
gratitude  to  the  Government  of 
Panama  for  having  taken  such  an  im- 
portant initiative  and  assures  it,  at 
the  same  time,  that  the  Pan  Amer- 
ican Union  shall  lend  its  most  de- 
cided support  and  cooperation  in  car- 
rying out  the  plan ;  and  recommends, 
moreover,  to  the  Governments,  mem- 
bers of  the  Pan  American  Union, 
that  they  cooperate  in  the  manner 
they  deem  appropriate  in  order  to 
assure  the  success  of  this  project. 

The  Governments  represented  at 
the  First  Conference  of  Ministers 
and  Directors  of  Education  of  the 
American  Republics, 

Resolve:  To  formulate  the  follow- 
ing Statute  which  shall  set  the  pat- 
tern of  the  University: 

Article  i.  The  Inter- American 
University  is  a  community  of  culture 
at  the  service  of  the  nations  of  Amer- 
ica. Its  work  shall  always  rest  on  the 
fundamental  principles  of  the  spirit- 
ual, material  and  biological  welfare 
of  our  peoples;  it  shall  uphold  the 
democratic  postulates  and  those  of 
freedom  of  teaching  and  investiga- 
tion; it  shall  respect  religious  and 
political  beliefs  which  do  not  involve 
an ti -democratic  differences  of  caste 
or  race. 

Art.  2.  The  Inter-American  Uni- 
versity shall  have  autonomy  in  all 


Considerando:  Que  la  creaci6n  y  el 
establecimiento  efectivo  de  un  centro 
de  cultura  superior  interamericano, 
simbolo  de  unidad  espiritual  y  moral 
de  las  Americas,  ha  pcupado  durante 
largo  tiempo  la  atenci6n  de  los  Gobier- 
nos  y  de  los  educadores  en  particular; 

Que  este  pensamiento  ha  tornado 
forma  concreta  durante  varios  Con- 
gresos  Interamericanos,  a  saber:  El 
Tercero  y  el  Octavo  Cientfficos,  mAs 
la  Conferencia  de  Ministros  de 
Educaci6n  de  Centro  Am6rica;  y 

Que  el  Consejo  Directive  de  la 
Uni6n  Panamericana,  mediante  Re- 
soluci6n  aprobada  el  dia  3  de  Marzo 
del  presente  ano,  sobre  el  estableci- 
miento de  la  Universidad  Interame- 
ricana  en  PanamA,  expresa  su  reco- 
nocimiento  al  Gobierno  de  PanamA 
por  haber  tornado  tan  importante 
iniciativa  y  le  asegura  al  mismo 
tiempo  que  la  Uni6n  Panamericana 
le  prestarA  su  mAs  decidido  apoyo  y 
cooperaci6n  a  fin  de  que  la  lleve  a  la 
prActica;  y  encarece,  ademAs,  a  los 
Gobiernos  que  integran  la  Uni6n 
Panamericana,  que  cooperen  en  la 
forma  que  juzguen  conveniente  para 
garantizar  el  buen  £xito  de  este 
proyecto. 


Resuelven:  Formular  el  siguiente 
Estatuto  que  normarA  la  vida  de  la 
Universidad  : 

Articulo  i.  La  Universidad  Inter- 
americana  es  una  comunidad  de 
cultura  al  servicio  de  las  naciones  de 
America.  Su  labor  descansarA  siem- 
pre  sobre  los  principios  fundamenta- 
les  de  mejoramiento  espiritual,  mate- 
rial y  bio!6gico  de  nuestros  pueblos; 
sostendrA  los  postulados  democrAti- 
cos  y  los  de  libertad  de  ensenanza  e 
investigaci6n ;  respetarA  los  credos 
religiosos  y  politicos  que  no  entranen 
diferencias  antidemocrAticas  ni  de 
casta  ni  de  raza. 

Art.  2.  La  Universidad  Intera- 
mericana  tendrA  autonomfa  en  todo 


68 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  626a 


its  internal  activities  and  shall  be 
endowed  with  full  legal  personality 
in  all  the  signatory  countries. 

Art.  3.  The  University  shall  have 
its  Seat  in  the  capital  of  Panama  and 
shall  be  located  in  the  place  desig- 
nated by  the  Government  of  Pan- 
ama. 

Art.  4.  The  Inter-American  Uni- 
versity shall  offer  regular  courses  for 
non-graduate  students,  and  courses 
for  graduates  and  post-graduates;  in 
addition,  it  shall  have  extension 
courses  on  popular  culture,  institutes 
of  investigation,  and  seasonal  courses 
to  which  it  can  attract  groups  or- 
ganized by  competent  authorities 
from  the  different  American  coun- 
tries. 

Art.  5.  As  a  fundamental  basis 
for  its  studies  and  research,  the 
Inter-American  University  shall  be 
endowed  with  all  departments  and 
laboratories  of  instruction  and  re- 
search. The  laboratories  and  li- 
braries shall  be  established  with  the 
aid  of  the  governments,  individuals 
and  institutions  interested  in  the 
work  of  inter- American  cooperation. 

Art.  6.  The  University  shall  offer 
courses  and  facilities  for  research  in 
its  various  departments  and  labora- 
tories on  all  the  cultural  problems 
which  affect  the  American  hemi- 
sphere, with  particular  emphasis  on 
History,  Archeology,  Folklore  and 
Popular  Arts,  Languages,  Biology 
applied  to  health,  Statistics,  Eco- 
nomics, and  Comparative  Legisla- 
tion. Such  instruction  shall  be  im- 
parted both  by  the  teaching  per- 
sonnel proper  of  the  University  as 
well  as  by  visiting  or  exchange  pro- 
fessors and  research  scholars,  or  by 
the  competent  personnel  who,  for  the 
same  purpose,  may  be  subsidized  by 
charitable  or  scientific  institutions. 

Art.  7.  The  University  shall  or- 
ganize a  reference  service  for  inter- 
American  technical  and  cultural  con- 
sultations, and  an  information  serv- 


orden  de  actividades  internas  y  estarA 
dotada  de  plena  personalidad  jurf- 
dica  en  todos  los  pafses  signatarios. 

Art.  3.  La  Universidad  tendrA 
como  sede  la  ciudad  capital  de  Pa- 
namA  y  estarA  ubicada  en  el  lugar 
que  designe  el  Gobierno  de  la  Re- 
pflblica  de  PanamA. 

Art.  4.  La  Universidad  Intera- 
mericana  comprenderA  cursos  regu- 
lares  para  estudiantes  no  graduados 
y  cursos  para  graduados  y  post- 
grad uados;  y  cursos  de  extensi6n 
cultural  popular,  institutes  de  in- 
vestigaci6n  y  cursos  de  estaci6n  a 
los  cuales  podrA  atraer  grupos  de  los 
diversos  pafses  americanos,  organiza- 
dos  por  autoridades  competentes. 

Art.  5.  Como  base  fundamental 
de  sus  estudios  e  investigaciones  la 
Universidad  Interamericana  estarA 
dotada  de  todos  los  departamentos  y 
laboratorios  de  instrucci6n  e  investi- 
gaci6n.  Los  laboratorios  y  bibliote- 
cas  podrAn  ser  formados  con  el 
auxilio  de  los  gobiernos  y  de  las 
personas  e  instituciones  interesados 
en  la  obra  de  cooperaci6n  intera- 
mericana. 

Art.  6.  La  Universidad  ofrecerA 
cursos  y  facilidades  de  invcstigaci6n 
en  sus  diversos  departamentos  y 
laboratorios  sobre  todos  los  problc- 
mas  de  cultura  que  atanen  al  He- 
misferio  Americano,  con  6nfasis  par- 
ticular en  la  Historia,  la  Arqueologfa, 
el  Folklore  y  las  Artes  Populares,  las 
Lenguas,  la  Biologfa  aplicada  a  la 
salubridad,  la  Estadfstica,  Economia 
y  Legislaci6n  Comparada,  instruc- 
ci6n  que  serA  impartida  tanto  por  el 
personal  docente  propio  de  la  Uni- 
versidad, como  por  los  profesores  e 
investigadores  visitantes  o  de  in- 
tercambio,  o  el  personal  competente 
que  con  id6nticos  fines  sea  subvencio- 
nado  por  instituciones  ben£ficas  o 
cientfficas. 

Art.  7.  La  Universidad  organi- 
zarA  un  servicio  de  referencias, 
consultas  e  informaciones  t6cnicas  y 
culturales  interamericanas  de  indole 


Oct.  4,  1943 


INTER-AMERICAN  UNIVERSITY 


69 


ice  of  a  bibliographical,  economic, 
financial,  educational,  meteorologi- 
cal, or  other  character. 

Art.  8.  Component  parts  of  the 
Inter-American  University  shall  be, 
among  other  sections  which  may  be 
agreed  upon  in  the  future,  six  re- 
search institutes  and  schools,  as  fol- 
lows: 

1.  INSTITUTE  OF  SANITARY  SCI- 
ENCES, concerned  with  teaching,  re- 
search and  scientific  study  of  public 
health  and  the  related  sciences  in  all 
their  aspects;  but  especially  in  rela- 
tion to  the  problems  of  hygiene  of  the 
greatest  importance  for  the  Amer- 
ican   Continent.     Because    of    the 
complex  character  of  its  structure, 
the  volume  of  its  activities  and  the 
importance  of  its  economic  effort,  the 
Institute  of  Sanitary  Sciences  shall 
enjoy  all  the  privileges  of  an  autono- 
mous body,  administratively  as  well 
as  technically  and  economically,  and 
the    privileges   of   an    international 
character    which    the    governments 
may  grant  it. 

2.  INSTITUTE  OF  AMERICAN  AN- 
THROPOLOGY AND   HISTORY,   to 
strengthen  the  anthropological  stud- 
ies and  related  sciences,  leading  to 
the  knowledge  of  the  origins  and  the 
development  of  the  peoples  of  the 
Continent. 

The  Institute  in  its  investigations, 
excavations,  etc.,  shall  be  empow- 
ered to  visit,  on  the  indication  of  the 
governments,  the  different  countries 
of  the  Continent  for  seminar  work  or 
in  collaboration  with  the  rotating 
courses  hereinafter  set  forth. 

The  results  of  the  investigations 
and  studies  of  the  Institute  shall  be 
published  and  circulated  among  the 
Americanist  and  cultural  institutions 
and  the  Governments  of  the  Conti- 
nent. 

The  bases  for  these  studies  shall  be 
the  Museum  of  Anthropology  of 
Panama,  which,  with  the  coopera- 
tion of  the  remaining  countries,  shall 
be  converted  gradually  into  a  Mu- 


bibliogr&fica,  econ6mica,  financiera, 
educativa,  meteoro!6gica  y  otras 
materias. 

Art.  8.  Formardn  parte  de  la 
Universidad  Interamericana,  entre 
otras  secciones  que  en  el  future 
puedan  acordarse,  los  seis  institutes 
de  investigaci6n  y  seminarios  que  a 
continuaci6n  se  enumeran: 

1.  INSTITUTO  DE  CIENCIAS  SANI- 
TARIAS,  encargado  de  la  ensefianza, 
investigaci6n  y  estudio  cientffico  de 
la  salubridad  pdblica  y  de  las  ciencias 
afines  en  todos  sus  aspectos;  pero 
especialmente  en  relaci6n  a  los  pro- 
blemas  de  higiene  de  mayor  trascen- 
dencia  para  el  continente  americano. 
For  lo  complejo  de  su  estructura,  el 
volumen   de   sus   actividades   y    la 
importancia  de  su  gesti6n  econ6mica, 
el  Institute  de  Ciencias  Sanitarias 
gozarA  de  todos  los  privilegios  de  una 
entidad  aut6noma,  tanto  administra- 
tiva    como    t6cnica    y    econ6mica- 
mente,  y  de  los  de  carActer  interna- 
tional  que   le   reconozcan   los  Go- 
biernos. 

2.  INSTITUTO   DE  ANTROPOLOcfA 
E  HISTORIA  AMERICANAS,  para  pro- 
fundizar  los  estudios  antropo!6gicos 
y  en  ciencias  afines,  conducentes  al 
conocimiento  de  los  orfgenes  y  el 
desarrollo  de  los  pueblos  del  Conti- 
nente. 

El  Institute  en  sus  investigaciones, 
excavaciones  etc.,  ppdrA  visitar,  a 
indicaci6n  de  los  gobiernos,  los  dife- 
rentes  pafses  del  Continente  en  tra- 
bajos  de  seminario  o  en  colaboraci6n 
con  los  cursos  rotatories  que  mAs 
adelante  se  establecen. 

Los  resultados  de  las  investiga- 
ciones y  estudios  del  Institute  serin 
publicados  y  difundidps  entre  las 
mstituciones  americanistas  y  cul- 
turales  y  los  Gobiernos  del  Conti- 
nente. 

Base  de  estos  estudios  serA  el 
Museo  de  Antropologla  de  PanamA, 
el  cual,  con  la  cooperaci6n  de  los 
demAs  paises,  se  irA  convirtiendo 
poco  a  poco  en  un  museo  de  las 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  626a 


seum  of  the  Americas  for  the  study 
of  indigenous  civilizations. 

3.  INSTITUTE  OF  COMPARATIVE 
LEGISLATION  AND  INTERNATIONAL 
LAW,  for  the  individual  and  com- 
parative study  of  legislation  in  its 
different  phases  in  the  countries  of 
America,  and  of  International  Law. 

The  Institute  of  Comparative 
Legislation  and  International  Law 
shall  have  as  its  aims: 

a)  To  organize  courses  and  re- 
search work  on  topics  of  comparative 
legislation  and  international  law,  to 
be  offered  by  outstanding  professors 
and  specialists; 

6)  To  publish  in  the  most  ade- 
quate form  the  result  of  its  doctrinal 
works  and  documents; 

c)  To  create  and  organize  a  law 
library,  principally  about  legislation, 
jurisprudence,  and  doctrines  of  the 
American  Republics; 

d)  To  publish  an  informative  bul- 
letin about  the  legislative  modifica- 
tions and  the  legal  bibliography  of 
the  American  countries; 

e)  To  translate  into  English, Span- 
ish, Portuguese  and  French,  those 
laws  which,  because  of  their  special 
interest,  should  be  circulated  through- 
out the  Continent; 

/)  To  collaborate,  whenever  neces- 
sary, in  the  work  of  the  Pan  Amer- 
ican Union  and  to  sponsor  and  or- 
ganize lectures  or  meetings  of  ex- 
perts. 

The  American  countries  offer,  in 
connection  with  the  Institute,  to 
send  and  continue  sending  in  the 
future  the  most  complete  collection 
possible  of  their  law  works,  gazettes, 
reviews,  records  and  bulletins. 

The  Directors  of  the  Inter-Amer- 
ican University  shall  arrange  that,  in 
the  future,  in  courses  organized  by 
the  Institute,  professors  and  special- 
ists from  all  the  universities  of  the 
Continent  shall  participate,  thereby 
contributing  to  a  better  knowledge 
of  the  different  laws  and  doctrinal 
tendencies,  and  a  more  effective  co- 


Am6ricas   para   el    estudio   de   sus 
civilizaciones  aut6ctonas. 
3.  INSTITUTO  DE  LEGiSLACi6N 

COMPARADA    Y    DERECHO    INTERNA- 

CIONAL,  para  el  estudio  individual  y 
comparative  de  la  Iegislaci6n  en  sus 
diferentes  fases  y  modalidades  en  los 
pafses  de  America,  y  del  Derecho 
International. 

El  Institute  de  Legislaci6n  Com- 
parada  y  Derecho  Internacional 
tendra  por  finalidades : 

a)  Organizar  cursos  y  trabajos  de 
seminario  sobre  temas  de  Iegislaci6n 
comparada  y  derecho  internacional, 
a  cargo  de  profesores  y  especialistas 
eminentes; 

b)  Publicar  en  la  forma  mas  ade- 
cuada  el  resultado  de  sus  trabajos 
doctrinales  y  de  documentaci6n; 

c)  Crear  y  organizar  una  biblio- 
teca  juridica,  principalmente  de  Ic- 
gislaci6n,  jurisprudencia  y  doctrina 
de  todos  los  paises  amcricanos; 

d)  Publicar   un   boletin   informa- 
tive  de   las   modificaciones   legisla- 
tivas  y  de  la  bibliografia  juridica  de 
los  paises  americanos; 

e)  Traducir  al  ingl£s,  espafiol,  por- 
tugu6s  y  francos,  aquellas  leyes  que 
por  su  interns  especial  merezcan  ser 
difundidas  en  todo  cl  Continentc; 

/)  Colaborar  en  cuanto  sea  re- 
querido  en  las  tareas  de  la  Uni6n 
Panamericana  y  ausptciar  y  or- 
ganizar conferencias  o  reuniones  de 
expertos. 

Los  paises  amcricanos  ofrecen,  en 
relaci6n  con  el  Institute,  remitir  y 
continuar  remiticndo  en  adelante 
una  colecci6n  lo  mas  completa  posi- 
ble  de  sus  obras  juridicas,  gacetas, 
revistas,  registros  y  boletines. 

Los  organismos  directives  de  la 
Universidad  Interamericana  cuida- 
ran  de  que  en  los  cursos  succsivos  que 
organice  el  Institute  participen  pro- 
fesores y  especialistas  de  todas  las 
Universidades  del  Continente,  para 
el  mejor  conocimiento  de  las  dis- 
tintas  legislaciones  y  tendencias  doc- 
trinales y  la  efectiva  convivencia  de 


Oct.  4,  1943 


INTER-AMERICAN  UNIVERSITY 


operation  among  the  professors  and 
students  of  America. 

The  Institute  shall  organize  stud- 
ies which  foster  uniformity  of  legis- 
lation of  the  American  Republics  in 
those  branches  where  uniformity 
may  be  desirable. 

The  Institute  shall  pay  attention 
especially  to  those  post-war  prob- 
lems related  to  the  legal  organization 
and  relations  of  the  American  Conti- 
nent and  of  the  whole  international 
life. 

4.  INSTITUTE  OF  SOCIAL  AND  ECO- 
NOMIC RESEARCH,  for  the  study  of 
economic  and  social  problems  of  the 
Americas. 

The  principal  object  of  this  In- 
stitute shall  be  the  study  of  the  war 
and  post-war  inter-American  econ- 
omy in  its  basic  aspects;  as  well  as 
the  social  problems  that  are  funda- 
mental in  the  Americas,  such  as 
demographic  problems  and  problems 
of  distribution  and  use  of  wealth. 

The  research  work  of  the  Institute 
shall  be  conducted,  whenever  the 
Governments  request  it,  by  means  of 
trips,  field  studies  and  studies  in  sec- 
tions of  the  Continent,  according  to 
the  programs  to  which  the  Univer- 
sity may  agree. 

The  result  of  the  investigations 
and  research  work  shall  be  published 
by  the  Institute  and  distributed 
among  the  institutions  of  higher 
learning  and  the  governments  of  the 
Americas. 

5.  INSTITUTE  OF  FOLKLORIC  RE- 
SEARCH,  for  the  promotion  of  the 
cultural  relations  of  America  which 
involves  as  its  essential  objective  the 
study  of  folklore  in  all  its  manifesta- 
tions. 

The  Institute  shall  coordinate  the 
efforts  of  research  workers  of  the 
different  countries  of  the  Continent; 
shall  try  to  develop  their  own  pe- 
culiar styles  in  music,  literature  and 
the  fine  arts;  and  shall  initiate  liter- 


profesores  y  discfpulos  de  toda 
America. 

El  Institute  hard  estudios  que 
propendan  a  la  uniformidad  de  la 
Iegislaci6n  de  los  pafses  americanos 
en  aquellas  ramas  en  que  sea  conve- 
niente  obtener  dicha  uniformidad. 

El  Institute  consagrard  en  sus 
trabajos  especial  atenci6n  a  los 
problemas  que  ha  de  suscitar  la  post- 
guerra  en  orden  a  la  organizaci6n  y 
relaciones  jurfdicas  del  Continente 
Americano  y  de  toda  la  vida  interna- 
cional. 

4.  INSTITUTO  DE  INVESTIGACIONES 
SOCIALES   Y   EcoN6MiCAS,    para   el 
cstudio  de  los  problemas  de  orden 
econ6mico  y  social  de  las  Americas. 

El  objeto  primordial  de  este  Ins- 
tituto  serd  el  estudio  de  la  economfa 
interamericana  durante  y  despu6s  de 
la  guerra  actual  en  sus  hechos  bdsi- 
cos;  asf  como  de  los  problemas  so- 
ciales  de  cardcter  fundamental  en  las 
Americas,  demogr&ficos,  de  distribu- 
ci6n  y  aprovechamiento  de  las 
riquezas. 

Las  investigaciones  del  Institute 
podrin  efectuarse,  cuando  asf  lo 
soliciten  los  Gobiernos,  por  medio  de 
viajes  de  estudio  en  el  campo  y  por 
secciones  del  Continente,  segtin  los 
programas  que  la  Universidad 
acuerde. 

El  resultado  de  las  investigaciones 
y  los  trabajos  de  seminario  serdn 
publicados  por  el  Instituto  y  distri- 
buidos  entre  las  instituciones  de 
cultura  y  los  gobiernos  de  las 
Americas. 

5.  INSTITUTO  DE  INVESTIGACIONES 
FOLKL6RICAS,  para  el  fomento  de  las 
relaciones  culturales  de  America,  que 
envuelve  como  objetivo  esencial  el 
estudio  del   folklore   en   todas   sus 
manifestaciones. 

El  Instituto  coordinard  los  esfuer- 
zos  de  los  investigadores  de  los 
distintos  pafses  del  Continente  y 
tratarA  de  desarrollar  estilos  propios 
en  la  mflsica,  la  literatura  y  las  bellas 
artes;  e  iniciard  actividades  litera- 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  626a 


ary,  scientific,  and  artistic  activities 
in  accordance  with  the  programs  of 
study. 

The  Institute  shall  be  provided 
with  all  the  equipment  necessary  to 
carry  out  its  work. 

The  Institute  shall  not  only  collect 
folkloric  data  but  also  distribute 
them  in  the  form  of  publications,  and 
shall  circulate  them  by  all  possible 
means.  In  this  work  it  shall  make 
use  of  excursions  through  the  differ- 
ent countries  in  research  work  or  in 
collaboration  with  the  functioning  of 
the  rotating  courses  hereinafter  es- 
tablished, or  at  the  special  invitation 
of  the  Governments. 

6.  INSTITUTE  OF  SCIENCES,  for  the 
study,  investigation  and  develop- 
ment of  the  fundamental  sciences: 
mathematics,  physics,  chemistry  and 
biology,  which  constitute  the  basis  of 
all  modern  technique.  The  results 
of  the  investigations  and  studies  car- 
ried out  in  this  Institute  shall  be 
made  known  to  all  the  universities 
and  institutes  existing  in  the  Amer- 
icas. 

Art.  9.  As  an  essential  activity  of 
the  University,  bimestral  or  trimes- 
tral  courses  are  created,  which  shall 
be  given  each  year  in  a  different 
country  of  the  Continent,  according 
to  the  order  that  results  from  a 
periodic  drawing  by  lot. 

Art.  zo.  The  place  of  the  courses 
that  are  established  in  the  preceding 
article  shall  change  periodically,  so 
that  they  may  be  offered  in  all  the 
countries  of  America,  granted  the 
previous  acceptance  of  the  respective 
Governments. 

Art.  n.  The  courses  shall  func- 
tion with  professors  and  students 
from  the  different  countries  of  the 
Continent.  It  is  recommended  to 
the  Governments  that  their  delega- 
tions be  selected  always  from  among 
the  personalities  representative  of 
the  distinctive  aspects  of  the  culture 
of  the  country. 

Art.  12.  It  is  left  to  the  judgment 
of  the  countries  which  send  students 


rias,  cientfficas  y  artfsticas  en  con- 
formidad  con  los  programas  de 
estudio. 

El  Institute  dispondra  de  los 
equipos  completes  necesarios  para 
realizar  su  labor. 

El  Institute  no  s61o  recogera  dates 
folk!6ricos  sino  que  los  distribuira  en 
forma  de  publicaciones  y  los  difun- 
dird  por  todos  los  medios  posibles  de 
divulgaci6n,  y  en  esta  labor  podra 
efectuar  excursiones  por  los  diferen- 
tes  pafses,  en  trabajos  de  seminario 
o  en  colaboraci6n  con  el  funciona- 
miento  de  los  cursos  rota  tori  os  que 
mas  adelante  se  establecen,  o  a  espe- 
cial invitaci6n  de  los  Gobiernos. 

6.  INSTITUTO  DE  CIENCIAS,  para 
el  estudio,  investigaci6n  y  fomento 
de  las  ciencias  fundamen  tales:  mate- 
mdticas,  ffsicas,  qufmicas  y  bio!6gi- 
cas,  que  constituyen  la  base  de  toda 
la  t6cnica  moderna.  Los  resultados 
de  las  investigaciones  y  estudios 
realizados  en  este  Institute  serdn 
dados  a  conocer  a  todas  las  Universi- 
dades  e  Institutes  cxistentes  en  las 
Americas. 

Art.  9.  Como  actividad  esencial 
de  la  Universidad  sc  crean  cursos  bi- 
mestrales  o  trimestrales  que  tendrdn 
lugar  cada  ano  en  diverso  pai's  del 
Continente,  segtin  el  orden  que  re- 
suite  de  sorteos  peri6dicos. 

Art.  10.  La  sede  de  los  cursos  que 
se  establecen  en  el  articulo  anterior 
cambiard  peri6dicamente,  a  fin  de 
que  sus  trabajos  se  realicen  en  todos 
los  pafses  de  America,  previa  acepta- 
ci6n  de  los  Gobiernos  respectivos. 

Art.  n.  Los  cursos  funcionardn 
con  profesores  y  alumnos  de  los 
distintos  pafses  del  Continente.  Se 
recomienda  a  los  Gobiernos  que  sus 
delegaciones  est£n  siempre  seleccio- 
nadas  entre  las  personalidades  repre- 
sentativas  de  los  aspectos  peculiares 
de  la  cultura  de  cada  pafs. 

Art.  12.  Queda  al  arbitrio  de  los 
pafses  que  envfen  estudiantes  a  los 


Oct.  4,  1943 


INTER-AMERICAN  UNIVERSITY 


73 


to  the  rotating  courses  to  fix  the 
academic  credits  which  should  be 
granted  for  the  studies  pursued  in 
the  courses  mentioned. 

Art.  13.  The  countries  which 
serve  as  the  seat  of  the  rotating 
courses  shall  offer  the  temporary  use 
of  their  equipment,  both  for  teaching 
and  research,  as  well  as  their  art 
studies,  classrooms,  libraries  and 
laboratories. 

Art.  14.  The  Government  of  the 
Inter-American  University  shall  be: 

a)  THE  ADMINISTRATIVE  BOARD, 
which  is  the  supreme  authority  of  the 
University,  and  responsible  for  giv- 
ing effect  to  the  provisions  of  this 
Statute,  and  which  shall  be  com- 
posed of  the  heads  of  diplomatic 
missions  of  the  American  Republics 
accredited  to  Panama,  or  those 
whom  the  respective  Governments 
may  designate,  and  by  the  Minister 
of  Education  of  the  Republic  of 
Panama,  who  shall  preside  over  it. 

The  Administrative  Board  has  the 
following  functions: 

1.  To  serve  as  a  means  of  com- 
munication between  the  University 
and  the  Governments  of  the  Amer- 
ican Republics. 

2.  To    sanction     ultimately    the 
plans,    rules   and    regulations,    and 
provisions  of  an  administrative,  aca- 
demic and  cultural  character  which 
the  University  authorities  may  issue 
in  fulfillment  of  their  functions. 

3.  To  approve  the  annual  budget. 

4.  To  decree  the  constructions,  in- 
stallations, foundations,  and  extraor- 
dinary investments  required  by  the 
University. 

5.  To  prepare  the  necessary  gen- 
eral rules  and  regulations  for  the 
operation  of  the  University,  and  the 
special  regulations  for  the  acceptance 
and  distribution  of  the  gifts  made  to 
the  University  by  natural  or  legal 
persons.    The  Administrative  Board 
shall  not  accept  legacies  which  are 
contrary  to  the  principles  and  basic 
purposes  of  the  University. 


cursos  rotatories,  fijar  los  cr6ditos 
escolares  que  deban  concederse  a  los 
estudios  seguidos  en  los  mencionados 
cursos. 

Art.  13.  Los  pafses  que  sirvan  de 
sede  de  los  cursos  rotatories  facili- 
tardn  el  uso  temporal  de  sus  instala- 
ciones  tanto  docentes  como  de  in- 
vestigaci6n,  asf  como  de  sus  talleres 
de  arte,  aulas,  bibliotecas  y  labora- 
tories. 

Art.  14.  El  Gobierno  de  la  Uni- 
versidad  Interamericana  ser£: 

a)  LA  JUNTA  DE  ADMINISTRAC^N, 
que  es  la  autoridad  suprema  de  la 
Universidad,  estara  encargada  de 
realizar  las  disposiciones  de  este 
estatuto  y  se  integrard  por  los  Jefes 
de  Misiones  de  las  Reptiblicas  Ame- 
ricanas  acreditados  en  Panamd  o  por 
aquellos  que  los  respectivos  Gobier- 
nos  designen,  y  por  el  Ministro  de 
Educaci6n  de  la  Reptiblica  de  Pa- 
nama, quien  la  presidira. 

La  Junta  de  Administraci6n  tiene 
las  siguientes  atribuciones: 

1.  Servir  de  medio  de  comunica- 
ci6n    entre    la    Universidad    y    los 
Gobiernos  de  las  Repfiblicas  Ameri- 
canas. 

2.  Sancionar  en  liltima  instancia 
los  planes,  reglamentos  y  providen- 
cias  de  cardcter  administrative,  aca- 
d£mico  y  cultural   que  dicten   las 
autoridades  universitarias  en  cum- 
plimiento  de  sus  atribuciones. 

3.  Aprobar  anualmente  los  pre- 
supuestos. 

4.  Decretar  las  construcciones,  in- 
stalaciones,    fundaciones    e    inver- 
siones  extraordinarias  que  demande 
la  Universidad. 

5.  Dictar   los  reglamentos  gene- 
rales  necesarios  para  su  funciona- 
miento   y    un    reglamento   especial 
para  aceptar  y  destinar  las  dpna- 
ciones  que  se  hagan  a  la  Universidad 
por  personas  naturales  o  juridicas. 
La    Junta    de    Administraci6n    no 
podrd  aceptar  legados  que  compro- 
metan  los  principles  y  bases  consti- 
tutivos  de  la  Universidad. 


74 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  626a 


6.  To  elect  the  President  of  the 
University.     In  the  absence  or  tem- 
porary disability  of  the  President,  he 
shall  be  replaced,  in  the  capacity  of 
Vice  President  by  the  dean  of  the 
Directors    of    the    Institute.     The 
President  shall  serve  for  a  period  of 
five  years  and  may  be  re-elected. 

7.  To    approve    the    regulations 
which  the  Institute  of  Sanitary  Sci- 
ences may  present. 

8.  To  appoint  the  professors  and 
administrative  personnel,  upon  the 
recommendation    of    the    different 
Governments  and  the  President  of 
the  University. 

9.  To  solicit  the  reports  which  it 
may  desire  on  the  economic  situation 
of  the  University  and  the  movement 
of  its  funds  and  securities. 

ft)  THE  UNIVERSITY  COUNCIL, 
which  shall  be  composed  of  the  Presi- 
dent of  the  University,  the  Deans 
and  Directors  of  the  Faculties  and 
Institutes,  and  whose  organization 
the  Administrative  Board  shall  regu- 
late. It  shall  take  charge  of  all  the 
academic  and  education  work  not 
specifically  resting  in  another  au- 
thority. 

c)  THE  PRESIDENT  shall  be  the 
representative  and  the  executive  of 
the  University.  In  this  capacity  he 
shall  prepare  the  budget,  which  shall 
be  submitted  later  to  the  Adminis- 
trative Board  for  its  examination  and 
approval;  he  shall  call  and  preside 
over  the  University  Council,  and 
shall  direct  the  teaching,  administra- 
tive, disciplinary  and  financial  man- 
agement. He  shall  propose  to  the 
Administrative  Board,  after  consult- 
ing the  respective  Institute,  the 
nomination  of  the  teaching  and  ad- 
ministrative personnel  necessary  for 
the  progress  of  the  Institution;  he 
shall  submit  for  the  consideration  of 
the  Administrative  Board  the  rules 
and  regulations,  reforms  and  feasible 
innovations. 

The  President  shall  have  immedi- 
ate and  continuous  control  over  the 


6.  Elegir  al  Rector  de  la  Universi- 
dad.    En  caso  de  ausencia  o  im- 
posibilidad  temporal  del  Rector,  lo 
reemplazarA,  con  el  carActer  de  Vice- 
Rector,  el  decano  de  los  Directores 
de  los  Institutes.     El  Rector  durarA 
cinco  anos  en  sus  funciones  y  podrA 
ser  reelegido. 

7.  Aprobar  la  reglamentacion  que 
el  Institute  de  Ciencias  Sanitarias 
presente. 

8.  Nombrar  los  Profesores  y  per- 
sonal   administrative,    oyendo    las 
recomendaciones  que  hagan  los  dis- 
tintos  Gobiernos  y  el  Rector  de  la 
Universidad. 

9.  Solicitar  los  informes  que  desee 
sobre  la  situaci6n  econ6mica  de  la 
Universidad  y  el  movimiento  de  sus 
fondos  y  valores. 

ft)  EL  CONSEJO  UNIVERSITARIO, 
que  estarA  integrado  por  el  Rector 
de  la  Universidad,  por  los  decanos  o 
Directores  de  las  Facultades  o  Insti- 
tutes, y  cuya  organizaci6n  regla- 
mentarA  la  Junta  de  Administraci6n, 
tendrA  a  su  cargo  todo  lo  relativo  a 
la  obra  acad^mica  y  cultural  que 
especfficamente  no  radique  en  otra 
autoridad. 

c)  EL  RECTOR  serA  el  represen- 
tante  y  ejecutivo  de  la  Universidad. 
En  tal  carActer  prepararA  el  presu- 
puesto  que  someterA  luego  a  la  Junta 
de  Administraci6n  para  su  examen  y 
aprobaci6n;  convocarA  y  presidirA 
el  Consejo  Universitario  y  dirigirA 
la  gesti6n  docente,  administrativa, 
disciplinaria  y  fiscal.  PropondrA  a 
la  Junta  de  Administraci6n,  previa 
consulta  con  el  Institute  respectivo, 
los  nombramientos  del  personal  do- 
cente y  del  administrativo  que  scan 
necesarios  para  la  buena  marcha  de 
la  Instituci6n;  someterA  a  la  con- 
sideraci6n  de  la  Junta  de  Adminis- 
tracidn  los  reglamentos,  reformas  e 
innovaciones  convenientes. 


El  Rector  controlarA  de  modo  in- 
mediato  y  constante  las  cuentas  de 


Oct.  21,  1943 


MONETARY  CONVENTION 


75 


expense  accounts  of  the  University 
and  its  movement  of  funds  and 
securities.  He  shall  report  annually 
on  the  general  state  of  the  financial 
situation  and  the  accounts  of  the 
Institution  to  the  Administrative 
Board. 

Art.  15.  On  formulating  the  pres- 
ent Statute,  the  First  Conference  of 
Ministers  and  Directors  of  Educa- 
tion of  the  American  Republics  ex- 
presses its  sincere  recognition  and 
full  adherence  to  the  efforts,  acts  and 
measures  taken  by  the  Government 
of  Panama  up  to  the  present  time, 
toward  bringing  into  being  the  Inter- 
American  University. 

Transitory  Articles:  i.  The  Uni- 
versity shall  continue  for  the  present 
to  function  on  the  site  of  the  old 
University  of  Panama. 

2.  The  Administrative  Board  of 
the  University  is  entrusted  with  sug- 
gesting to  the  Government  of  the 
country  which  may  have  been  fixed 
as  the  Seat  of  the  next  Conference  of 
Ministers  of  Education,  the  oppor- 
tune time  for  convoking  it.  This 
Conference  should  take  place  in  1944 
or  1945  so  that,  in  the  shortest  time 
possible,  the  exchange  of  ideas  and 
studies  of  the  American  educational 
problems  may  continue,  and  an 
analysis  made  of  the  results  of  the 
Resolutions  adopted  at  this  First 
Conference. 


gastos  de  la  Universidad  y  su  movi- 
miento  de  fondos  y  valores.  Anual- 
mente  someterd  un  estado  general  de 
la  situaci6n  econ6mica  y  las  cuentas 
de  la  Instituci6n  a  la  Junta  de  Ad- 
ministraci6n. 

Art.  15.  Al  formular  el  presente 
Estatuto,  la  Primera  Conferencia  de 
Ministros  y  Directores  de  Educaci6n 
de  las  Repilblicas  Americanas  con- 
signa  de  modo  permanente  su  firme 
reconocimiento  y  plena  adhesi6n  a 
las  gestiones,  actos  y  medidas  dicta- 
dos  por  el  Gobierno  de  Panamd 
hasta  la  fecha,  encaminados  a  dar 
vida  a  la  Universidad  Interameri- 
cana. 

Articulos  Transitorios :  i.  La  Uni- 
versidad continuard  funcionando  por 
ahora  en  el  local  de  la  antigua  Uni- 
versidad Nacional  de  Panami. 

2.  La  Junta  de  Administraci6n  de 
la  Universidad  queda  encargada  de 
sugerir  al  Gobierno  del  pafs  que  se 
haya  fijadp  como  Sede  de  la  pr6xima 
Conferencia  de  Ministros  de  Educa- 
ci6n,  la  oportunidad  de  convocarla, 
debiendo  6sta  realizarse  en  1944  ° 
1945  a  fin  de  continuar,  en  el  menor 
tiempo  posible,  el  intercambio  de 
ideas  y  estudios  de  los  problemas 
educativos  americanos  asi  como  el 
andlisis  del  resultado  de  los  Acuerdos 
tornados  en  esta  Primera  Confer- 
encia. 


No.  627 

MONETARY  Convention.    Signed  at  London,  October  21,  1943. 
CONVENTION  mongtaire.    Signee  a  Londres,  21  octobre  1943. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  Changes  in  Articles  6  and  7  of  this  Convention  were  made  by  an  agree- 
ment of  May  24,  1946.  31  United  Nations  Treaty  Series,  p.  169.  The  economic  union 
between  Belgium  and  Luxemburg  was  established  under  a  convention  of  July  25,  1921, 
later  amended.  9  League  of  Nations  Treaty  Series,  p.  224;  134  idem,  p.  394;  160  idem,  p.  327. 
Agreements  concerning  a  common  customs  regime  were  concluded  by  the  parties  on  Septem- 
ber 5,  1944,  and  on  March  14,  1947  (Nos.  635,  6353,  post).  An  agreement  for  economic  con- 
sultation was  signed  by  these  states  and  France  on  March  20,  1945  (No.  649,  post).  The 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  627 


parties  to  this  agreement  later  became  members  of  the  International  Monetary  Fund  and 
the  International  Bank  for  Reconstruction  and  Development  established  by  agreements 
signed  at  Washington,  December  27,  1945  (Nos.  669-670,  post). 

RATIFICATIONS.  For  the  text  of  the  Netherlands  law  of  November  23,  1946,  approving 
this  Convention,  see  Netherlands  Staatsblad,  1946,  No.  0330. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Convention  is  also  published  in  the  Netherlands  Staats- 
blad,  1944,  No.  £76,  and  1946,  No.  6330.  An  English  translation  is  also  published  in  4 
Belgium  (i943)»  PP-  516-18. 

Anon.,  "Monetary  Pact  Explained,"  3  News  from  Belgium  (1943),  p.  373;  Anon.,  "The 
Netherlands-Belgian  Monetary  Agreement,"  2  Netherlands  News  Digest  (1943),  pp.  470-73; 
Anon.,  "The  Netherlands-Belgian  Monetary  Agreement,"  7  Netherlands  News  (1943),  pp. 
208,  316-19;  J.  van  den  Broek,  "The  Dutch-Belgian  Monetary  Pact,"  8  idem,  pp.  238-39; 
H.  Fast,  "The  Netherlands  and  Belgium,"  4  Belgium  (1943),  pp.  386-88;  J.  Golay,  "A 
propos  de  1'accord  mon£taire  belgo-hollandais,"  2  Revue  economique  et  sociale  (1944),  pp. 
112-17;  C.  Gutt,  "A  Commentary  by  the  Belgian  Minister  of  Finance,"  4  Belgium  (1943), 
pp.  518-20. 

Entered  into  force,  provisionally,  October  21, 1943. 
Text  and  translation  supplied  by  the  Netherlands  Information  Bureau. 


[Translation] 

The  Government  of  Her  Majesty 
the  Queen  of  the  Netherlands,  on  the 
one  hand, 

The  Governments  of  His  Majesty 
the  King  of  the  Belgians  and  Her 
Royal  Highness  the  Grand  Duchess 
of  Luxemburg,  on  the  other  hand, 

being  desirous  of  stabilizing  mone- 
tary relations  and  facilitating  the 
mechanism  of  payments  between  the 
Belgo-Luxemburg  Economic  Union 
and  the  Netherlands,  including  the 
overseas  territories  placed  under  the 
sovereignty  or  mandate  of  said 
States,  have  agreed  on  the  following 
provisions: 

Article  x.  From  the  date  of  the 
signature  of  the  present  Convention 
the  rate  of  exchange  of  the  Nether- 
lands florin  in  relation  to  the  Belgian 
franc  is  fixed  at  one  Netherlands 
florin  to  16.52  Belgian  francs  (3.304 
belgas),  namely,  100  Belgian  francs 
(20  belgas)  to  6.053  Netherlands 
florins. 

This  rate  is  called  the  "official 
rate." 

No  change  can  be  made  in  the  offi- 
cial rate  without  preliminary  agree- 
ment between  the  Netherlands  and 
Belgian  Governments. 


Le  Gouvernement  de  Sa  Majest6 
la  Reine  des  Pays-Bas,  d'une  part; 

Les  Gouvernements  de  Sa  Ma- 
jest6  le  Roi  des  Beiges,  et  de  Son 
Altesse  Royale  La  Grande-Duchesse 
de  Luxembourg,  d'autre  part; 

d6sireux  de  stabiliser  les  rapports 
monStaires  et  de  faciliter  le  m£ca- 
nisme  des  paiements  entre  les  Pays- 
Bas  et  T  Union  Economique  Belgo- 
Luxembourgeoise,  y  compris  les  ter- 
ritoires  dfoutre-mer  places  sous  la 
souverainet6  ou  le  mandat  des  Etats 
pr6cit6s,  sont  convenus  des  disposi- 
tions suivantes: 

Article  i.  A  dater  de  la  signa- 
ture de  la  pr6sente  Convention,  le 
taux  de  change  du  florin  des  Pays- 
Bas  par  rapport  au  franc  beige  est 
fix6  i:  i  Fl.P.B.  pour  Frs.b.  16,52 
(belgas  3,304),  soit  100  Frs.b.  (belgas 
20)  pour  Fl.P.B.  6,053. 


Ce  taux  est  appe!6  le  "taux 
officid." 

Aucun  changement  ne  peut  6tre 
apport6  au  taux  officiel  sans  accord 
pr£alable  entre  les  Gouvernements 
n£erlandais  et  beige. 


Oct.  21,  1943 


MONETARY  CONVENTION 


77 


Art  2.  The  Netherlands  and  Bel- 
gian monetary  authorities  shall  con- 
duct transactions  between  them  on 
the  basis  of  the  official  rate. 

They  shall  fix,  by  common  agree- 
ment, the  buying  and  selling  rates  to 
be  applied  on  markets  under  their  con- 
trol. These  rates  shall  be  the  same 
in  the  Netherlands  and  the  Belgo- 
Luxemburg  Economic  Union;  they 
may  not  differ  from  the  official  rate 
by  more  than  one-quarter  per  cent 
either  way. 

They  shall  not  exchange,  except 
by  agreement,  Netherlands  florins 
or  Belgian  francs  against  foreign 
currencies  otherwise  than  at  the 
rates  at  which  those  currencies  are 
dealt  with  on  the  official  market  in 
the  Netherlands,  in  the  case  of  Neth- 
erlands florins,  or  in  Belgium,  in  the 
case  of  Belgian  francs. 

Art  3.  For  every  payment 
which  the  Netherlands,  the  Nether- 
lands Indies  or  any  other  part  of  the 
Kingdom  of  the  Netherlands  may 
have  to  make  in  the  territory  of  the 
Belgo-Luxemburg  Economic  Union, 
in  the  Belgian  Congo  or  in  territories 
under  Belgian  Mandate,  the  Belgian 
monetary  authorities  shall  furnish 
Belgian  francs  to  the  Netherlands 
monetary  authorities  at  the  official 
rate  against  payment  in  Netherlands 
florins. 

For  every  payment  which  the 
Belgo-Luxemburg  Economic  Union, 
the  Colony  of  the  Belgian  Congo  or 
the  territories  under  Belgian  man- 
date may  have  to  make  in  the  Neth- 
erlands, the  Netherlands  Indies  or 
any  other  part  of  the  Kingdom  of  the 
Netherlands,  the  monetary  authori- 
ties of  the  Netherlands  shall  furnish 
Netherlands  florins  to  the  Belgian 
monetary  authorities  at  the  official 
rate  against  payment  in  Belgian 
francs. 

Art.  4.  The  Netherlands  mone- 
tary authorities  shall  furnish  to  the 
Belgian  monetary  authorities,  against 
payment  in  Netherlands  florins,  the 
florins  of  the  Netherlands  Indies  or 


Art.  2.  Les  autorit6s  mon£taires 
n£erlandaises  et  beiges  traiteront 
entre  elles  sur  la  base  du  taux  official. 

Elles  fixeront  de  commun  accord 
les  cours  acheteurs  et  vendeurs  qui 
seront  pratiques  sur  les  march6s  qui 
dependent  d'elles.  Ces  cours  seront 
les  memes  dans  les  Pays-Bas  et  dans 
TUnion  Economique  Belgo-Luxem- 
bourgeoise;  ils  ne  pourront  s'6carter 
du  taux  officiel  de  plus  de  }4%>  en 
plus  ou  en  moins. 

Elles  n'6changeront,  sauf  accord, 
des  florins  des  Pays-Bas  ou  des 
francs  beiges  centre  des  devises 
£trang£res  qu'aux  taux  auxquels  ces 
devises  sont  trait6es  sur  le  march6 
officiel,  aux  Pays-Bas  s'il  s'agit  de 
florins  des  Pays-Bas,  ou  en  Belgique 
s'il  s'agit  de  francs  beiges. 

Art.  3.  Pour  tout  paiement  que 
les  Pays-Bas,  les  Indes  Nterlandaises 
ou  toute  autre  partie  du  Royaume 
des  Pays-Bas  auraient  &  effectuer 
dans  le  territoire  de  T  Union  Eco- 
nomique Belgo-Luxembourgeoise,  au 
Congo  Beige  ou  dans  les  territoires 
sous  mandat  beige,  les  autorit6s 
mon^taires  beiges  fourniront  aux 
autorit6s  mon6taires  n6erlandaises 
des  francs  beiges  au  taux  officiel 
centre  paiement  en  florins  des  Pays- 
Bas. 

Pour  tout  paiement  que  TUnion 
Economique  Belgo-Luxembour- 
geoise, la  Colonie  du  Congo  Beige  ou 
les  territoires  sous  mandat  beige  au- 
raient &  effectuer  aux  Pays-Bas,  dans 
les  Indes  Nterlandaises  ou  dans  toute 
autre  partie  du  Royaume  des  Pays- 
Bas,  les  autorit6s  mon6taires  des 
Pays-Bas  fourniront  aux  autorit6s 
monfetaires  beiges  des  florins  des 
Pays-Bas  au  taux  officiel  centre 
paiement  en  francs  beiges. 

Art  4.  Les  autorit£s  mon£taires 
n£erlandaises  fourniront  aux  autori- 
t£s  mon6taires  beiges  centre  paie- 
ment en  florins  des  Pays-Bas  les 
florins  des  Indes  Nterlandaises  ou  de 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  627 


any  other  part  of  the  Kingdom  of  the 
Netherlands  necessary  to  make  any 
payment  in  the  Netherlands  Indies 
or  any  other  part  of  the  Kingdom  of 
the  Netherlands. 

The  Belgian  monetary  authorities 
shall  furnish  the  Netherlands  mone- 
tary authorities,  against  payment  in 
Belgian  francs,  the  Congolese  francs 
necessary  to  make  any  payment  in 
the  Belgian  Congo  or  in  the  terri- 
tories under  Belgian  mandate. 

The  Governments  and  monetary 
authorities  of  the  Netherlands  and 
Belgium  shall  consult  together  peri- 
odically with  the  object  of  taking, 
by  common  agreement,  measures 
necessary  to  maintain  the  flexibility 
of  the  mechanism  of  payments  and 
to  prevent  any  operations  incompati- 
ble with  the  monetary  and  economic 
policy  of  the  Netherlands  and  Bel- 
gium. 

Art.  5.  All  Belgian  francs  held 
by  the  Netherlands  and  all  Nether- 
lands florins  held  by  Belgium  may 
freely  be  used  for  operations  contem- 
plated in  the  present  Convention. 

Art.  6.  The  Netherlands  and 
Belgium  respectively  shall  keep  ac- 
counts of  the  operations  effected  in 
the  application  of  Article  3  of  the 
present  Convention. 

The  Netherlands  shall  keep  this 
account  in  Netherlands  florins;  Bel- 
gium, in  Belgian  francs. 

The  balances  of  these  accounts 
shall  be  cleared  at  the  official  rates 
in  round  sums  on  the  last  day  of 
each  month. 

The  Netherlands  and  Belgium  re- 
spectively shall,  however,  have  the 
right  to  clear  the  balances  during  the 
month. 

That  part  of  the  credit  balances 
exceeding  30,250,000  Netherlands 
florins  or  500,000,000  Belgian  francs 
shall  bear  interest  at  the  current 
rate,  payable  by  the  debtor  country. 
That  interest,  calculated  at  the  offi- 
cial discount  rate  for  accepted  bills 
applied  by  the  bank  of  issue  of  the 


toute  autre  partie  du  Royaume  des 
Pays-Bas,  nlcessaires  pour  effectuer 
tout  paiement  aux  Indes  N6erlan- 
daises  ou  dans  toute  autre  partie  du 
Royaume  des  Pays-Bas. 

Les  autorit6s  mon£taires  beiges 
fourniront  aux  autorit£s  mon6taires 
n6erlandaises  contre  paiement  en 
francs  beiges  les  francs  congolais 
n6cessaires  pour  effectuer  tout  paie- 
ment au  Congo  Beige  ou  dans  les 
territoires  sous  mandat  beige. 

Les  Gouvernements  et  les  autori- 
t6s  mon£taires  des  Pays-Bas  et  de 
Belgique  se  consulteront  p£riodique- 
ment  dans  le  but  d'arrSter  de 
commun  accord  les  mesures  nlces- 
saires pour  maintenir  la  souplesse  du 
m£canisme  des  paiements  et  pour 
pr£venir  toutes  operations  incom- 
patibles  avec  la  politique  mon6taire 
et  economique  des  Pays-Bas  et  de 
la  Belgique. 

Art.  5.  Tous  les  francs  beiges 
detenus  par  les  Pays-Bas  ainsi  que 
tous  les  florins  des  Pays-Bas  detenus 
par  la  Belgique  pourront  £tre  libre- 
ment  utilises  pour  les  operations 
vis£es  par  la  pr£sente  Convention. 

Art.  6.  Les  Pays-Bas  et  la  Bel- 
gique tiendront  respectivement  le 
compte  des  operations  effectu6es  en 
application  de  1'article  3  de  la 
pr£sente  Convention. 

Les  Pays-Bas  tiendront  ce  compte 
en  florins  des  Pays-Bas;  la  Belgique, 
en  francs  beiges. 

Les  soldes  de  ces  comptes  seront 
compens£s  au  taux  officiel,  par 
sommes  rondes,  le  dernier  jour  de 
chaque  mois. 

Les  Pays-Bas  et  la  Belgique  au- 
ront  toutefois  respectivement  le  droit 
de  compenser  dans  le  courant  du 
mois. 

La  partie  des  soldes  cr£diteurs 
sup6rieure  &  trente  millions  deux 
cent  cinquante  mille  florins  des  Pays- 
Bas  ou  £  cinq  cents  millions  de  francs 
beiges  portera  int6r£t,  prorata  tem- 
poris,  k  charge  du  pays  d6biteur. 
Get  int6r6t,  calcute  au  taux  officiel 
de  1'escompte  des  traites  accepttes 


Oct.  21,  1943 


MONETARY  CONVENTION 


79 


debtor  country,  shall  be  applied  on 
the  last  day  of  each  three  calendar 
months. 

Art.  7.  If,  at  a  given  moment,  in 
consequence  of  the  application  of 
Article  3  of  the  present  Convention, 
the  Netherlands  has  a  credit  balance 
of  more  than  1,000,000,000  Belgian 
francs  or  if  Belgium  has  a  credit 
balance  of  more  than  60,500,000 
Netherlands  florins,  the  two  Govern- 
ments shall  consult  together  with  a 
view  to  putting  an  end  to  the  dis- 
equilibrium. 

Art.  8.  Without  prejudice  to  the 
provisions  of  Article  n  below,  no 
gold  or  any  other  kind  of  collateral 
shall  be  demanded  as  security  for  the 
balances  accruing  from  the  applica- 
tion of  the  present  Convention,  and 
no  demand  shall  be  made  for  con- 
version of  these  balances  into  gold 
or  foreign  currencies. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  country 
with  the  debit  balance  shall  have  the 
right  at  any  time  to  effect  reimburse- 
ments in  gold.  The  metal  shall  be 
accepted  at  the  purchase  price  paid 
for  gold  by  the  bank  of  issue  of  the 
creditor  country. 

Subject  to  the  agreement  of  the 
creditor  country,  the  debtor  country 
may  also  effect  reimbursements  by 
means  of  payments  in  foreign  cur- 
rencies at  the  purchase  price  of  the 
latter  paid  by  the  bank  of  issue  of 
the  creditor  country. 

It  is  in  particular  the  intention  of 
the  Netherlands  and  Belgium  to 
offer  and  accept  payments  in  foreign 
currencies  to  correct  any  disequilib- 
rium that  may  result  from  com- 
mercial operations  between  the  High 
Contracting  Parties  which  have  their 
origin  in  imports  paid  for  by  one  of 
them  in  foreign  currencies  and  which 
result  in  exports  for  which  payment 
is  made  to  the  other  in  foreign  cur- 
rencies. 

Art.  9.  If  the  Netherlands  and 
Belgium  should  decide  to  modify 
the  official  rate,  the  accounts  should 
be  drawn  up  and  balanced  at  the 


pratiqufi  par  1'Institut  d'Emission  du 
pays  d6biteur,  sera  appliqu6  le  dernier 
jour  de  chaque  trimestre  calendrier. 

Art.  7.  Si,  £  un  moment  donn6, 
en  consequence  de  1'application  de 
1'article  3  de  la  pr6sente  Convention, 
les  Pays-Bas  sont  cr6anciers  par 
solde  de  plus  d'un  milliard  de  francs 
beiges  ou  si  la  Belgique  est  cr6anci6re 
par  solde  de  plus  de  soixante  millions 
cinq  cent  mille  florins  des  Pays-Bas, 
les  deux  Gouvernements  se  con- 
sulteront  en  vue  de  mettre  fin  &  ce 
d6s6quilibre. 

Art.  8.  Sans  prejudice  des  dis- 
positions de  1'article  n  ci-apr&s, 
aucune  garantie  en  or  ni  autre 
garantie  r6elle  ne  sera  demand6e  en 
gage  des  soldes  r6sultant  de  1'appli- 
cation  de  la  pr6sente  Convention,  et 
aucune  demande  de  conversion  de 
ces  soldes  en  or  ou  en  devises  6tran- 
geres  ne  sera  introduite. 

Par  contre,  le  pays  d6biteur  par 
solde  aura  toujours  le  droit  d'effec- 
tuer  des  remboursements  en  or.  Le 
m6tal  sera  accept^  au  prix  d'achat  de 
Tor  pratiquS  par  1'Institut  d'Emis- 
sion du  pays  chancier. 

Moyennant  1'accord  du  pays  cr6- 
ancier,  le  pays  d6biteur  pourra 
6galement  op6rer  des  rembourse- 
ments au  moyen  de  paiements  en 
devises  £trang6res  au  prix  d'achat  de 
celles-ci  par  1'Institut  d'Emission 
du  pays  cr6ancier. 

II  entre  notamment  dans  1'inten- 
tion  des  Pays-Bas  et  de  la  Belgique 
d'offrir  et  d'accepter  des  paiements 
en  devises  6trang6res  pour  corriger 
les  d6s6quilibres  qui  r6sulteraient 
dfop6rations  commerciales  conclues 
entre  les  Hautes  Parties  Contrac- 
tantes  ayant  pour  origine  des  impor- 
tations acquitt£es  par  Tune  d'elles  en 
devises  6trang&res  et  aboutissant  £ 
des  exportation  payees  &  1'autre  en 
devises  6trang6res. 

Art.  9.  Si  les  Pays-Bas  et  la 
Belgique  d£cidaient  de  modifier  le 
taux  official,  les  comptes  seraient 
arret6s  et  compens6s  au  taux  official 


So 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  627 


official  rate  in  force  up  to  that  time. 
The  amount  of  the  final  credit  bal- 
ance, if  expressed  in  currency  which 
has  varied  in  relation  to  gold,  should 
be  adjusted  by  the  debtor  country  in 
proportion  to  that  variation. 

Account  shall  be  taken,  in  cal- 
culating the  final  balance,  of  amounts 
for  which,  by  reason  of  forward  ex- 
change contracts  of  the  Netherlands 
or  Belgium,  the  monetary  authori- 
ties may  be  pledged  at  the  date  on 
which  the  change  was  made. 

Art  10.  Subject  to  the  agreement 
of  the  Netherlands  monetary  au- 
thorities, payments  in  favor  of  third 
countries  may  be  made  by  the  Bel- 
gian monetary  authorities  by  means 
of  florins  held  by  them,  and  subject 
to  the  agreement  of  the  Belgian 
monetary  authorities,  payments  in 
favor  of  third  countries  may  be  made 
by  the  Netherlands  monetary  au- 
thorities by  means  of  Belgian  francs 
held  by  them. 

Art.  xi.  Should  the  present  Con- 
vention be  denounced,  the  final 
credit  balance  would  be  used  for 
acquisition  of  Treasury  Bonds  issued 
by  the  debtor  country. 

These  Treasury  Bonds  would  be 
issued  in  the  currency  of  the  creditor 
country;  they  would  bear  interest  at 
3  per  cent  and  would  be  amortized 
in  conformity  with  an  amortization 
table  to  be  established  by  common 
agreement  between  the  Netherlands 
and  Belgium,  the  total  duration  of 
the  amortization,  however,  not  to 
exceed  five  years. 

As  guarantee  for  the  amortization 
and  payment  of  interest  on  these 
Bonds,  appropriate  securities  would 
be  constituted  in  favor  of  the  credi- 
tor country. 

Art.  12.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of 
the  Netherlands  monetary  authori- 
ties and  the  Belgian  monetary 
authorities  to  take  individually  the 
necessary  measures  to  maintain  be- 
tween their  currency  and  those  of 
third  countries  a  relation  correspond- 
ing to  the  official  rate  provided  for  in 


jusque  la  en  vigueur.  Le  montant 
du  solde  crfediteur  final,  sfil  6tait  ex- 
prim£  dans  la  devise  qui  a  vari£  par 
rapport  £  Tor,  serait  r£ajust£  par  le 
pays  d£biteur  dans  la  proportion  de 
cette  variation. 

II  sera  tenu  compte  dans  le  calcul 
du  solde  final  des  montants  pour 
lesquels,  a  raison  de  contrats  de 
change  a  terme,  les  autorit£s  mon£- 
taires  n£erlandaises  ou  beiges  seraient 
engagfes  a  la  date  a  laquelle  inter- 
viendrait  le  changement  de  taux. 

Art.  10.  Moyennant  Taccord  des 
autorit£s  mon^taires  n£erlandaises 
des  paiements  en  faveur  de  pays  tiers 
pourront  gtre  effectu^s  par  les  au- 
toritfes  mon6taires  beiges  au  moyen 
de  florins  detenus  par  elles  et  moyen- 
nant  Taccord  des  autorit6s  mon6- 
taires  beiges,  des  paiements  en 
faveur  de  pays  tiers  pourront  fitre 
effectu6s  par  les  autorit6s  mon£- 
taires  n6erlandaises  au  moyen  de 
francs  beiges  detenus  par  elles. 

Art.  ii.  Si  la  pr6sente  Conven- 
tion venait  a  £tre  d6nonc6e,  le  solde 
cr6diteur  final  serait  affect^  a  Tac- 
quisition  de  Bons  du  Tr6sor  6mis  par 
le  pays  d6biteur. 

Ces  Bons  du  Tr6sor  seraient  6mis 
dans  la  monnaie  du  pays  cr£ancier; 
ils  porteraient  int6r£t  a  3%  et 
devraient  £tre  amortis  conform6- 
ment  a  un  tableau  d'amortissement  a 
6tablir  de  commun  accord  entre  les 
Pays-Bas  et  la  Belgique,  sans  toute- 
fois  que  la  dur£e  totale  de  Tamor- 
tissement  ne  d£passe  cinq  ann£es. 

En  garantie  de  Tamortissement  et 
du  paiement  des  int6rets  de  ces  Bons, 
des  gages  approprifis  seraient  con- 
stituis  au  profit  du  pays  cr^ancier. 

Art.  12.  II  appartient  aux  autori- 
tis  mon£taires  n^erlandaises  et  aux 
autorit^s  mon6taires  beiges  de  pren- 
dre  individuellement  les  mesures 
n6cessaires  pour  maintenir  entre 
leur  monnaie  et  celles  des  pays  tiers 
un  rapport  correspondant  au  taux 
official  pr6vu  a  1'article  i  de  la  pr£- 


Oct.  21,  1943 


MONETARY  CONVENTION 


8l 


Article  i  of  the  present  Convention. 
With  a  view,  however,  to  insuring 
unity  of  action,  they  shall  establish 
permanent  contact  between  them- 
selves, shall  keep  each  other  mu- 
tually informed,  and  shall  consult 
together  on  all  questions  relating  to 
monetary  and  economic  policy,  as 
well  as  on  any  action  which  may  ap- 
pear to  be  necessary. 

They  shall  also  insure  coordina- 
tion of  measures  which  they  may  de- 
cide to  take  on  their  respective 
markets. 

Art.  13.  The  Nederlandsche  Bank 
and  the  Banque  Nationale  de  Bel- 
gique  shall  be  charged  respectively 
by  the  Government  of  the  Kingdom 
of  the  Netherlands  and  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  Kingdom  of  Belgium, 
and  with  the  guarantee  of  the  State, 
with  the  application  of  the  provisions 
of  the  present  Agreement;  they  shall 
establish  the  contacts  desirable  for 
that  purpose  and  in  particular  those 
contemplated  by  Articles  4  and  12 
above.  They  shall  be  empowered  to 
conclude  the  necessary  agreements 
with  international  organizations  in 
which  their  Government  participates. 

Art.  14.  Nothing  in  the  present 
Convention  shall  prevent  the  Neth- 
erlands and  Belgium  from  adhering 
to  multilateral  international  agree- 
ments relating  to  stabilization  of 
exchange.  They  pledge  themselves 
to  do  so  only  jointly. 

On  the  other  hand,  third  coun- 
tries may  adhere  to  the  present 
Convention  subject  to  the  agree- 
ment of  the  Netherlands  and  Belgian 
Governments. 

Art.  15.  In  order  to  make  the 
present  Convention  fully  effective 
the  High  Contracting  Parties  shall 
endeavor  to  establish  close  solidarity 
in  their  commercial  relations. 

Art.  16.  Subject  to  at  least  two 
years*  notice,  the  present  Conven- 
tion may  be  terminated  on  January  i 
of  each  year  as  from  January  i,  1949. 


sente  Convention.  Toutefois,  en  vue 
d'assurer  une  unit6  d'action,  elles 
6tabliront  entre  elles  un  contact 
permanent,  se  tiendront  mutuelle- 
ment  inform6es  et  se  consulteront 
sur  toutes  questions  relatives  &  la 
pplitique  mon6taire  et  6conomique 
ainsi  qu'i  1'occasion  de  toute  action 
qui  parattrait  n6cessaire. 

Elles  assureront  6galement  la  co- 
ordination des  mesures  qu'elles  se- 
raient  amentes  4  prendre  sur  leurs 
marches  respectifs. 

Art.  13.  La  Nederlandsche  Bank 
et  la  Banque  Nationale  de  Belgique 
seront  chargdes  respectivement  par 
le  Gouvernement  du  Royaume  des 
Pays-Bas  et  par  le  Gouvernement  du 
Royaume  de  Belgique  et  avec  la 
garantie  de  TEtat,  de  1'application 
des  dispositions  de  la  pr6sente  Con- 
vention; elles  6tabliront  les  contacts 
d6sirables  £  cet  effet  et  notamment 
ceux  prfevus  aux  articles  4  et  12  ci- 
dessus.  Elles  seront  liabilities  £ 
passer  les  conventions  n£cessaires 
avec  les  organismes  internationaux 
auxquels  participera  leur  Gouverne- 
ment. 

Art.  14.  Rien  dans  la  pr£sente 
Convention  ne  s'oppose  £  ce  que  les 
Pays-Bas  et  la  Belgique  n'adhferent  4 
des  accords  internationaux  multi- 
lat£raux  relatifs  £  la  stabilisation 
des  changes.  Us  s'engagent  £  ne  le 
faire  que  conjointement. 

D'autre  part,  des  pays  tiers  pour- 
ront  adherer  £  la  prfesente  Conven- 
tion moyennant  Taccord  des  Gou- 
vernements  N6erlandais  et  Beige. 

Art.  15.  Afin  de  donner  toute  son 
efficacit6  £  la  pr6sente  Convention, 
les  Hautes  Parties  Contractantes 
s'emploieront  4  6tablir  une  6troite 
solidarity  dans  leur  relations  com- 
merciales. 

Art.  16.  Moyennant  un  pr6avis 
d'au  moins  deux  ans,  il  pourra  6tre 
mis  fin  i  la  pr£sente  Convention  au 
iw  Janvier  de  chaque  ann£e,  &  partir 
du  i"  Janvier  1949. 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  628 


Art  17.  The  present  Conven- 
tion shall  be  ratified  and  ratifications 
shall  be  exchanged  as  soon  as  possi- 
ble. 

Meanwhile,  it  shall  become  effec- 
tive provisionally  from  the  moment 
of  signature,  and  the  Netherlands 
Government  or  the  Belgian  Govern- 
ment shall  have  the  right  to  bring  it 
to  an  end  at  any  time  on  giving  six 
months'  notice.  In  the  latter  even- 
tuality, the  provisions  of  Article  n 
would  be  applied. 

IN  FAITH  WHEREOF  the  Pleni- 
potentiaries, duly  empowered  for 
that  purpose,  have  signed  the  present 
Convention  and  have  thereunto 
affixed  their  seals. 

DONE  in  triplicate  at  London, 
October  21,  1943,  in  Dutch  and 
French,  both  texts  being  equally 
authentic. 


Art.  17.  La  prfesente  Convention 
sera  ratifi£e  et  les  ratifications  en 
seront  £chang£es  aussitdt  que  possi- 
ble. 

En  attendant,  elle  sortira  pro- 
visoirement  ses  effets  d&s  le  moment 
de  la  signature,  avec  facult6  pour  le 
Gouvernement  N6erlandais  ou  pour 
le  Gouvernement  Beige  d'y  mettre 
fin  £  tout  moment  moyennant  un 
pr6ayis  de  six  mois.  Dans  cette 
dernifere  6ventualit6,  il  serait  fait 
application  des  dispositions  de  Tarti- 
cle  ii. 

EN  FOI  DE  QUOI,  les  P16nipoten- 
tiaires,  munis  des  pouvoirs  n£ces- 
saires  k  cet  effet,  ont  sign£  la  pr6sente 
Convention  et  1'ont  rev£tue  de  leur 
cachet. 

Fait  en  triple  original,  en  n£er- 
landais  et  en  frangais,  les  deux 
textes  faisant  6galement  foi,  &  Lon- 
dres,  le  21  octobre  1943. 


[Signed:  E.  N.  VAN  KLEFFENS,  J.  VAN  DEN  BROEK,  H.  J.  VAN  MOOK, 
P.  KERSTENS,  P.  H.  SPAAK,  GUTT,  A.  DE  VLEESCHAUWER,  J.  BECII,  V. 

BODSON.l 


No.  628 


DECLARATION  on  General  Security.    Signed  at  Moscow,  October 

30,  IQ43- 

DECLARATION   sur   securit6   genSrale.    Signee   a   Moscou,   30 

octobre  1943* 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Declaration  was  adopted  at  the  Conference  of  Foreign  Secretaries 
of  the  United  States  of  America,  Great  Britain,  and  the  Soviet  Union,  held  at  Moscow, 
October  19-30,  1943.  For  an  account  of  the  conference,  see  9  U.S.  Department  of  State 
Bulletin  (1943),  pp.  307,  341.  The  Moscow  conference  was  followed  by  conferences  of 
heads  of  government  at  Tehran  and  Cairo,  November  and  December  1943;  at  Crimea, 
February  1945;  and  at  Berlin  (Potsdam),  July  and  August  1945.  The  Moscow  Declaration 
led  to  the  signing  of  the  Charter  of  the  United  Nations  at  San  Francisco  on  June  26,  1945 
(No.  653,  post) ;  Article  106  of  the  Charter  envisaged  the  continuance  of  the  consultations 
provided  for  in  paragraph  5  of  this  Declaration. 

RATIFICATIONS.    This  Declaration  was  not  subject  to  ratification. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  Declaration  is  also  published  in  i  Soviet  Foreign  Policy  during  the 
Patriotic  War:  Documents  and  Materials,  p.  241;  38  Am.  Jour.  Int.  Law  (Supp.,  1944),  p.  5. 
For  a  Spanish  translation,  see  3  Revista  peruana  de  derecko  international  (1943),  p.  494. 

P.  B.  Potter,  "Moscow;  Cairo;  Teheran,"  38  Am.  Jour.  Int.  Law  (1944),  pp.  108-11. 


Oct.  30,  1943 


DECLARATION  ON  GENERAL  SECURITY 


Entered  into  force  October  30, 1943. 

Text  from  9  U.  S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1943),  p.  308. 


The  Governments  of  the  United 
States  of  America,  the  United  King- 
dom, the  Soviet  Union  and  China: 

united  in  their  determination,  in 
accordance  with  the  Declaration  by 
the  United  Nations  of  January  I, 
1942,  and  subsequent  declarations, 
to  continue  hostilities  against  those 
Axis  powers  with  which  they  re- 
spectively are  at  war  until  such  pow- 
ers have  laid  down  their  arms  on  the 
basis  of  unconditional  surrender; 

conscious  of  their  responsibility 
to  secure  the  liberation  of  themselves 
and  the  peoples  allied  with  them 
from  the  menace  of  aggression; 

recognizing  the  necessity  of  ensur- 
ing a  rapid  and  orderly  transition 
from  war  to  peace  and  of  establishing 
and  maintaining  international  peace 
and  security  with  the  least  diversion 
of  the  world's  human  and  economic 
resources  for  armaments; 

jointly  declare: 

1 .  That  their  united  action,  pledged 
for  the  prosecution  of  the  war  against 
their  respective  enemies,  will  be  con- 
tinued   for    the    organization    and 
maintenance  of  peace  and  security. 

2.  That  those  of  them  at  war  with 
a  common  enemy  will  act  together 
in  all  matters  relating  to  the  sur- 
render   and    disarmament   of    that 
enemy. 

3.  That  they  will  take  all  meas- 


ures deemed  by  them  to  be  necessary 
to  provide  against  any  violation  of 
the  terms  imposed  upon  the  enemy. 

4.  That  they  recognize  the  neces- 
sity of  establishing  at  the  earliest 
practicable  date  a  general  interna- 
tional  organization,    based   on    the 
principle  of  the  sovereign  equality  of 
all  peace-loving  states,  and  open  to 
membership  by  all  such  states,  large 
and  small,  for  the  maintenance  of 
international  peace  and  security. 

5.  That  for  the  purpose  of  main- 
taining international  peace  and  se- 
curity pending  the  re-establishment 
of  law  and  order  and  the  inaugura- 
tion of  a  system  of  general  security, 
they  will  consult  with  one  another 
and  as  occasion  requires  with  other 
members  of  the  United  Nations  with 
a  view  to  joint  action  on  behalf  of 
the  community  of  nations. 

6.  That  after  the  termination  of 
hostilities  they  will  not  employ  their 
military  forces  within  the  territories 
of  other  states  except  for  the  pur- 
poses envisaged  in  this  declaration 
and  after  joint  consultation. 

7.  That  they  will  confer  and  co- 
operate with  one  another  and  with 
other  members  of  the  United  Nations 
to  bring  about  a  practicable  general 
agreement  with  respect  to  the  regu- 
lation of  armaments  in  the  post-war 
period. 


V.  MOLOTOV,  ANTHONY  EDEN,  CORDELL  HULL,  Foo  PING-SHEUNG 
Moscow,  3oth  October,  1943. 


84  INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION  No.  629 

No.  629 

AGREEMENT    for    United    Nations    Relief    and    Rehabilitation 
Administration.    Signed  at  Washington,  November  9,  1943. 

ACCORD  stir  PAdministration  des  Nations  Unies  pour  les  Secours 
et  la  Reconstruction.    Signe  &  Washington,  9  novembre  1943. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  Drafts  of  this  Agreement  were  submitted  by  the  Government  of  the 
United  States  to  other  governments  on  June  10  and  September  20,  1943.  8  U.S.  Depart- 
ment  of  State  Bulletin  (1943),  p.  523;  9  idem  (1943),  p.  211.  Additional  functions  were  con- 
ferred on  the  Administration  by  the  sanitary  conventions  of  December  15,  1944  (Nos.  643, 
644,  post).  The  Central  Committee  was  enlarged  in  1945  and  1946.  The  Council  of  the 
Administration  held  its  first  session  at  Atlantic  City,  November  lo-December  i,  1943. 
Formal  agreements  concerning  supplies  and  services  were  concluded  by  the  Administration 
with  the  governments  of  ten  states.  The  activities  of  the  Administration  were  discontinued 
in  1947,  its  functions  being  transferred  to  various  specialized  agencies  of  the  United  Nations. 
Reports  of  the  Director  General,  October- December  1946,  pp.  74-75;  July-December,  1947, 
pp.  317-46.  By  an  agreement  of  September  27,  1948,  the  residual  assets  of  the  Administra- 
tion were  transferred  to  the  United  Nations.  U.N.  Doc.  A/8io,  p.  104.  When  it  closed 
its  books  on  March  31,  1949,  UNRRA  had  spent  almost  four  billion  dollars  for  relief  and 
rehabilitation.  An  International  Relief  Union  had  been  established  by  a  convention  opened 
to  signature  at  Geneva,  July  12,  1927,  which  came  into  force  in  1932  (No.  178,  ante). 

RATIFICATIONS.  All  of  the  signatories  approved  or  ratified  the  Agreement.  Denmark 
and  the  Byelorussian  and  Ukrainian  Soviet  Republics  became  parties  to  the  Agreement 
in  1945,  and  Turkey  in  1946. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Agreement  is  also  published  in  British  Treaty  Series,  No.  3 
(1943),  Cmd.  6491;  Canada,  Treaty  Series,  1943,  No.  16.  For  a  French  translation,  see 
Belgium,  Bulletin  usuel  des  lois  et  arr&es,  1945,  p.  519;  for  a  Spanish  translation,  see  Guate- 
mala, Memoria  de  las  labores  del  Poder  Ejecutive  en  el  ramo  de  relactones  exteriores,  1943,  p. 
1 53 ;  4  Revista  peruana  de  derecho  internacional  (1944),  p.  276.  Detailed  accounts  of  UNRRA 
activities  were  published  in  the  quarterly  reports  of  the  Director  General  to  the  Council. 

Anon.,  "The  United  Nations  Relief  and  Rehabilitation  Administration,"  49  Int.  Labour 
Rev.  (1944),  pp.  145-59;  W.  Arnold-Forster,  "UNRRA's  Prospects,"  15  Political  Quarterly 
(1944),  pp.  57-65;  G.  Brand,  "International  Relief  Machinery,"  9  London  Quarterly  of 
World  Affairs  (1944),  pp.  144-48;  H.  W.  Briggs,  "The  UNRRA  Agreement  and  Congress," 
38  Am.  Jour.  Int.  Law  (1944),  PP-  650-58;  V.  M.  Dean,  "UNRRA— -A  Step  Toward  Re- 
construction," 19  Foreign  Policy  Reports  (1944),  pp.  266-76;  A.  G.  B.  Fisher,  "The  Consti- 
tution and  Work  of  UNRRA,"  20  International  Affairs  (1944),  pp.  317-30;  G.  G.  Goodman, 
"UNRRA  in  Perspective,"  2  Year  Book  of  World  Affairs  (1948),  pp.  197-224;  G.  Gutierrez 
y  Sanchez,  El  problema  de  los  refugiados:  La  politico,  de  la  UNRRA  respecto  a  las  poblaciones 
desarraigadas  (Habana,  1944),  108  pp.;  L.  Hamori,  " Lf Administration  des  Nations  Unies 
pour  le  Secours  et  la  Restauration,"  8  Revue  pour  I'etude  des  catamites  (1945),  pp.  159-76; 
J.  P.  Harris,  "The  Development  of  an  International  Civil  Service  for  the  Administration  of 
Relief  and  Rehabilitation  of  War  Devastated  Areas/'  31  Iowa  Law  Review  (1945),  pp.  90- 
102;  P.  C.  Jessup,  "UNRRA — Sample  of  World  Organization,"  22  Foreign  Affairs (1944), 
pp.  362-73;  J.  A.  Keyser  and  L.  C.  Marsh,  "UNRRA  and  Its  Task,"  11  London  Quarterly 
of  World  Affairs  (1946),  pp.  325-35;  H.  H.  Lehman,  "Some  Problems  in  International  Ad- 
ministration," 5  Public  Administration  Review  (1945),  pp.  93-101 ;  L.  L.  Leonard,  "UNRRA 
and  the  Concept  of  Regional  International  Organization,"  30  Iowa  Law  Review  (1945),  pp. 
489-514;  C.  Parry,  "The  United  Nations  Relief  and  Rehabilitation  Organization,"  23 
British  Year  Book  of  International  Law  (1946),  pp.  495-96;  A.  H.  Robertson,  "Some  Legal 


Nov.  9,  1943 


UNRRA 


Problems  of  UNRRA,"  idem,  pp,  142-67;  W.  A.  Sawyer,  "Achievements  of  UNRRA  as  an 
International  Health  Organization/'  37  American  Journal  of  Public  Health  (1947),  pp.  41-58; 
T.  A.  Sumberg,  "The  Financial  Experience  of  UNRRA,11  39  Am.  Jour.  Int.  Law  (1945), 
pp.  698-712;  UNRRA — Organization,  Aims,  Progress  (Rev.  ed.,  Washington,  1945),  34  pp.; 
Z.  Warhaftig,  Relic}  and  Rehabilitation— Implications  of  the  UNRRA  Program  for  Jewish 
Needs  (New  York,  1944),  223  pp. 

Entered  into  force  November  9,  1943. 

Text  from  U.S.  Executive  Agreement  Series,  No.  352. 


The  Governments  or  Authorities 
whose  duly  authorized  representa- 
tives have  subscribed  hereto, 

Being  United  Nations  or  being  as- 
sociated with  the  United  Nations 
in  this  war, 

Being  determined  that  immedi- 
ately upon  the  liberation  of  any  area 
by  the  armed  forces  of  the  United 
Nations  or  as  a  consequence  of  re- 
treat of  the  enemy  the  population 
thereof  shall  receive  aid  and  relief 
from  their  sufferings,  food,  clothing 
and  shelter,  aid  in  the  prevention  of 
pestilence  and  in  the  recovery  of  the 
health  of  the  people,  and  that  prepa- 
ration and  arrangements  shall  be 
made  for  the  return  of  prisoners  and 
exiles  to  their  homes  and  for  assist- 
ance in  the  resumption  of  urgently 
needed  agricultural  and  industrial 
production  and  the  restoration  of 
essential  services, 

Have  agreed  as  follows: 

ARTICLE  i 

There  is  hereby  established  the 
United  Nations  Relief  and  Rehabili- 
tation Administration. 

1.  The  Administration  shall  have 
power  to  acquire,  hold  and  convey 
property,  to  enter  into  contracts  and 
undertake  obligations,  to  designate 
or  create  agencies  and  to  review  the 
activities    of    agencies    so    created, 
to  manage  undertakings  and  in  gen- 
eral to  perform  any  legal  act  appro- 
priate to  its  objects  and  purposes. 

2.  Subject   to   the   provisions  of 
Article  7,  the  purposes  and  functions 
of  the  Administration  shall  be  as 
follows: 


(a)  To  plan,  coordinate,  adminis- 
ter or  arrange  for  the  administration 
of  measures  for  the  relief  of  victims 
of  war  in  any  area  under  the  control 
of  any  of  the  United  Nations  through 
the  provision  of  food,  fuel,  clothing, 
shelter  and  other  basic  necessities, 
medical  and  other  essential  services; 
and  to  facilitate  in  such  areas,  so  far 
as  necessary  to  the  adequate  pro- 
vision of  relief,  the  production  and 
transportation  of  these  articles  and 
the  furnishing  of  these  services.     The 
form  of  activities  of  the  Administra- 
tion within  the  territory  of  a  member 
government   wherein    that   govern- 
ment  exercises   administrative   au- 
thority and  the  responsibility  to  be 
assumed  by  the  member  government 
for  carrying  out  measures  planned 
by  the  Administration  therein  shall 
be    determined    after    consultation 
with  and  with  the  consent  of  the 
member  government. 

(b)  To  formulate  and  recommend 
measures  for  individual  or  joint  ac- 
tion by  any  or  all  of  the  member 
governments  for  the  coordination  of 
purchasing,    the   use   of  ships   and 
other  procurement  activities  in  the 
period  following  the  cessation  of  hos- 
tilities, with  a  view  to  integrating 
the  plans  and  activities  of  the  Ad- 
ministration with   the  total  move- 
ment of  supplies,  and  for  the  purpose 
of  achieving  an  equitable  distribu- 
tion of  available  supplies.    The  Ad- 
ministration  may  administer  such 
coordination  measures  as  may  be  au- 
thorized   by   the   member   govern- 
ments concerned. 

(c)  To  study,  formulate  and  rec- 


86 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  629 


ommend  for  individual  or  joint  ac- 
tion by  any  or  all  of  the  member 
governments  measures  with  respect 
to  such  related  matters,  arising  out 
of  its  experience  in  planning  and  per- 
forming the  work  of  relief  and  re- 
habilitation, as  may  be  proposed  by 
any  of  the  member  governments. 
Such  proposals  shall  be  studied  and 
recommendations  formulated  if  the 
proposals  are  supported  by  a  vote 
of  the  Council,  and  the  recommenda- 
tions shall  be  referred  to  any  or  all 
of  the  member  governments  for  in- 
dividual or  joint  action  if  approved  by 
unanimous  vote  of  the  Central  Com- 
mittee and  by  vote  of  the  Council. 

ARTICLE  2. — Membership 

The  members  of  the  United  Na- 
tions Relief  and  Rehabilitation  Ad- 
ministration shall  be  the  govern- 
ments or  authorities  signatory  hereto 
and  such  other  governments  or  au- 
thorities as  may  upon  application 
for  membership  be  admitted  thereto 
by  action  of  the  Council.  The  Coun- 
cil may,  if  it  desires,  authorize  the 
Central  Committee  to  accept  new 
members  between  sessions  of  the 
Council. 

Wherever  the  term  "member  gov- 
ernment" is  used  in  this  Agreement 
it  shall  be  construed  to  mean  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Administration  whether  a 
government  or  an  authority. 

ARTICLE  3— The  Council 

I.  Each  member  government  shall 
name  one  representative,  and  such 
alternates  as  may  be  necessary,  upon 
the  Council  of  the  United  Nations 
Relief  and  Rehabilitation  Adminis- 
tration, which  shall  be  the  policy- 
making  body  of  the  Administration. 
The  Council  shall,  for  each  of  its  ses- 
sions, select  one  of  its  members  to 
preside  at  the  session.  The  Council 
shall  determine  its  own  rules  of  pro- 
cedure. Unless  otherwise  provided 
by  the  Agreement  or  by  action  of  the 
Council,  the  Council  shall  vote  by 
simple  majority. 


2.  The  Council  shall  be  convened 
in  regular  session  not  less  than  twice 
a  year  by  the  Central  Committee. 
It  may  be  convened  in  special  ses- 
sion whenever  the  Central  Commit- 
tee shall  deem  necessary,  and  shall  be 
convened  within  thirty  days  after 
request  therefor  by  one-third  of  the 
members  of  the  Council. 

3.  The  Central  Committee  of  the 
Council  shall  consist  of  the  repre- 
sentatives of  China,   the  Union  of 
Soviet  Socialist  Republics,  the  United 
Kingdom,  and  the  United  States  of 
America,  with  the  Director  General 
presiding,    without    vote.    Between 
sessions  of  the  Council  it  shall  when 
necessary  make  policy  decisions  of  an 
emergency  nature.     All  such  deci- 
sions shall  be  recorded  in  the  min- 
utes of  the  Central  Committee  which 
shall  be  communicated  promptly  to 
each     member    government.     Such 
decisions  shall  be  open  to  reconsider- 
ation by  the  Council  at  any  regular 
session    or   at    any    special    session 
called  in  accordance  with  Article  3, 
paragraph    2.     The    Central    Com- 
mittee shall  invite  the  participation 
of  the  representative  of  any  member 
government  at  those  of  its  meetings 
at  which  action  of  special  interest  to 
such   government   is   discussed.     It 
shall  invite  the  participation  of  the 
representative  serving  as  Chairman 
of  the  Committee  on  Supplies  of  the 
Council  at  those  of  its  meetings  at 
which  policies  affecting  the  provision 
of  supplies  are  discussed. 

4.  The  Committee  on  Supplies  of 
the  Council  shall  consist  of  the  mem- 
bers of  the  Council,  or  their  alter- 
nates,   representing   those   member 
governments  likely  to  be  principal 
suppliers  of  materials  for  relief  and 
rehabilitation.     The  members  shall 
be  appointed  by  the  Council,  and  the 
Council  may  authorize  the  Central 
Committee  to  make  emergency  ap- 
pointments between  sessions  of  the 
Council,  such  appointments  to  con- 
tinue until  the  next  session  of  the 
Council.     The  Committee  on  Sup- 


Nov.  9,  1943 


UNRRA 


plies  shall  consider,  formulate  and 
recommend  to  the  Council  and  the 
Central  Committee  policies  designed 
to  assure  the  provision  of  required 
supplies.  The  Central  Committee 
shall  from  time  to  time  meet  with 
the  Committee  on  Supplies  to  review 
policy  matters  affecting  supplies. 

5.  The  Committee  of  the  Council 
for  Europe  shall  consist  of  all  the 
members  of  the  Council,  or  their  al- 
ternates, representing  member  gov- 
ernments of  territories  within  the 
European  area  and  such  other  mem- 
bers of  the  Council  representing 
other  governments  directly  concerned 
with  the  problems  of  relief  and  re- 
habilitation in  the  European  area  as 
shall  be  appointed  by  the  Council; 
the  Council  may  authorize  the  Cen- 
tral Committee  to  make  these  ap- 
pointments in  cases  of  emergency  be- 
tween sessions  of  the  Council,  such 
appointments  to  continue  until  the 
next  session  of  the  Council.  The 
Committee  of  the  Council  for  the 
Far  East  shall  consist  of  all  the 
members  of  the  Council,  or  their 
alternates,  representing  member  gov- 
ernments of  territories  within  the 
Far  Eastern  area  and  such  other 
members  of  the  Council  representing 
other  governments  directly  con- 
cerned with  the  problems  of  relief 
and  rehabilitation  in  the  Far  Eastern 
area  as  shall  be  appointed  by  the 
Council;  the  Council  may  authorize 
the  Central  Committee  to  make 
these  appointments  in  cases  of 
emergency  between  sessions  of  the 
Council,  such  appointments  to  con- 
tinue until  the  next  session  of  the 
Council.  The  regional  committees 
shall  normally  meet  within  their  re- 
spective areas.  They  shall  consider 
and  recommend  to  the  Council  and 
the  Central  Committee  policies  with 
respect  to  relief  and  rehabilitation 
within  their  respective  areas.  The 
Committee  of  the  Council  for  Europe 
shall  replace  the  Inter-Allied  Com- 
mittee on  European  post-war  relief 
established  in  London  on  September 


24,  1941  and  the  records  of  the  latter 
shall  be  made  available  to  the  Com- 
mittee for  Europe. 

6.  The    Council    shall    establish 
such  other  standing  regional  com- 
mittees as  it  shall  consider  desirable, 
the   functions  of   such   committees 
and  the  method  of  appointing  their 
members    being    identical    to    that 
provided  in  Article  3,  paragraph  5 
with  respect  to  the  Committees  of 
the  Council  for  Europe  and  for  the 
Far  East.     The  Council  shall  also 
establish  such  other  standing  com- 
mittees as  it  considers  desirable  to 
advise  it,  and,  in  intervals  between 
sessions  of  the  Council,  to  advise  the 
Central  Committee.     For  such  stand- 
ing technical  committees  as  may  be 
established,  in  respect  of  particular 
problems  such  as  nutrition,  health, 
agriculture,  transport,  repatriation, 
and  finance,  the  members  may  be 
members  of  the  Council  or  alternates 
nominated  by  them  because  of  spe- 
cial competence  in  their  respective 
fields  of  work.    The  members  shall 
be  appointed  by  the  Council,  and  the 
Council  may  authorize  the  Central 
Committee  to  make  emergency  ap- 
pointments between  sessions  of  the 
Council,  such  appointments  to  con- 
tinue until  the  next  session  of  the 
Council.     Should    a   regional    com- 
mittee so  desire,  subcommittees  of 
the  standing  technical  committees 
shall  be  established  by  the  technical 
committees  in  consultation  with  the 
regional  committees,  to  advise  the 
regional  committees. 

7.  The  travel  and  other  expenses 
of  members  of  the  Council  and  of 
members  of  its  committees  shall  be 
borne   by   the  governments   which 
they  represent. 

8.  All  reports  and  recommenda- 
tions of  committees  of  the  Council 
shall  be  transmitted  to  the  Director 
General  for  distribution  to  the  Coun- 
cil and  the  Central  Committee  by 
the  secretariat  of  the  Council  estab- 
lished under  the  provisions  of  Article 
4,  paragraph  4. 


88 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  629 


ARTICLE  4. — The  Director  General 

1.  The  executive  authority  of  the 
United  Nations  Relief  and  Rehabili- 
tation  Administration   shall   be   in 
the  Director  General,  who  shall  be 
appointed  by  the  Council  on  the 
nomination  by  unanimous  vote  of 
the  Central   Committee.    The   Di- 
rector General  may  be  removed  by 
the  Council  on  recommendation  by 
unanimous    vote    of     the    Central 
Committee. 

2.  The    Director    General    shall 
have  full  power  and  authority  for 
carrying  out  relief  operations  con- 
templated by  Article  I,  paragraph  2 
(a),  within  the  limits  of  available  re- 
sources and  the  broad  policies  de- 
termined by  the  Council  or  its  Cen- 
tral Committee.     Immediately  upon 
taking  office  he  shall  in  conjunction 
with  the  military  and  other  appro- 
priate authorities  of  the  United  Na- 
tions prepare  plans  for  the  emergency 
relief  of  the  civilian  population  in 
any  area  occupied  by  the  armed  forces 
of  any  of  the  United  Nations,  ar- 
range for  the  procurement  and  as- 
sembly of  the  necessary  supplies  and 
create  or  select  the  emergency  organ- 
ization  required   for   this   purpose. 
In  arranging  for  the  procurement, 
transportation,  and  distribution  of 
supplies  and  services,  he  and  his  rep- 
resentatives shall  consult  and  col- 
laborate with  the  appropriate  au- 
thorities of  the  United  Nations  and 
shall,  wherever  practicable,  use  the 
facilities  made  available  by  such  au- 
thorities.    Foreign  voluntary  relief 
agencies  may  not  engage  in  activity 
in  any  area  receiving  relief  from  the 
Administration  without  the  consent 
and  unless  subject  to  the  regulation 
of  the  Director  General.     The  pow- 
ers and  duties  of  the  Director  Gen- 
eral are  subject  to  the  limitations  of 
Article  7. 

3.  The    Director    General    shall 
also  be  responsible  for  the  organiza- 
tion and  direction  of  the  functions 
contemplated   by  Article    I,   para- 
graphs 2  (V)  and  2  (c). 


4.  The  Director  General  shall  ap- 
point such  Deputy  Directors  Gen- 
eral, officers,  expert  personnel,  and 
staff  at  his  headquarters  and  else- 
where, including  field  missions,  as  he 
shall  find   necessary,   and   he  may 
delegate  to  them  such  of  his  powers 
as  he  may  deem  appropriate.    The 
Director  General,  or  upon  his  author- 
ization the  Deputy  Directors  Gen- 
eral, shall  supply  such  secretariat 
and  other  staff  and  facilities  as  shall 
be  required  by  the  Council  and  its 
committees,  including  the  regional 
committees  and   subcommittees. 
Such  Deputy  Directors  General  as 
shall  be  assigned  special  functions 
within  a  region  shall  attend  meetings 
of  the  regional  standing  committee 
whenever  possible  and  shall  keep  it 
advised  on  the  progress  of  the  relief 
and   rehabilitation   program   within 
the  region. 

5.  The    Director    General    shall 
make  periodic  reports  to  the  Central 
Committee  and  to  the  Council  cov- 
ering the  progress  of  the  Administra- 
tion's activities.     The  reports  shall 
be  made  public  except  for  such  por- 
tions as  the  Central  Committee  may 
consider  it  necessary,  in  the  interest 
of  the  United  Nations,  to  keep  con- 
fidential; if  a  report  affects  the  in- 
terests of  a  member  government  in 
such  a  way  as  to  render  it  question- 
able whether  it  should  be  published, 
such  government  shall  have  an  op- 
portunity of  expressing  its  views  on 
the   question   of   publication.     The 
Director  General  shall  also  arrange 
to   have   prepared   periodic   reports 
covering  the  activities  of  the  Admin- 
istration within  each  region  and  he 
shall  transmit  such  reports  with  his 
comments  thereon  to  the  Council, 
the  Central  Committee  and  the  re- 
spective regional  committees. 

ARTICLE  5. — Supplies  and  Resources 

i.  In  so  far  as  its  appropriate  con- 
stitutional bodies  shall  authorize, 
each  member  government  will  con- 
tribute to  the  support  of  the  Admin- 


Nov.  9,  1943 


UNRRA 


89 


istration  in  order  to  accomplish  the 
purposes  of  Article  I,  paragraph  2 
(a).  The  amount  and  character  of 
the  contributions  of  each  member 
government  under  this  provision  will 
be  determined  from  time  to  time  by 
its  appropriate  constitutional  bodies. 
All  such  contributions  received  by  the 
Administration  shall  be  accounted  for. 

2.  The    supplies    and    resources 
made  available  by  the  member  gov- 
ernments shall  be  kept  in  review  in 
relation  to  prospective  requirements 
by  the  Director  General,  who  shall 
initiate  action  with  the  member  gov- 
ernments with  a  view  to  assuring 
such    additional    supplies    and    re- 
sources as  may  be  required. 

3.  All  purchases  by  any  of  the 
member  governments,  to  be  made 
outside  their  own  territories  during 
the  war  for  relief  or  rehabilitation 
purposes,  shall  be  made  only  after 
consultation  with  the  Director  Gen- 
eral, and  shall,  so  far  as  practicable, 
be  carried  out  through  the  appropri- 
ate United  Nations  agency. 

ARTICLE  6. — Administrative 
Expenses 

The  Director  General  shall  submit 
to  the  Council  an  annual  budget, 
and  from  time  to  time  such  supple- 
mentary budgets  as  may  be  required, 
covering  the  necessary  administra- 
tive expenses  of  the  Administration. 
Upon  approval  of  a  budget  by  the 
Council  the  total  amount  approved 
shall  be  allocated  to  the  member 
governments  in  proportions  to  be 
determined  by  the  Council.  Each 
member  government  undertakes, 
subject  to  the  requirements  of  its 
constitutional  procedure,  to  contrib- 
ute to  the  Administration  promptly 
its  share  of  the  administrative  ex- 
penses so  determined. 

ARTICLE  7 

Notwithstanding  any  other  pro- 
vision herein  contained,  while  hos- 
tilities or  other  military  necessities 
exist  in  any  area,  the  Administration 


and  its  Director  General  shall  not 
undertake  activities  therein  without 
the  consent  of  the  military  command 
of  that  area,  and  unless  subject  to 
such  control  as  the  command  may 
find  necessary.  The  determination 
that  such  hostilities  or  military  ne- 
cessities exist  in  any  area  shall  be 
made  by  its  military  commander. 

ARTICLE  8. — Amendment 

The  provisions  of  this  Agreement 
may  be  amended  as  follows: 

a.  Amendments  involving  new  ob- 
ligations for  member  governments 
shall   require  the   approval   of   the 
Council  by  a  two-thirds  vote  and 
shall  take  effect  for  each  member 
government  on  acceptance  by  it; 

b.  Amendments   involving   modi- 
fication of  Article  3  or  Article  4  shall 
take  effect  on  adoption  by  the  Coun- 
cil by  a  two-thirds  vote,  including 
the  votes  of  all  the  members  of  the 
Central  Committee; 

c.  Other  amendments  shall  take 
effect  on  adoption  by  the  Council  by 
a  two-thirds  vote. 

ARTICLE  9. — Entry  into  Force 

This  Agreement  shall  enter  into 
force  with  respect  to  each  signatory 
on  the  date  when  the  Agreement  is 
signed  by  that  signatory,  unless 
otherwise  specified  by  such  signatory. 

ARTICLE  10. — Withdrawal 

Any  member  government  may 
give  notice  of  withdrawal  from  the 
Administration  at  any  time  after  the 
expiration  of  six  months  from  the 
entry  into  force  of  the  Agreement 
for  that  government.  Such  notice 
shall  take  effect  twelve  months  after 
the  date  of  its  communication  to  the 
Director  General  subject  to  the 
member  government  having  met  by 
that  time  all  financial,  supply  or 
other  material  obligations  accepted 
or  undertaken  by  it. 

IN  WITNESS  WHEREOF,  this  Agree- 
ment is  signed  by  the  following  rep- 
resentatives, duly  authorized  for  that 


90  INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION  No.  629 

purpose  by  their  respective  Govern-  partment  of  State  of  the  United 
ments  or  Authorities.  States  of  America,  and  certified  cop- 
Done  in  Washington  this  ninth  ies  thereof  to  be  furnished  by  the 
day  of  November,  one  thousand  Government  of  the  United  States  of 
nine  hundred  forty-three,  in  the  America  to  each  of  the  Governments 
English  language,  the  original  to  be  and  Authorities  on  whose  behalf  this 
deposited  in  the  archives  of  the  De-  Agreement  is  signed. 

[Signed :]  For  Australia :  OWEN  DIXON,  Minister  for  Australia ;  for  Belgium : 
P.  H.  SPAAK;  for  Bolivia:  Luis  GUACHALLA;  for  the  United  States  of  Brazil: 
E.  PENTEADO;  for  Canada:  LEIGHTON  MCCARTHY;  for  Chile:  (Este  Convenio 
regira  respecto  a  Chile,  de  acuerdo  con  los  preceptos  de  su  Carta  Fundamental,  una  vez 
que  haya  sido  aprobado  por  el  Congreso  National  y  ratificado  por  los  organismos  con- 
stitucionales  correspondientes  de  la  Republica.)  RoDOLFO  MIGUELS;  for  China: 
T.  F.  TsiANG;  for  Colombia:  (El  Plenipotenciario  de  Colombia  firma  con  la  sal- 
vedad  de  la  ulterior  aprobaci6n  del  Congreso  Colombiano.)  A.  VARGAS;  for  Costa 
Rica:  CARLOS  M.  ESCALANTE;  for  Cuba:  (Este  Convenio,  previa  la  aprobati6n 
del  Senado  de  la  Reptiblica,  ser£  ratificado  por  el  Ejecutivo.)  A.  F.  CoNCHESO ;  for 
Czechoslovakia:  JAN  MASARYK;  for  the  Dominican  Republic:  JULIO  VEGA 
BATLLE;  for  Ecuador:  (Sujeto  a  ratificati6n  por  el  Congreso  de  la  Reptiblica  del 
Ecuador.)  S.  E.  DURAN  BALLON;  for  Egypt:  M.  HASSAN;  for  El  Salvador: 
HECTOR  DAVID  CASTRO;  for  Ethiopia:  (Subject  to  the  ratification  of  the  Imperial 
Ethiopian  Government.)  EPHREM  T.  MEDHEN;  for  the  French  Committee 
of  National  Liberation:  JEAN  MONNET;  for  Greece:  K.  VARVARESSOS;  for 
Guatemala :  (Pending  the  required  approval  by  the  National  Assembly  of  Guatemala, 
the  immediate  application  of  this  Agreement  shall  be  considered  provisional  with  regard 
to  the  Government  of  Guatemala.)  ADRIAN  RECINOS  ;  for  Haiti :  A.  LIAUTAUD  ;  for 
Honduras :  JULIAN  R.  CACERES  ;  for  Iceland :  MAGNUS  SIGURDSSON  ;  for  India : 
(This  Agreement  is  signed  subject  to  a  reservation  under  Article  IX  that  it  shall  enter 
into  force  with  respect  to  the  Government  of  India  as  soon  as  it  has  been  approved  by 
the  Indian  Legislature.)  G.  S.  BAJPAI ;  for  Iran :  (This  Agreement  shall  enter  into 
force  immediately  after  its  approval  by  the  Iranian  Chamber  of  Deputies.)  M. 
SHAYESTEH;  for  Iraq:  (Subject  to  ratification  by  the  Iraqi  Parliament.)  ALI 
JAWDAT;  for  Liberia:  WALTER  F.  WALKER;  for  Luxembourg:  PIERRE  Du- 
PONG;  for  the  United  Mexican  States:  (Sujeto  a  ratificaci6n  por  el  Senado  de  los 
Estados  Unidos  Mexicanos.)  F.  CASTILLO  NAjERA;  for  the  Netherlands: 
P.  KERSTENS;  for  New  Zealand:  GEOFFREY  S.  Cox;  for  Nicaragua:  Ad  refer- 
endum, GUILLERMO  SEVILLA  SACASA;  for  Norway:  W.  MUNTHE  DE  MOR- 
GENSTIERNE;  for  Panama:  ENRIQUE  A.  JIMENEZ;  for  Paraguay:  CELSO  R. 
VELAZQUEZ;  for  Peru:  (Bajo  reserva  de  su  ratificaci6n  constitucional.)  M.  DE 
FREYRE  Y  SANTANDER;  for  the  Philippine  Commonwealth:  S.  OSMENA;  for 
Poland:  JAN  KWAPINSKI;  for  the  Union  of  South  Africa:  RALPH  W.  CLOSE; 
for  the  Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics:  A.  GROMYKO;  for  the  United 
Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ireland:  HALIFAX;  for  the  United 
States  of  America:  FRANKLIN  D.  ROOSEVELT;  for  Uruguay:  (Con  la  reserva  de 
que  no  podra  entrar  en  vigor  con  respecto  al  Uruguay  hasta  tanto  se  alcance  la  apro- 
baci6n  legislative)  J.  C.  BLANCO;  for  Venezuela:  (El  Plenipotenciario  de  Vene- 
zuela firma  el  presente  Convenio  en  la  inteligencia  de  que  queda  sujeto  a  la  ratificaci6n 
de  los  Poderes  Ptiblicos  de  la  Naci6n,  conforme  al  procedimiento  constitucional  venezo- 
lano.)  Di6oENEs  ESCALANTE;  for  Yugoslavia:  CONSTANTIN  A.  FOTITCII. 


Dec.  15,  1943  INTER-AMERICAN  AUTOMOTIVE  TRAFFIC  91 

No.  630 

CONVENTION  on  the  Regulation  of  Inter-American  Automotive 
Traffic.  Opened  for  signature  at  Washington,  December  15, 
1943- 

CONVENCION  sobre  la  reglamentaci6n  del  trafico  automotor  in- 
teramericano.  Abierta  a  la  firma  en  Washington,  15  de  diciem- 
bre  de  1943. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Convention  replaces  a  convention  on  the  regulation  of  automotive 
traffic  signed  at  Washington  on  October  6,  1930  (No.  271,  ante),  which  had  been  ratified  by 
five  states.  A  draft  of  this  Convention  was  prepared  by  the  Fourth  Pan  American  Highway 
Conference  and  the  Second  Inter- American  Travel  Congress,  meeting  at  Mexico  City  in 
1941.  A  convention  on  the  international  circulation  of  motor  vehicles  was  signed  at  Paris, 
October  n,  1909.  102  Br.  and  For.  St.  Papers,  p.  64;  3  Martens,  N.R.G.  (3d  sen),  p.  834. 
It  was  superseded  by  the  convention  opened  for  signature  at  Paris,  April  24,  1926  (No.  157, 
ante);  a  convention  on  road  traffic  was  opened  for  signature  on  the  same  date  (No.  158, 
ante).  An  agreement  concerning  triptychs,  a  convention  on  the  unification  of  road  signals, 
and  a  convention  on  the  taxation  of  foreign  motor  vehicles  were  opened  for  signature  at 
Geneva,  March  28-30,  1931  (No.  287-289,  ante).  A  convention  on  a  Pan  American  tourist 
passport  and  a  transit  passport  for  vehicles  was  signed  at  Buenos  Aires,  June  19,  1935  (No. 
416,  ante). 

RATIFICATIONS.  On  January  i,  1949,  ratifications  of  this  Convention  had  been  deposited 
with  the  Pan  American  Union  by  Argentina,  Brazil,  Chile  (with  reservation),  Dominican 
Republic,  El  Salvador,  Guatemala,  Honduras,  Nicaragua,  Panama,  Paraguay,  Peru,  and 
the  United  States  of  America  (with  reservation).  It  had  also  been  ratified  by  Costa  Rica. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Convention  is  also  published  in  U.S.  Treaties  and  Other 
International  Acts  Series,  No.  1567;  the  Spanish  version  is  also  published  in  65  Dominican 
Republic,  Gaceta  oficial  (1944),  No.  6109,  pp.  3-14;  40  Guatemala,  D^ario  de  Centre  America 
(1944),  No.  95,  pp.  785-88;  Guatemala,  Memoria  de  las  labores  del  Poder  Ejecutivo  en  el 
ramo  de  relaciones  exteriores,  1943,  pp.  205-13;  Repiiblica  Dominicana,  Memoria  de  la  Secre- 
taria  de  Estado  de  Relaciones  Exteriores,  1943,  PP-  279-88;  the  Portuguese  text  is  published 
in  Brazil,  Colegao  das  Lets,  1945,  II,  p.  598. 

Anon.,  "Second  Inter- American  Travel  Congress,1'  76  Bulletin  of  the  Pan  American 
Union  (1942),  pp.  162-65;  E.  W.  James,  "More  Highways  for  the  Americas — the  Fourth 
Pan  American  Highway  Congress,"  75  idem  (1941),  pp.  677-81; f  "A  Quarter  Cen- 
tury of  Road  Building  in  the  Americas,"  79  idem  (1945),  pp.  609-13;  H.  H.  Kelly,  "American 
Interest  in  International  Motor  Traffic,"  17  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1947),  PP- 
1063-68. 

Entered  into  force  July  25, 1944. 

Text  supplied  by  the  Pan  American  Union. 

The  Governments  of  the  American  Los  Gobiernos  de  las  Republicas 
Republics,  desirous  of  establishing  Americanas,  deseosos  de  establecer 
uniform  rules  among  themselves  to  entre  sf  reglas  uniformes  para  el  con- 
control  and  regulate  international  trol  y  la  reglamentaci6n  del  tr£- 
automotive  traffic  on  their  highways,  fico  automotor  international  en  sus 
and  to  facilitate  the  movement  of  carreteras,  y  para  facilitar  el  movi- 
motor  vehicles  among  such  States,  miento  de  vehfculos  entre  dichos 

Estados, 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  630 


Have  decided  to  conclude  the 
present  Convention  in  order  to 
effectuate  the  foregoing  purposes, 
and  have  agreed  upon  the  following 
articles: 

Article  i.  It  is  recognized  that 
each  State  has  exclusive  jurisdiction 
over  the  use  of  its  own  highways, 
but  agrees  to  their  international  use 
as  specified  in  this  Convention. 

Art.  2.  Under  tjie  terms  of  the 
present  Convention,  a  motor  ve- 
hicle shall  be  defined  as  any  self- 
propelled  vehicle  circulating  upon  a 
public  highway  without  the  need  of 
rails  and  used  for  the  transport  of 
persons  or  merchandise. 

A  highway  shall  be  defined  as  any 
public  way  maintained  for  and  open 
to  the  use  of  the  public  for  purposes  of 
vehicular  travel. 

An  operator  shall  be  defined  as 
any  person  who  drives  or  is  in  actual 
physical  control  of  a  motor  vehicle 
upon  a  highway. 

Art.  3.  The  operator  of  a  motor 
vehicle  circulating  in  any  State 
which  is  a  party  to  this  Convention 
is  subject  to  the  traffic  laws  and 
regulations  in  force  in  that  State  or 
subdivision  thereof. 

A  copy  of  such  laws  and  regula- 
tions may  be  handed  to  the  operator 
at  the  time  of  entering  each  State, 
by  the  customs  authorities  who  are 
clearing  the  vehicle  for  entry,  or  by 
any  authorized  agency. 

Art.  4.  The  Contracting  States 
shall  not  allow  customs  measures  to 
be  put  into  effect  which  will  hinder 
international  travel. 

Simplified  customs  and  other  regu- 
latory measures  which  have  been  or 
may  be  put  into  effect  by  any  con- 
tiguous States  parties  to  this  Con- 
vention, for  the  facilitation  of  inter- 
national automotive  traffic,  shall  be 
considered  to  be  in  furtherance  of 
this  Convention  and  shall  be  en- 
couraged. 


Han  decidido  celebrar  una  Con- 
venci6n  con  tales  prop6sitos,  ha- 
biendo  convenido  en  los  siguientes 
artfculos: 

Artfculo  I.  Se  reconoce  que  cada 
Estado  tiene  jurisdicci6n  exclusiva 
sobre  el  uso  de  sus  carreteras,  pero 
conviene  en  el  uso  international  de 
las  mismas  tal  como  se  especifica 
en  la  presente  Convenci6n. 

Art.  2.  De  acuerdo  con  la  presente 
Convenci6n,  se  entenderd  por  vehf- 
culo  automotor  todo  vehfculo  im- 
pulsado  por  sf  mismo  que  circule  en 
la  vfa  pflblica  sin  necesidad  de  rieles, 
y  que  se  use  para  el  transporte  de 
personas  o  mercaderfas. 

Por  carreteras  se  entenderd  cual- 
quier  vfa  ptiblica  conservada  y 
abierta  al  piiblico  para  el  trdnsito  de 
vehiculos. 

Por  conductor  se  entenderd  cual- 
quier  persona  que  gufe  o  tenga  efecti- 
vamente  el  control  fisico  de  un  vehi- 
culo  automotor  en  una  carretera. 

Art.  3.  El  conductor  de  un  vehf- 
culo automotor  que  circule  en  cual- 
quier  Estado  parte  en  esta  Conven- 
ci6n,  estd  sujeto  a  las  leyes  y  regla- 
mentos  de  trdfico  vigentes  en  dicho 
Estado  o  subdivision  polftica  del 
mismo. 

Copia  de  dichas  leyes  o  regla- 
mentos  podrd  ser  suministrada  al 
conductor,  al  entrar  en  cada  Estado, 
ya  por  las  autoridades  aduaneras  que 
tramitan  la  entrada  del  vehfculo,  o 
por  cualquier  agencia  autorizada. 

Art.  4.  Los  Estados  Contratantes 
no  permitirdn  que  se  pongan  en 
vigor  medidas  aduaneras  que  in- 
terpongan  obstdculo  al  trdnsito  in- 
ternacional. 

Se  considerard  en  apoyo  de  esta 
Convenci6n,  y  se  fomentard,  toda 
simplificaci6n  de  los  reglamentos 
aduaneros  y  demds  medidas  regu- 
latorias  que  han  sido  o  sean  puestas 
en  vigor  por  cualquiera  de  los  Es- 
tados limftrofes,  partes  en  esta  Con- 
venci6n,  para  facilitar  el  trdfico  in- 
ternacional de  vehiculos  automotores. 


Dec.  15,  1943  INTER-AMERICAN  AUTOMOTIVE  TRAFFIC 


93 


Art.  5.  Before  admission  to  in- 
ternational traffic,  every  vehicle 
shall  be  registered  by  the  State  of 
origin  in  the  manner  prescribed  by 
its  laws,  or  by  any  subdivision 
thereof  having  legal  authority  to 
register  vehicles. 

Art.  6.  Every  motor  vehicle  op- 
erator before  admission  to  interna- 
tional traffic  shall  have  such  driving 
license  as  may  be  required  by  the 
laws  of  his  State  or  such  as  may  be 
issued  by  any  political  subdivision 
thereof  having  legal  authority  to 
issue  driving  licenses.  In  the  event 
that  no  such  driving  license  is  re- 
quired by  his  State  or  any  political 
subdivision  thereof,  a  special  inter- 
national driving  license  such  as  is 
specified  in  Article  13  shall  be  valid. 
No  operator  shall  be  admitted  to 
international  travel  who  is  less  than 
1 8  years  of  age. 

Art.  7.  Evidence  of  compliance 
with  the  conditions  of  this  Conven- 
tion shall  entitle  motor  vehicles  and 
motor  vehicle  operators  to  circulate 
on  the  highways  of  any  of  the  Con- 
tracting States. 

Art.  8.  Each  State  or  its  political 
subdivisions  shall  maintain  central 
bureaus  of  registration  with  facili- 
ties for  the  exchange  of  information 
with  other  States  as  to  registration 
of  vehicles  and  operators. 

Art.  9.  In  addition  to  the  regis- 
tration plate  or  plates  of  the  State 
of  origin  or  of  its  legally  empowered 
political  subdivisions  each  vehicle 
shall  display  an  international  regis- 
tration marker  indicating  the  coun- 
try of  origin.  This  marker  shall  be 
in  the  form  of  an  oval  plate  not  less 
than  3  inches  (8  cm.)  wide  by  10 
inches  (26  cm.)  long  bearing  capital 
Latin  letters  painted  black  on  a 
white  background. 

The  distinctive  names  or  letters 
indicating  the  several  countries  shall 
be  the  following: 


Art.  5.  Antes  de  ser  admitido  al 
trdfico  internacional,  todo  vehfculo 
deberd  ser  inscrito  por  el  Estado  de 
origen  en  la  forma  que  prescriban 
sus  leyes,  o  por  cualquier  subdivi- 
si6n  del  mismo  que  tenga  autoridad 
legitima  para  hacerlo. 

Art.  6.  Antes  de  ser  admitido  al 
trdfico  internacional,  todo  conduc- 
tor de  vehfculo  automotor  deberd 
tener  el  permiso  para  conducir  que 
requieran  las  leyes  de  su  Estado  o 
que  sea  expedido  por  cualquiera  de 
las  subdivisions  politicas  del  mismo 
autorizadas  para  ello.  En  caso  de 
no  ser  necesario  tal  permiso  en  su 
Estado,  o  en  las  subdivisions  polf- 
ticas  del  mismo,  serd  vdlido  un 
permiso  internacional  especial  para 
conducir  como  el  que  se  especifica 
en  el  Artfculo  13.  Ningun  con- 
ductor menor  de  18  anos  de  edad 
serd  admitido  al  trdnsito  interna- 
cional. 

Art.  7.  Prueba  de  haber  cumplido 
con  las  disposiciones  de  esta  Con- 
venci6n  dard  a  los  vehfculos  auto- 
motores  y  a  los  conductores  de  los 
mismos  el  derecho  de  circular  por 
las  carreteras  de  cualquiera  de  los 
Estados  Contratantes. 

Art.  8.  Cada  Estado  o  subdi- 
visi6n  polftica  del  mismo  mantendrd 
oficinas  centrales  de  registro  con 
facilidades  para  el  intercambio  de 
informaciones,  con  otros  pafses,  sobre 
la  inscripci6n  de  vehfculos  y  con- 
ductores. 

Art.  9.  Ademds  de  la  placa  o 
placas  de  registro  del  Estado  de 
origen  o  de  las  subdivisiones  polfti- 
cas  del  mismo,  cada  vehfculo  deberd 
llevar  un  distintivo  de  registro  in- 
ternacional que  indique  el  pais  de 
origen.  Este  distintivo  consistird 
de  una  placa  ovalada  no  menor  de  8 
centfmetros  (3  pulgadas)  de  ancho 
por  26  centfmetros  (10  pulgadas) 
de  largo,  con  letras  latinas  mayuscu- 
las  negras  sobre  fondo  bianco. 

Las  letras  o  nombres  distintivos 
correspondientes  a  los  diversos  pafses 
serdn  como  sigue: 


94 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  630 


Argentina ARGENTINA 

Bolivia BOLIVIA 

Brazil BRASIL 

Chile CHILE 

Colombia .COLOMBIA 

Costa  Rica COSTA   RICA 

Cuba CUBA 

Dominican  Republic REP.  DOM. 

Ecuador ECUADOR 

El  Salvador SALVADOR 

Guatemala GUATEMALA 

Haiti HAITI 

Honduras HONDURAS 

Mexico MEXICO 

Nicaragua NICARAGUA 

Panama PANAMA 

Paraguay PARAGUAY 

Peru PERU 

United  States  of  America .     U.  S.  A. 

Uruguay URUGUAY 

Venezuela VENEZUELA 

This  distinctive  plate  shall  be 
issued  by  the  State  or  its  authorized 
representatives. 

All  registration  plates  shall  be 
plainly  visible. 

Motor  vehicles  bearing  the  inter- 
national registration  markers  pro- 
vided for  by  the  International  Con- 
vention for  the  Circulation  of  Auto- 
mobiles, 1909,  as  amended  in  1926, 
shall  be  recognized  as  having  com- 
plied with  the  foregoing  conditions 
concerning  international  registration 
markers. 

For  admission  to  international 
travel,  each  motor  vehicle  shall  bear 
in  a  readily  accessible  location  the 
name  of  the  manufacturer  of  the  ve- 
hicle, the  manufacturer's  number  of 
the  chassis,  and  the  manufacturer's 
number  of  the  engine. 

Art.  10.  Unless  otherwise  pro- 
vided by  the  laws  or  regulations  of 
the  respective  States  or  subdivisions 
thereof,  the  size  of  vehicles  and 
loads  shall  be  limited  to  the  follow- 
ing: 

1.  No  vehicle  shall  exceed  a  total 
outside  width,  including  any  load 
thereon,  of  8  feet  (2.44  meters). 

2.  No  vehicle  with  or  without  load 
shall  exceed  a  maximum  height  of  12 
feet,  6  inches  (3.80  meters). 


Argentina ARGENTINA 

Bolivia BOLIVIA 

Brasil BRASIL 

Colombia COLOMBIA 

Costa  Rica COSTA   RICA 

Cuba CUBA 

Chile CHILE 

Ecuador ECUADOR 

El  Salvador SALVADOR 

Estados  Unidos  de  Am6rica  U.  S.  A. 

Guatemala GUATEMALA 

Haiti HAITI 

Honduras HONDURAS 

Mexico MEXICO 

Nicaragua NICARAGUA 

Panaml PANAMA 

Paraguay PARAGUAY 

Peru PERU 

Republica  Dominicana.  .  .  .REP.  DOM. 

Uruguay       URUGUAY 

Venezuela VENEZUELA 

Esta  placa  distintiva  serd  expedida 
por  el  Estado,  o  por  sus  represen- 
tantes  autorizados. 

Toda  placa  de  registro  deberd  estar 
claramente  visible. 

Todo  vehfculo  automotor  que 
lleve  el  distintivo  internacional  de 
registro  previsto  en  la  Convenci6n 
Internacional  para  la  Circulaci6n  de 
Autom6viles,  suscrita  en  1909  y 
modificada  en  1926,  se  considerard 
que  ha  cumplido  con  las  condiciones 
anteriores  respecto  a  distintivos  in- 
ternacionales  de  registro. 

Para  ser  admitido  al  trdfico  in- 
ternacional, cada  vehfculo  deberd 
llevar,  en  lugar  de  fdcil  acceso,  el 
nombre  del  fabricante  del  vehfculo, 
el  nlimero  de  fAbrica  del  chasis  y  el 
niimero  de  fdbrica  del  motor. 

Art.  10.  Siempre  que  no  se  haya 
dispuesto  de  otra  manera  en  las 
leyes  o  reglamentaciones  de  los  re- 
spectivos  Estados  o  de  sus  subdi- 
visiones  polfticas,  el  tamafio  de  los 
vehfculos  y  de  las  cargas  tendrdn  las 
siguientes  limitaciones: 

1.  Ningtin  vehfculo  excederd  una 
anchura  exterior  total  de  2  metres  y 
44  centfmetros  (8  pies),  inclusive  la 
carga  que  lleve. 

2.  Ningtin  vehfculo  con  o  sin  carga 
deberi  exceder  una  altura  maxima 
de  3  metres  y  80  centfmetros  (12 
pies,  6  pulgadas). 


Dec.  15,  1943  INTER-AMERICAN  AUTOMOTIVE  TRAFFIC 


95 


3.  No   vehicle    shall    exceed    an 
overall    length    of   35    feet    (10.70 
meters)  and  no  combination  of  ve- 
hicles coupled  together  shall  exceed 
a   total   length   of   45   feet    (13-75 
meters). 

4.  No  vehicle  shall  carry  any  load 
extending  more  than  3  feet  (91  centi- 
meters) beyond  the  front  thereof. 

5.  No  passenger  vehicle  shall  carry 
any  load  extending  beyond  the  line 
of  the  fenders  on  the  left  side  nor 
extending  more  than  6  inches  (15.2 
centimeters)    beyond    the    line    of 
fenders  on   the  right  side  thereof; 
provided  however  that  in  States  in 
which  the  left  hand  drive  is  compul- 
sory  the   provisions   of   this   para- 
graph referring  to  the  side  of  loads 
shall  be  reversed. 


6.  Special  permits  for  vehicles  or 
combinations  of  vehicles  exceeding 
these  limits  may  be  issued  by  the 
competent  authorities  of  the  States. 


Art.  ii.  Unless  the  laws  and  regu- 
lations of  the  respective  States  or 
political  subdivisions  thereof  pro- 
vide otherwise,  the  following  re- 
quirements as  to  equipment  shall  be 
indispensable  for  motor  vehicles 
admitted  to  international  traffic: 

1.  Every  motor  vehicle  shall  have 
brakes  adequate  to  control  the  move- 
ment of  and  to  stop  and  hold  such 
vehicle.     The  brakes  shall  be  capa- 
ble of  stopping  the  vehicle  on  a  dry, 
smooth,  level  road  within  a  distance 
of  30  feet  (9  meters)  when  travelling 
at  a  speed  of  20  miles  (32  kilometers) 
per  hour. 

2.  Every  motor  vehicle  shall  have 
a  suitable  horn  or  other  warning  de- 
vice satisfactory  to  the  regulatory 
authorities. 


3.  Ningtin  vehiculo  excederd  una 
longitud  total  de  10  metros  y  70 
centfmetros  (35  pies)  y  ningtin  tren 
o    combination    de    vehfculos    en- 
ganchados  deberd  exceder  una  longi- 
tud total  de  13  metros  y  75  centf- 
metros (45  pies). 

4.  Ningun  vehfculo  deberd  llevar 
una  carga  que  se  extienda  mas  de  91 
centfmetros  (3  pies)  fuera  del  frente 
del  mismo. 

5.  Ningun  vehfculo  de  pasajeros 
deberd  llevar  una  carga  que  se  ex- 
tienda fuera  de  la  Hnea  exterior  de 
los  guardabarros  del  lado  izquierdo, 
ni  que  se  extienda  mds  de  15.2  centf- 
metros   (6   pulgadas)    fuera   de    la 
Hnea  exterior  de  los  guardabarros  del 
lado    derecho;    disponi&idose,    sin 
embargo,  que,  en  los  Estados  donde 
sea  obligatorio  conservar  la  izqui- 
erda,  regirdn  a  la  inversa  las  disposi- 
ciones  de  este  pdrrafo  relativas  al 
lado  donde  deben  llevarse  las  cargas. 

6.  Las    autoridades    competentes 
de  los  Estados  podrdn  expedir  per- 
misos  especiales   para   vehfculos   o 
combinaciones  de  vehfculos  que  ex- 
cedan    los    Ifmites   que   acaban    de 
estipularse. 

Art.  1 1 .  Siempre  que  no  dispongan 
otra  cosa  las  leyes  y  reglamentos  de 
los  respectivos  Estados  o  de  las 
subdivisiones  polfticas  de  los  mis- 
mos,  serdn  indispensables  en  los 
vehfculos  automotores  admitidos  al 
trdfico  internacional  los  accesorios 
siguientes: 

1.  Todo    vehfculo    deberd    tener 
frenos  adecuados  para  controlar  el 
movimiento  del  vehfculo,  pararlo  y 
mantenerlo  inm6vil.     Los  frenos 
serdn  capaces  de  parar  el  vehfculo 
dentrp  de  una  distancia  de  9  metros 
(30  pies),  movtendose  a  una  veloci- 
dad  de  32  ki!6metros  (20  millas)  per 
hora,  en  un  camino  a  nivel,  seco  y 
liso. 

2.  Todo    vehfculo    deberd   tener 
una  bocina  u  otro  aparato  destinado 
a  llamar  la  atenci6n,  que  estimen 
satisfactorio  las  autoridades  compe- 
tentes. 


96 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  630 


3.  Every  motor  vehicle  other  than 
a  motorcycle  shall  be  equipped  with 
two  head  lamps,  at  the  front  of  and 
on   opposite   sides   of   the   vehicle, 
which  shall  at  night,  under  normal 
atmospheric   conditions   and   on   a 
level  road,  produce  light  sufficient  to 
render  clearly  discernible  a  person 
not  less  than  350  feet  (107  meters) 
ahead  and  shall  be  capable  of  opera- 
tion so  as  not  to  project  a  glaring  or 
dazzling    light.     Every    motorcycle 
shall  have  at  least  one  head  lamp. 

4.  Every  motor  vehicle,  and  every 
trailer  or  semi-trailer  which  is  being 
drawn  at  the  end  of  a  train  of  vehi- 
cles, shall  carry  at  the  rear  a  lamp 
which  exhibits  a  red  light  plainly 
visible  at  night  under  normal  at- 
mospheric  conditions   from   a   dis- 
tance of  500  feet  (152  meters)  to  the 
rear  of  such  vehicle.     The  registra- 
tion plate  carried  on  the  rear  of  such 
vehicle  shall  under  like  conditions 
be  so  illuminated  by  a  white  light 
as  to  be  read  from  a  distance  of  50 
feet  (15  meters)  to  the  rear  of  the 
vehicle. 

5.  Every  motor  vehicle  shall  have 
a  muffler  in  good  working  order  and 
in   constant   operation    to   prevent 
excessive  or  unusual  noise. 

6.  Every  motor  vehicle  which  is  so 
constructed  or  loaded  as  to  obstruct 
the  driver's  view  to  the  rear  thereof 
from  the  operator's  position  shall  be 
equipped  with  a  mirror  so  located  as 
to  reflect  to  the  driver  a  view  of  the 
highway  for  a  distance  of  at  least  200 
feet  (70  meters)  to  the  rear  of  such 
vehicle. 

7.  Every  motor  vehicle  other  than 
a  motorcycle  shall  have  a  windshield 
wiper  in  good  working  order. 

Art.  12.  A  special  international 
automobile  certificate,  in  addition 
to  the  registration  required  by  Arti- 
cle 5,  may  be  required  for  each 
motor  vehicle  for  admission  to  and 
circulation  in  any  individual  State 


3.  Todo   vehfculo   automotor,    a 
exception  de  las  motocicletas,  de- 
berd  terser  dos  faros,  uno  a  cada  lado 
de  la  parte  delantera  del  vehiculo, 
los    cuales    deberdn    proyectar    de 
noche,  en  condiciones  atmosfericas 
normales  y  en  camino  nivel,  un  haz 
suficiente  para  distinguir  claramente 
a  una  persona  hasta  una  distancia  no 
menor  de  107  metros  (350  pies)  y 
que  puedan  funcionar  sin  producir 
una  luz  que  deslumbre  o  encandile. 
Toda  motocicleta  deberd  tener  por 
lo  menos  un  faro  delantero. 

4.  Todo   vehfculo   automotor,    y 
todo  remolque  o  semirremolque  que 
ocupe  el  liltimo  lugar  en  un  tren  de 
vehfculos,  deberd  llevar  en  la  parte 
trasera  una  Idmpara  que  proyecte 
una  luz  roja,  claramente  visible  de 
noche  en   condiciones  atmosfericas 
normales,   desde   una   distancia   de 
152  metros  (500  pies).     La  placa  de 
registro  en  la  parte  trasera  de  dicho 
vehfculo  debera  estar  iluminada  por 
una  luz   blanca  de  modo  que,   en 
iguales    condiciones,    pueda    leerse 
desde  una  distancia  de   15  metros 
(50  pies). 

5.  Todo  vehfculo  automotor  de- 
ber&  tener  un  silenciador  en  buen 
estado  de  funcionamiento  y  en  uso 
constante  para  evitar  ruido  excesivo 
o  anormal. 

6.  Todo  vehfculo  automotor  cons- 
trufdo   o   cargado   de   manera   que 
obstruya  la  vista  del  conductor  hacia 
atrds,  deberi  llevar  un  espejo  colo- 
cado  de  modo  que  refleje  el  camino  a 
la  vista  del   conductor  hasta  una 
distancia,  hacia  atras,  no  menor  de 
70  metros  (200  pies). 

7.  Todo  vehfculo  automotor,  a  ex- 
cepci6n  de  las  motocicletas,  deberd 
tener  un  limpiaparabrisas  en  buen 
estado  de  funcionamiento. 

Art.  12.  Podri  exigirse  para  cada 
vehfculo  automotor  que  se  admita  al 
trdfico  de  un  Estado,  parte  en  esta 
Convenci6n,  un  certificado  inter- 
nacional  especial  para  autom6viles, 
ademas  de  la  matrfcula  prevista  en 


Dec.  15,  1943  INTER-AMERICAN  AUTOMOTIVE  TRAFFIC 


97 


party  to  this  Convention,  if  the 
State  so  elects.  Provision  for  the 
issuance  of  such  certificate  shall  be 
made  by  each  Contracting  State, 
and  such  document  shall  be  issued 
by  the  State,  or  by  any  authorized 
political  subdivision  thereof,  or  by 
an  association  duly  empowered  by 
such  authorities,  or  by  an  authorized 
representative  of  either  the  Con- 
tracting State  or  of  one  of  its  political 
subdivisions,  having  legal  authority 
to  issue  such  certificates.  The  valid- 
ity of  such  special  international  au- 
tomobile certificate  shall  be  recog- 
nized by  all  officials  having  jurisdic- 
tion over  matters  involving  legal 
ownership  of  the  vehicle.  The  cer- 
tificate shall  be  in  the  form,  of  the 
size,  and  contain  the  information 
prescribed  in  Annex  A  to  this  Con- 
vention, and  shall  be  valid  for  one 
year  from  date  of  issuance. 

The  international  automobile  cer- 
tificate issued  in  accordance  with  the 
International  Convention  of  1926 
on  Automobile  Circulation  shall  be 
deemed  to  meet  the  requirements  of 
this  Article. 

Art,  13.  A  special  international 
driving  license  may  be  required  for 
each  operator  admitted  to  circula- 
tion in  any  individual  State  party  to 
this  Convention,  if  the  State  so 
elects.  Such  a  special  license  shall 
be  required  for  each  operator  who 
does  not  possess  a  domestic  driving 
license  as  required  in  Article  6. 
Provision  for  the  issuance  of  such 
international  driving  license  shall  be 
made  by  each  Contracting  State, 
and  such  document  shall  be  issued 
by  the  State,  or  by  any  authorized 
political  subdivision  thereof,  or  by 
an  association  duly  empowered  by 
such  authorities,  or  by  an  authorized 
representative  of  either  the  Con- 
tracting State  or  one  of  its  political 
subdivisions  having  legal  authority 
to  issue  driving  licenses.  The  val- 
idity of  such  special  international 
driving  license  shall  be  recognized  by 


el  Artfculo  5,  si  dicho  Estado  asf  lo 
desea.  Cada  Estado  Contratante 
dispondra  lo  necesario  para  la  ex- 
pedici6n  de  tal  certificado,  el  que 
sera  expedido  por  dicho  Estado, 
por  cualquiera  de  sus  subdivisiones 
polfticas  debidamente  autorizadas; 
por  una  asociaci6n  debidamente 
habilitada  por  dichas  autoridades,  o 
por  un  representante  autorizado  del 
Estado  Contratante  o  de  una  de  sus 
subdivisiones  polfticas  que  tenga 
autoridad  legal  para  expedir  tales 
certificados.  La  validez  de  tal  certi- 
ficado internacional  especial  para 
autom6viles  sera  reconocida  por 
todos  los  funcionarios  que  tengan 
jurisdicci6n  sobre  asuntos  relaciona- 
dos  con  la  propiedad  legftima  del 
vehfculo.  El  certificado  tendra  la 
forma,  el  tamafio  y  la  informaci6n 
prescritas  en  el  Anexo  "A"  de  esta 
Convenci6n,  y  sera  valido  por  un 
ano  a  partir  de  la  fecha  de  emisi6n. 

Se  estimarA  que  el  Certificado  In- 
ternacional para  Autom6viles  ex- 
pedido de  acuerdo  con  la  Conven- 
ci6n  Internacional  de  1926,  para  la 
circulaci6n  de  autom6viles,  satis- 
face  los  requisites  de  este  articulo. 

Art.  13.  PodrA  exigirse  un  per- 
miso  especial  internacional  para 
conducir  a  cada  conductor  que  se 
admita  al  trafico  en  cualquier  Es- 
tado, parte  en  esta  Convenci6n,  si 
este  asi  lo  desea.  En  todo  caso,  se 
exigira  dicho  permiso  especial  al 
conductor  que  no  posea  un  permiso 
para  conducir  en  su  propio  pafs, 
como  se  establece  en  el  Artfculo  6. 
Cada  Estado  Contratante  dispon- 
dra lo  necesario  para  la  expedici6n 
de  tal  permiso  internacional  para 
conducir,  el  que  serd  expedido  por 
dicho  Estado;  por  cualquiera  de  sus 
subdivisiones  polfticas  debidamente 
autorizadas;  por  una  asociaci6n  de- 
bidamente habilitada  por  dichas 
autoridades,  o  por  un  representante 
autorizado  del  Estado  Contratante 
o  de  una  de  sus  subdivisiones  polfti- 
cas que  tenga  autoridad  legal  para 
expedir  permisos  para  conducir.  La 


98 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  630 


all  officials  having  regulatory  powers 
over  automotive  traffic.  The  license 
shall  be  in  the  form,  of  the  size,  and 
contain  the  information  prescribed  in 
Annex  B  to  this  Convention,  and 
shall  be  valid  for  one  year  from  date 
of  issuance. 


The  international  driving  license 
issued  in  accordance  with  the  Inter- 
national Convention  of  1926  shall  be 
deemed  to  meet  the  requirements  of 
this  Article. 

Art.  14.  A  general  bond  guaran- 
teeing payment  of  customs  charges 
on  any  motor  vehicle  to  be  admitted 
to  international  traffic,  due  and  pay- 
able within  the  country  in  which 
such  charges  may  be  incurred,  may 
be  required  by  any  State  party  to 
this  Convention. 

The  international  customs  pass 
(carnet  de  passage  en  douane)  of  the 
Association  Internationale  des  Auto- 
mobile Clubs  Reconnus  or  of  the 
Alliance  Internationale  de  Tourisme 
shall  be  deemed  to  satisfy  the  re- 
quirements of  this  Article  for  any 
Contracting  State  in  which  a  bond  is 
required. 


No  bond  shall  be  required  in  any 
Contracting  State  if  the  stay  of  the 
foreign  vehicle  therein  does  not  ex- 
ceed the  period  allowed  for  free  stay. 

Art.  15.  Each  State  may  establish 
such  requirements  as  it  may  deem 
necessary  to  record  the  passage  into 
and  out  of  its  territory,  of  vehicles 
and  operators  admitted  to  interna- 
tional traffic.  If  such  records  are 
maintained,  they  shall  include  a 
notation  that  the  vehicle  has  com- 
plied with  the  provisions  of  Articles 
10  and  n. 

Art.  16.  The  hours  and  routes 
dedicated  to  the  crossing  of  frontiers 
by  properly  registered  vehicles  shall 


validez  de  dicho  permiso  especial 
para  conducir  serd  reconocida  por 
todos  los  funcionarios  facultados 
para  reglamentar  el  trafico  auto- 
motor.  El  permiso  tendra  la  forma, 
el  tamafio  y  la  informaci6n  prescritas 
en  el  Anexo  "B"  de  esta  Convenci6n, 
y  serA  valido  por  un  aiio  a  partir  de 
la  fecha  en  que  sea  expedido. 

Se  estimara  que  el  permiso  inter- 
nacional  de  conducir  expedido  segiin 
la  Convenci6n  Internacional  de  1926 
satisface  los  requisitos  de  este  Artf- 
culo. 

Art.  14.  Cualquier  Estado,  parte 
en  esta  Convenci6n,  podra  exigir  el 
dep6sito  de  una  fianza  que  garantice 
el  pago  de  derechos  aduaneros  sobre 
cualquier  vehfculo  admitido  a  trafico 
internacional,  y  pagadera  en  el 
Estado  donde  se  incurran  tales  de- 
rechos. 

Se  estimarA  que  la  Libreta  Inter- 
nacional de  Paso  por  Aduanas  (Car- 
net  de  Passage  en  Douane)  de  la 
Asociaci6n  Internacional  de  Auto- 
m6vil  Clubs  Reconocidos  (Associa- 
tion Internationale  des  Automobile 
Clubs  Reconnus)  o  de  la  Alianza 
Internacional  de  Turismo  (Alliance 
Internationale  de  Tourisme)  satis- 
face los  requisitos  de  este  artfculo 
por  lo  que  respecta  a  cualquier 
Estado  Contratante  en  el  cual  se 
exija  dep6sito  de  fianza. 

En  ninguno  de  los  Estados  Con- 
tratantes  se  exigira  dep6sito  de 
fianza  si  la  estadia  del  vehfculo 
extranjero  no  excede  del  plazo  libre 
que  le  esta  permitido. 

Art.  15.  Cada  Estado  podra  esta- 
blecer  las  formalidades  que  estime 
necesarias  para  registrar  el  paso  de 
vehfculos  y  conductores  admitidos  al 
trAfico  internacional,  al  entrar  al 
salir  de  su  territorio.  Tales  regis- 
tros,  si  se  llevan,  deberan  incluir 
anotaciones  al  efecto  de  que  el 
vehfculo  ha  cumplido  con  las  dis- 
posiciones  de  los  Artfculos  10  y  11. 

Art.  16.  Las  horas  y  rutas  habili- 
tadas  para  el  cruce  de  las  fronteras 
por  vehfculos  debidamente  inscritos 


Dec.  15,  1943  INTER-AMERICAN  AUTOMOTIVE  TRAFFIC 


99 


be  fixed  by  common  consent  of  the 
adjacent  States  and  their  decisions 
communicated  to  the  corresponding 
custom  authorities. 

Art.  17.  Infractions  of  this  Con- 
vention shall  be  punished  in  con- 
formity with  the  laws  and  regula- 
tions of  the  country  in  which  com- 
mitted. 

Infractions  which  shall  have  in- 
curred judicial  penalty  shall  be  com- 
municated by  the  judge  or  magis- 
trate to  the  proper  authorities,  who 
in  turn  shall  communicate  them  to 
the  authorities  of  the  State  or  its 
political  subdivision  in  which  the 
vehicle  and  its  owner  or  operator 
were  originally  registered. 

Art.  18.  Any  vehicle  or  operator 
admitted  to  international  traffic 
under  the  provisions  of  the  Inter- 
national Convention  for  the  Circula- 
tion of  Automobiles,  1909,  as  amended 
in  1926,  and  holding  the  documents 
required  thereunder,  will  be  recog- 
nized as  fulfilling  the  requirements  of 
the  present  Convention. 


Art.  19.  The  original  of  the  present 
Convention  in  Spanish,  English, 
Portuguese,  and  French  shall  be 
deposited  with  the  Pan  American 
Union  and  opened  for  signature  by 
the  American  republics.  The  Con- 
vention shall  also  be  opened  for  the 
adherence  and  accession  of  Ameri- 
can States  which  are  not  members  of 
the  Pan  American  Union.  The  Pan 
American  Union  shall  transmit  au- 
thentic certified  copies  to  the  Gov- 
ernments for  the  purpose  of  ratifica- 
tion. 

Art.  20.  The  present  Convention 
shall  be  ratified  by  the  High  Con- 
tracting Parties  in  conformity  with 
their  respective  constitutional  pro- 
cedures. The  instruments  of  rati- 
fication shall  be  deposited  in  the 
archives  of  the  Pan  American  Union 
in  Washington,  which  shall  notify 
the  signatory  Governments  of  said 


se  fijardn  de  comfln  acuerdo  entre 
los  Estados  limftrofes,  comunicdn- 
dose  sus  decisiones  a  las  autoridades 
aduaneras  correspondientes. 

Art.  17.  Las  infracciones  a  la 
presente  Convention  serin  casti- 
gadas  de  conformidad  con  las  leyes  y 
reglamentos  del  Estado  en  el  cual 
se  cometan. 

Las  infracciones  que  sean  motivo 
de  multa  legal  serin  comunicadas  por 
el  juez  o  magistrado  a  las  autoridades 
correspondientes,  las  que,  a  su  vez, 
darin  cuenta  a  las  autoridades  del 
pafs,  o  de  la  subdivisi6n  polftica 
correspondiente  del  mismo,  en  el 
cual  el  vehfculo  y  su  duefio  o  con- 
ductor se  hubieren  inscrito  original- 
mente. 

Art.  1 8.  Todo  vehfculo  o  conduc- 
tor admitido  al  trifico  internacional 
de  acuerdo  con  los  t£rminos  de  la 
Convenci6n  Internacional  para  la 
Circulaci6n  de  Autom6viles,  suscrita 
en  1909  y  enmendada  en  1926,  y  que 
exhiba  los  correspondientes  docu- 
mentos  exigidos  en  la  misma,  se 
considerard  que  ha  cumplido  con  las 
disposiciones  de  la  presente  Con- 
venci6n. 

Art.  19.  El  original  de  la  presente 
Convenci6n  en  espanol,  ingles,  por- 
tugu£s  y  francos  serd  depositado  en 
la  Uni6n  Panamericana  y  abierto  a 
la  firma  de  las  Repiiblicas  Ameri- 
canas.  La  Convenci6n  quedard  abi- 
erta,  ademds,  a  la  adhesi6n  y 
accesi6n  de  los  Estados  Americanos 
que  no  sean  miembros  de  la  Uni6n 
Panamericana.  La  Uni6n  Paname- 
ricana enviard  copias  certificadas 
aut6nticas  a  los  gobiernos  para  los 
efectos  de  la  ratificaci6n. 

Art.  20.  La  presente  Convenci6n 
serd  ratificada  por  las  Altas  Partes 
Contratantes  de  acuerdo  con  sus 
procedimientos  constitucionales  re- 
spectiyos.  Los  instrumentos  de  ra- 
tificaci6n  serin  depositados  en  los 
archives  de  la  Uni6n  Panamericana 
en  Washington,  la  cual  notificard  el 
deposito  a  los  gobiernos  signatarios. 


100 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  630 


deposit.  Such  notification  shall  be 
considered  as  an  exchange  of  ratifi- 
cations. 

Art.  21.  The  present  Convention 
shall  come  into  force  between  the 
High  Contracting  Parties  in  the 
order  in  which  they  deposit  their 
respective  ratifications. 

Art.  22.  The  present  Convention 
shall  remain  in  effect  indefinitely,  but 
may  be  denounced  by  means  of  one 
year's  notice  given  to  the  Pan 
American  Union,  which  shall  trans- 
mit it  to  the  other  signatory  Govern- 
ments. After  the  expiration  of  this 
period  the  Convention  shall  cease  in 
its  effects  as  regards  the  party  which 
denounces  it,  but  shall  remain  in 
effect  for  the  remaining  High  Con- 
tracting Parties. 

IN  WITNESS  WHEREOF,  the  under- 
signed Plenipotentiaries,  having  de- 
posited their  full  powers  found  to  be 
in  due  and  proper  form,  sign  this 
Convention  in  Spanish,  English, 
Portuguese,  and  French,  at  the  Pan 
American  Union,  Washington,  D.  C., 
on  behalf  of  their  respective  Govern- 
ments and  affix  thereto  their  seals  on 
the  dates  appearing  opposite  their 
signatures. 

[Annexes  omitted] 

[Firmada:]  For  Bolivia:  Luis  F.  GUACHALLA,  15  de  diciembre  de  1943; 
pelo  Brasil:  FERNANDO  LOBO,  15  de  dezembro  de  1943;  por  Cuba: 
AURELIO  F.  CONCHESO,  15  de  diciembre  de  1943;  por  Ecuador:  C.  E. 
ALFARO,  15  de  diciembre  de  1943;  por  Guatemala:  ADRIAN  RECINOS,  15 
de  diciembre  de  1943;  pour  Haiti:  A.  LIAUTAUD,  15  D6cembre  1943; 
por  Nicaragua:  GUILLERMO  SEVILLA  S.,  15  de  diciembre  de  1943;  por 
Peril:  M.  DE  FREYRE  Y  S.,  15  de  diciembre  de  1943;  por  la  Republica 
Dominicana :  (£1  Plenipotenciario  de  la  Reptiblica  Dominicana  firma  la  Convenci6n 
con  la  siguiente  reserva:  Que  la  disposici6n  del  Art.  14  no  implica  que  el  t6rmino  de  un 
ano  que  indica  el  Art.  12  se  refiere  al  tiempo  durante  el  cual  un  vehfculo  puede  transitar 
en  un  Estado  Contratante,  sin  haber  puesto  fianza  o  sin  pagar  los  derechos  que  sus 
leyes  exijan,  sino  al  t£rmino  de  cadutidad  del  certificado  de  admisi6n  que  el  Estado 
puede  no  exigir.  Asimismo,  que  esta  Convenci6n  no  afecta  los  tratados,  convenciones 
u  otros  acuerdos  internacionales  que  la  Republica  Dominicana  haya  consentido  o  con- 
sienta  ni  a  sus  leyes  de  inmigraci6n,)  A.  COPELLO,  15  de  diciembre  de  1943; 
for  the  United  States  of  America:  (Signed  subject  to  the  understanding  and  reser- 
vation that  nothing  in  Article  15  shall  be  construed  to  require  the  use  of  personnel  and 
facilities  of  the  United  States  of  America  for  the  purpose  of  determining  compliance 


Se  considerarA  tal  notificaci6n  como 
un  cambio  de  ratificaciones. 

Art.  21.  La  presente  Convenci6n 
entrarA  en  vigor,  con  respecto  a  las 
Altas  Partes  Contratantes,  en  el 
orden  en  que  depositen  sus  respecti- 
vas  ratificaciones. 

Art.  22.  La  presente  Convenci6n 
permanecerA  en  vigor  indefinida- 
mente,  pero  podrd  ser  denunciada 
previo  aviso  de  un  ano  que  se  dard 
a  la  Uni6n  Panamericana,  la  que 
comunicarA  la  denuncia  a  los  demas 
gobiernos  signatarios.  Terminado 
este  plazo,  la  Convenci6n  dejarA  de 
tener  efecto  en  lo  que  respecta  a  la 
Parte  denunciante,  pero  continuard 
en  vigor  para  las  demAs  Altas  Partes 
Contratantes. 

EN  FE  DE  LO  CUAL,  los  infrascritos 
Plenipotenciarios,  despu6s  de  haber 
depositado  sus  plenos  poderes,  que 
se  han  encontrado  en  buena  y  de- 
bida  forma,  firman  y  sellan  esta 
Convenc56n  en  la  Uni6n  Panameri- 
cana, Washington,  D.  C.,  en  nombre 
de  sus  respectivos  Gobiernos,  en  las 
fechas  indicadas  junto  a  sus  firmas. 


Jan.  15,  1944  INSTITUTE  OF  AGRICULTURAL  SCIENCES  IOI 

with  the  provisions  of  Articles  10  and  II  by  vehicles  whenever,  in  the  opinion  of  the 
competent  authorities  of  the  United  States  of  America,  there  would  result  an  impair- 
ment of  essential  services  performed  by  such  personnel  and  facilities  or  an  undue 
hindrance  to  the  movement  of  automotive  traffic  into  and  from  the  territory  of  the 
United  States  of  America.)  CORDELL  HULL,  December  31 , 1943 ;  por  El  Salvador : 
HECTOR  DAVID  CASTRO,  6  de  enero  de  1944;  por  Costa  Rica:  CARLOS 
M.  ESCALANTE,  20  de  enero  de  1944;  Por  Honduras:  JULIAN  R.  CACERES, 
24  de  abril  de  1944;  por  Panami:  E.  A.  JIM&NEZ,  13  de  Julio  de  1944; 
por  Chile:  (£1  Embajador  de  Chile  firma  la  Convenci6n  con  las  siguientes  reservas: 
la.  —  La  presente  adhesi6n  queda  sujeta  a  posterior  ratificaci6n  previa  aprobaci6n 
del  Congreso  Nacional  Chileno,  de  conformidad  con  lo  dispuesto  en  el  Artfculo  20  de 
la  Convenci6n.  2.  —  Los  Artfculos  14  y  16  de  la  presente  Convenci6n  obligaran 
a  Chile  en  todo  aquello  que  no  sea  contrario  a  sus  leyes  vigentes.  3.  —  El  Gobierno  de 
Chile  se  reserva  el  derecho  de  suscribir  Convenios  de  transito  con  paises  americanos 
sobre  las  bases  que  crea  necesarias.)  MARCIAL  MORA  M.,  27  de  octubre  de 
1944- 


No.  631 

CONVENTION  on  the  Inter-American  Institute  of  Agricultural 
Sciences.    Opened  for  signature  at  Washington,  January  15,  1944. 

CONVENCION    sobre    el   Institute   Interamericano   de    Ciencias 
Agricolas.    Abierta  a  la  firma  en  Washington,  15  de  enero  de  1944. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Convention  accords  international  recognition  to  the  Inter- 
American  Institute  of  Agricultural  Sciences  incorporated  in  the  United  States  under  the 
laws  of  the  District  of  Columbia  on  June  18,  1942.  Annual  reports  have  been  published  by 
the  Institute  since  1942.  The  International  Institute  of  Agriculture  created  by  the  Rome 
convention  of  June  5,  1905  (amended  by  a  protocol  of  April  21,  1926,  No.  156,  ante),  was 
dissolved  in  accordance  with  a  protocol  of  March  30,  1946  (U.S.  Treaties  and  Other  Inter- 
national Acts  Series,  No.  1719),  its  assets  being  transferred  to  the  Food  and  Agriculture 
Organization  of  the  United  Nations  (see  No.  664,  post). 

RATIFICATIONS.  On  January  i,  1949,  ratifications  of  this  Convention  had  been  deposited 
with  the  Pan  American  Union  by  Costa  Rica,  the  Dominican  Republic,  El  Salvador, 
Guatemala,  Honduras,  Mexico,  Nicaragua,  Panama,  the  United  States  of  America,  and 
Venezuela  (with  reservations). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  agreement  is  also  published  in  U.S.  Treaty  Series,  No. 
987.  See  also  40  Guatemala,  Diario  de  Centro  America  (1944),  Part  II,  No.  95,  p.  788; 
Libra  amarillo  de  los  Estados  Unidos  de  Venezuela,  1942,  pp.  211-19;  Reptiblica  Dominicana, 
Memoria  de  relaciones  exterior est  1944,  pp.  226-36. 

Anon.,  "The  Third  Inter- American  Conference  on  Agriculture,"  52  Int.  Labour  Rev. 
(iQ45)»  PP.  494-503;  E.  N.  Bressman,  "Inauguration  of  the  Inter- American  Institute  of 
Agricultural  Sciences,"  77  Bulletin  of  the  Pan  American  Union  (1943),  pp.  326-32;  E.  S. 
Furniss,  Jr.,  "Inter-American  Institute  of  Agricultural  Sciences,"  n  U.S.  Department  of 
State  Bulletin  (1944),  pp.  386-89;  E.  S.  Hediger,  "Agricultural  Cooperation  in  the  Americas," 
19  Foreign  Policy  Reports  (1943),  pp.  158-67;  A.  Linares  Fleytas,  "El  Institute  Interameri- 
cano de  Ciencias  Agrfcolas,"  48  Revista  de  derecho  internacional  (1945),  pp.  103-12; 
W.  Popenoe,  "The  Development  of  Inter-American  Cooperation  in  Agriculture,"  80 


102 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  631 


Bulletin  of  the  Pan  American  Union  (1946),  pp.  361-74;  U.S.  Department  of  State,  Inter- 
national Agencies  in  Which  the  United  States  Participates  (Washington,  1946;  Publ.  2699), 
PP.  3I-35- 

Entered  into  force  November  30, 1944. 

Text  supplied  by  the  Pan  American  Union. 


The  Governments  of  the  Ameri- 
can Republics,  desiring  to  promote 
the  advancement  of  the  agricultural 
sciences  and  related  arts  and  sci- 
ences; and  wishing  to  give  practical 
effect  to  the  resolution  approved  by 
the  Eighth  American  Scientific  Con- 
gress held  in  Washington  in  1940, 
recommending  the  establishment  of 
an  Inter-American  Institute  of  Trop- 
ical Agriculture,  have  agreed  to  con- 
clude a  Convention  in  order  to 
recognize  the  permanent  status  of 
the  Inter-American  Institute  of  Agri- 
cultural Sciences,  hereinafter  re- 
ferred to  as  "the  Institute,"  on  the 
basis  of  the  following  Articles: 


Article  i.  The  Contracting  States 
hereby  recognize  the  permanent 
status  of  the  Inter-American  Insti- 
tute of  Agricultural  Sciences,  in- 
corporated under  the  laws  of  the 
District  of  Columbia,  United  States 
of  America,  on  June  18,  1942;  and 
they  agree  to  recognize  the  Insti- 
tute as  a  legal  entity  in  accordance 
with  their  own  legislation.  The  In- 
stitute shall  have  all  the  rights, 
benefits,  assets,  lands  and  other 
property  to  which  it  was  or  may  be 
entitled  as  a  corporation,  and  shall 
assume  all  the  obligations  and  con- 
tracts for  which  it  became  responsi- 
ble as  a  corporation. 


The  executive  headquarters  of  the 
Institute  shall  be  located  in  Wash- 
ington, D.  C.  The  principal  field 
headquarters  of  the  Institute  shall  be 
located  in  Turrialba,  Costa  Rica. 
Regional  offices  of  the  Institute  may 


Los  Gobiernos  de  las  Republicas 
Americanas,  animados  del  prop6sito 
de  fomentar  el  adelanto  de  las  cien- 
cias  agricolas,  asf  como  de  las  artes  y 
ciencias  conexas;  y  deseosos  de  dar 
cumplimiento  en  forma  pr&ctica  a  la 
resoluci6n  aprobada  por  el  Octavo 
Congreso  Cientffico  Americano  que 
se  celebr6  en  Washington  en  1940, 
recomendando  el  establecimiento  de 
un  Institute  Interamericano  de  Ag- 
ricultura  Tropical,  han  resuelto  con- 
certar  una  Convenci6n  para  recono- 
cer  como  instituci6n  permanente  al 
Institute  Interamericano  de  Cien- 
cias Agrfcolas,  que  en  el  texto  de 
esta  Convenci6n  se  designard  como 
"el  Instituto",  sobre  las  bases  que  se 
determinan  en  los  siguientes  Ar- 
tfculos: 

Articulo  i.  Los  Estados  Con- 
tratantes  reconocen  mediante  la 
presente  Convenci6n  como  Institu- 
ci6n  permanente  al  Instituto  Inter- 
americano de  Ciencias  Agrfcolas, 
organizado  como  sociedad  auto- 
rizada  de  acuerdo  con  las  leyes  del 
Distrito  de  Columbia,  Estados  Uni- 
dos  de  America,  con  fecha  18  de 
junio  de  1942;  y  convienen  en  darle 
al  Instituto  el  cardcter  de  persona 
juridica  de  acuerdo  con  su  propia 
Iegislaci6n.  El  Instituto  gozari  de 
todos  los  derechos,  beneficios,  capi- 
tal, terrenos  y  otros  bienes  que  ha 
adquirido  o  adquiera  en  calidad  de 
corporaci6n  y  asumird  todas  las 
obligaciones  y  cumplird  los  contratos 
que  ha  celebrado  o  celebre  en  la 
misma  capacidad. 

La  oficina  central  ejecutiva  del 
Instituto  tendrd  su  sede  en  Wdshing- 
ton,  D.  C.  La  oficina  principal  de 
actividades  radicari  en  Turrialba, 
Costa  Rica.  Oficinas  regionales  del 
Instituto  podr£n  ser  establecidas  en 


Jan.  IS,  1944  INSTITUTE  OF  AGRICULTURAL  SCIENCES 


103 


be  maintained  throughout  the  Ameri- 
can Republics. 

Purposes 

Art.  2.  The  purposes  of  the  Insti- 
tute are  to  encourage  and  advance 
the  development  of  agricultural  sci- 
ences in  the  American  Republics 
through  research,  teaching  and  ex- 
tension activities  in  the  theory  and 
practice  of  agriculture  and  related 
arts  and  sciences. 

In  furtherance  of  these  purposes 
the  Institute  may,  subject  to  the 
laws  of  the  several  countries,  exer- 
cise the  following  powers:  To  de- 
velop, finance  and  operate  similar 
establishments  and  installations  in 
one  or  more  of  the  American  Re- 
publics; to  give  assistance  in  the  es- 
tablishment and  maintenance  of 
organizations  having  similar  pur- 
poses in  the  said  Republics;  to  pur- 
chase, sell,  lease,  improve  or  operate 
any  property  in  the  American  Re- 
publics, in  accordance  with  the  pur- 
poses of  the  Institute;  to  collaborate 
with  the  Government  of  any  Ameri- 
can Republic,  or  with  any  other  or- 
ganization or  entity,  and  to  give 
assistance  to  the  same;  to  receive 
contributions  and  donations  of  money 
or  property,  both  real  and  personal ; 
to  enter  into  and  carry  out  contracts 
and  agreements;  to  raise  or  acquire 
and,  in  any  manner,  dispose  of  all 
agricultural  commodities  and  prod- 
ucts thereof  essential  for  experimen- 
tal or  research  purposes;  and  to 
carry  on  any  other  business  or  ac- 
tivity appropriate  to  the  foregoing 
purposes. 


The  Board  of  Directors 

Art.  3.  The  representatives  of 
the  twenty-one  American  Repub- 
lics on  the  Governing  Board  of  the 
Pan  American  Union  shall  serve  as 
members  of  the  Institute,  and  shall 
be  considered  as  members  of  the 


todas  las  otras  Reptiblicas  Ameri- 
canas. 

Fines 

Art.  2.  Los  fines  del  Institute 
serin  los  de  estimular  y  promover  el 
desarrollo  de  las  ciencias  agricolas  en 
las  Reptiblicas  Americanas  mediante 
la  investigaci6n,  la  ensenanza  y  la 
divulgaci6n  de  la  teorfa  y  de  la 
pr&ctica  de  la  agricultura,  asf  como 
de  otras  artes  y  ciencias  conexas. 

Para  realizar  estos  fines,  el  Insti- 
tute podrA,  de  conformidad  con  las 
leyes  de  los  distintos  paises,  hacer 
uso  de  las  siguientes  atribuciones: 
crear,  sostener  y  administrar  estable- 
cimientos  similares  e  instalaciones  en 
una  o  mis  de  las  Reptiblicas  Ameri- 
canas; prestar  ayuda  al  estable- 
cimiento  y  mantenimiento  de  or- 
ganizaciones  que  persigan  finalidades 
anilogas  en  dichas  Reptiblicas;  com- 
prar,  vender,  arrendar,  mejorar  o 
administrar  cualquiera  propiedad  en 
las  Reptiblicas  Americanas,  de  ac- 
uerdo  con  las  finalidades  del  Insti- 
tute; colaborar  con  el  Gobierno  de 
cualquiera  Reptiblica  Americana,  o 
con  cualesquiera  otros  organismos  o 
entidades  y  prestar  ayuda  a  los 
mismos;  aceptar  contribuciones  y 
dpnativos  en  forma  de  dinero  o 
bienes,  tanto  muebles  como  in- 
muebles;  celebrar  y  llevar  a  cabo 
contratos  y  acuerdos;  cultivar  o  ad- 
quirir  toda  clase  de  productos  agri- 
colas  y  sus  derivados  o  disponer  de 
los  mismos  en  cualquiera  forma 
cuando  sea  esencial  para  fines  de  in- 
vestigaci6n  o  experimentaci6n ;  y 
efectuar  cualquier  otro  negocio  o 
llevar  a  cabo  cualquiera  otra  activi- 
dad  que  sean  convenientes  para  los 
fines  indicados. 

La  Junta  Directiva 

Art.  3.  Los  representantes  de  las 
veintiuna  Reptiblicas  Americanas  en 
el  Consejo  Directive  de  la  Uni6n 
Panamericana  actuar&n  como  miem- 
bros  del  Institute  y  se  considerardn 
como  miembros  de  la  Junta  Direc- 


104 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  631 


Board  of  Directors  thereof.  In  the 
event  that  any  member  is  unable  to 
attend  a  meeting  of  the  Board  of 
Directors  the  said  member  or  his 
government  may  designate  an  al- 
ternate for  that  purpose.  The  de- 
cisions of  the  Board  shall  be  adopted 
by  a  majority  vote  of  its  members, 
which  majority  vote  shall  include 
the  votes  of  a  majority  of  the  mem- 
bers representing  Contracting  States. 
The  Board  shall  have,  among  others, 
the  following  functions: 

To  elect  the  Director  of  the  Insti- 
tute and  to  approve  the  appointment 
of  the  Secretary  made  by  the  Director. 

To  remove  both  the  Director  and 
the  Secretary. 

To  determine  the  compensation  of 
the  Director  and  the  Secretary. 

To  supervise  the  activities  of  the 
Director,  who  shall  be  responsible 
for  carrying  out  all  orders  and  resolu- 
tions of  said  Board. 

To  appoint  and  define  the  duties 
and  compensation  of  an  administra- 
tive committee  consisting  of  not 
more  than  eight  persons,  of  whom 
one  shall  be  the  Director  of  the  In- 
stitute ex  offido.  The  members  of 
this  administrative  committee  need 
not  be  members  of  the  Board  of 
Directors. 

To  approve  the  budget  for  the  ad- 
ministration of  the  Institute  to  be 
submitted  annually  by  the  Director. 

To  fix  the  annual  quotas  of  the 
Institute. 

The  Board  shall  receive  an  annual 
report  from  the  Director  upon  the 
activities  of  the  Institute  as  well  as 
upon  its  general  condition  and  finan- 
cial status. 

Officers 

Art.  4.  The  Institute  shall  have  a 
Director  and  a  Secretary.  The  Di- 
rector shall  be  elected  by  the  Board 
of  Directors  in  plenary  session  for  a 
term  of  six  years;  he  may  be  re- 
elected  one  or  more  times.  The 
first  term  of  the  Director  under  the 


tiva  del  mismo.  Si  alguno  de  ellos 
no  pudiere  asistir  a  una  reuni6n  de  la 
Junta  Directiva  se  podrA  designar  un 
suplente  para  ese  fin,  ya  sea  por  el 
propietario  o  por  su  respective 
Gobierno.  Las  decisiones  de  la 
Junta  serin  adoptadas  por  la  ma- 
yorfa  de  los  votos  de  sus  miembros, 
cuya  mayorfa  de  votos  incluirA  una 
mayorfa  de  votos  de  los  represen- 
tantes  de  los  Estados  Contratantes. 
La  Junta  tendrA,  entre  otras,  las 
siguientes  atribuciones: 

Elegir  al  Director  del  Institute  y 
ratificar  el  nombramiento  del  Secre- 
tario. 

Remover  tanto  al  Director  como 
al  Secretario. 

Fijar  la  remuneration  del  Director 
y  del  Secretario. 

Vigilar  las  actividades  del  Direc- 
tor, quien  serA  responsable  de  dar 
cumplimiento  a  todas  las  6rdenes  y 
resoluciones  de  la  Junta. 

Nombrar  un  Comit6  Administra- 
tive, asignAndole  sus  deberes  y 
fijAndole  sus  gastos  o  emolumentos, 
el  que  consistirA  de  no  mAs  de  ocho 
personas,  entre  las  cuales  servirA  de 
miembro  ex  offido  el  Director  del 
Institute.  No  se  requiere  que  los 
miembros  de  este  Comit£  scan  miem- 
bros de  la  Junta  Directiva  del 
Institute. 

Aprobar  el  presupuesto  que  some- 
terA  anualmente  el  Director  para  la 
administraci6n  del  Institute. 

La  Junta  fijarA  las  cuotas  anuales 
del  Institute. 

La  Junta  recibirA  del  Director  un 
informe  anual  sobre  las  actividades 
del  Institute,  asf  como  de  su  estado 
general  y  situaci6n  financiera. 

Funcionarios 

Art.  4.  El  Institute  tendrA  un 
Director  y  un  Secretario.  El  Direc- 
tor serA  elegido  por  la  Junta  Direc- 
tiva en  sesi6n  plenaria  y  durarA  seis 
anos  en  su  cargo;  podrA  ser  reelecto 
una  o  rnAs  veces.  El  primer  perfodo 
del  Director,  para  los  fines  de  la 


Jan.  15,  1944  INSTITUTE  OF  AGRICULTURAL  SCIENCES 


105 


provisions  of  this  Convention  shall 
begin  as  of  the  day  on  which  this 
Convention  enters  into  force. 

The  Secretary  shall  be  appointed 
by  the  Director  with  the  approval  of 
the  Board  of  Directors  of  the  Insti- 
tute and  shall  be  directly  responsible 
to  the  Director. 

The  Director  and  the  Secretary 
shall  hold  office  until  their  respective 
successors  shall  be  chosen  and  shall 
qualify ;  but  they  may  be  removed  by 
vote  of  the  majority  of  the  members 
of  the  Institute. 

The  Director 

Art.  5. — i.  The  Director  under  the 
supervision  of  the  Board  of  Directors 
shall  have  ample  and  full  powers  to 
direct  the  activities  of  the  Institute; 
and  he  shall  be  responsible  for  carry- 
ing out  all  orders  and  resolutions  of 
said  Board. 

2.  The  Director  under  the  super- 
vision of  the  Board  of  Directors  shall 
be  the  legal  representative  of  the  In- 
stitute; and  he  may  legalize,  with  the 
seal  of  the  Institute,  all  contracts, 
conveyances  and  other  instruments 
which  require  such  legalization  and 
which  in  his  opinion  are  necessary 
and  advantageous  to  the  operation 
of   the   Institute.     In   addition,   he 
shall  be  authorized  to  take  any  other 
step  necessary  to  validate  such  in- 
struments as  may  be  required  or  per- 
mitted by  law.     The  Director  may 
grant  powers  to  others  for  all  those 
acts  which  he  cannot  perform  per- 
sonally. 

3.  The  Director,  under  the  super- 
vision of  the  Board  of  Directors  of 
the  Institute,  shall  have  the  power 
to  appoint,  remove,  and  determine 
the  compensation  of  employees. 

4.  The  Director  shall  prepare  the 
budget  of  the  Institute  for  each  fiscal 
year,  and  submit  it  to  the  Board  of 
Directors  at  least  two  months  before 
the  annual  meeting  at  which  it  will 
be  considered  for  approval. 


presente  Convenci6n,  principiarA  el 
dia  que  6sta  entre  en  vigor. 

El  Secretario  serd  nombrado  por  el 
Director  con  la  aprobaci6n  de  la 
Junta  Directiva  del  Institute  y  seri 
directamente  responsable  ante  el 
Director. 

El  Director  y  el  Secretario  desem- 
penar&n  sus  cargos  hasta  que  sus 
sucesores  respectivos  sean  desig- 
nados  y  entren  al  desempeno  de  sus 
cargos;  pero  podrdn  ser  removidos 
por  el  voto  de  la  mayorfa  de  los 
miembros  del  Institute. 

El  Director 

Art.  5. — i.  El  Director  tendrd 
amplios  y  plenos  poderes  para  dirigir 
las  actividades  del  Institute,  bajo  la 
vigilancia  de  la  Junta  Directiva  del 
mismo;  y  seri  responsable  del  cum- 
plimiento  de  todas  las  6rdenes  y 
resoluciones  de  dicha  Junta. 

2.  El  Director  tendrd  la  represen- 
taci6n   legal  del   Institute  bajo  la 
vigilancia  de  la  Junta  Directiva  del 
mismo;  y  podrd  legalizar  con  el  sello 
del    Institute   todos   los   contratos, 
traspasos  y  otros  instrumentos  que 
requieran  ese  trimite  y  que  en  su 
opini6n  sean  necesarios  y  convenien- 
tes  para  el  funcionamiento  del  In- 
stituto.     Ademds    estard    facultado 
para  tomar  cualquiera  otra  medida 
necesaria  para  dar  fuerza  legal  a 
tales  instrumentos,  de  conformidad 
con  los  requisites  o  disposiciones  de 
la  ley.     El  Director  podrd  otorgar 
poderes  a  otras  personas  para  todos 
aquellos  actos  que  no  pueda  realizar 
61  personalmente. 

3.  El  Director,  sujeto  a  la  super- 
vigilancia  de  la  Junta  Directiva  del 
Institute,  tendrd  facultad  para  nom- 
brar  y  remover  empleados  y  fijar  su 
remuneraci6n. 

4.  El  Director  preparard  el  presu- 
puesto  del  Institute  para  cada  ano 
fiscal  y  lo  someterd  a  la  Junta  Direc- 
tiva con  no  menos  de  dos  meses  de 
anticipaci6n  a  la  reuni6n  anual,  en 
la  cual  se  considerard  su  aprobaci6n. 


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INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  631 


5.  The  Director  shall  submit  an 
annual  report  to  the  Board  of  Direc- 
tors of  the  Institute  two  months 
before  the  annual  meeting,  setting 
forth  the  work  of  the  Institute  dur- 
ing the  year  and  its  general  condi- 
tion and  financial  status,  and  he  shall 
submit  to  the  approval  of  the  said 
Board  the  budget  and  the  plans  for 
the  following  year. 

The  Secretary 

Art.  6.  The  Secretary  shall  keep 
the  minutes  and  records  of  the  Insti- 
tute, shall  exercise  all  prerogatives 
and  carry  out  all  administrative 
duties  assigned  to  him  by  the 
Director. 

Technical  Advisory  Council 

Art.  7.  Provision  is  made  for  the 
establishment  of  a  Technical  Ad- 
visory Council,  as  follows: 

i.  Each  of  the  Contracting  States 
may  appoint  an  agricultural  expert 
to  be  its  representative  in  the  Tech- 
nical Advisory  Council  of  the  Insti- 
tute. This  Council  shall  cooperate 
with  the  Director  on  agricultural 
matters  of  a  technical  nature.  The 
appointment  of  each  representative 
shall  be  officially  notified  to  the 
Secretary  of  the  Institute.  The 
members  of  the  Council  shall  serve 
for  a  period  of  five  years  at  the  will 
of  their  respective  governments,  and 
may  be  reappointed  one  or  more 
times. 


2.  The  Technical  Advisory  Coun- 
cil shall  meet  at  least  once  a  year, 
under  the  chairmanship  of  the  Direc- 
tor of  the  Institute,  at  such  place  as 
the  activities  of  the  Institute  may 
require.  The  Director  may  call  spe- 
cial meetings  of  the  Council  on  his 
own  initiative,  whenever  the  best  in- 
terests of  the  Institute  may  require. 
Notice  with  respect  to  any  meeting 
shall  be  given  at  least  two  months  in 
advance  and  shall  state  the  purpose 
or  purposes  of  the  proposed  meeting. 


5.  El  Director  presentard  un  in- 
forme  anual  a  la  Junta  Directiva  del 
Institute,  dos  meses  antes  de  cele- 
brarse  la  reuni6n  anual,  en  el  que 
dard  cuenta  de  las  labores  del  Insti- 
tute durante  el  ano,  asf  como  de  su 
estado  general  y  situaci6n  finan- 
ciera;  y  someterd  a  la  aprobaci6n  de 
la  misma  Junta  el  presupuesto  y  los 
planes  para  el  ano  siguiente. 

El  Secretario 

Art.  6.  El  Secretario  tendrd  bajo 
su  cuidado  las  actas  y  archivos  del 
Institute,  gozard  de  todas  las  facul- 
tades  y  desempeiiard  todas  las 
funciones  administrates  que  le  en- 
comiende  el  Director. 

El  Consejo  Ticnico  Consultivo 

Art.  7.  Se  establecerd  un  Consejo 
T6cnico  Consultivo,  que  se  organi- 
zard  en  la  forma  siguiente: 

1.  Cada  uno  de  los  Estados  Con- 
tratantes  podrd  designar  un  experto 
agrlcola,    quien    actuard    como    su 
representante  en  el  seno  del  Consejo 
T6cnico    Consultivo   del    Institute. 
Este  Consejo  cooperard  con  el  Direc- 
tor  en    asuntos   de   fndole    t6cnica 
agrfcola.     El  nombramiento  de  cada 
representante  se  comunicara  oficial- 
mente  al   Secretario  del   Institute. 
Los  miembros  del  Consejo,  sujetos  a 
la  voluntad  de  sus  gobiernos,  ejer- 
cerdn    sus    funciones    durante    un 
perlodo  de  cinco  afios,  pudiendo  ser 
nombrados  nuevamente  una  o  mas 
veces  para  continuar  en  el  desem- 
peno  de  sus  cargos. 

2.  El  Consejo  T6cnico  Consultivo 
se  reunird,  a  lo  menos  una  yez  al 
afio,  bajo  la  presidencia  del  Director 
del  Institute,  en  el  lugar  en  que  las 
actividades    del     Institute    lo    re- 
quieran.     El  Director  podrd  citar  al 
Consejo  a  reuniones  extraordinarias 
por  su  propia  iniciativa,  cuando  la 
buena  marcha  del  Institute  asf  lo 
requiera.     Cada   una  de   estas   re- 
uniones deberd  convocarse  con  dos 
meses  de  anticipacidn  por  lo  menos, 
indicdndose  el  motive  o  motives  de 


Jan.  IS,  1944  INSTITUTE  OF  AGRICULTURAL  SCIENCES 


107 


A  majority  of  the  members  of  the 
Council  shall  constitute  a  quorum. 

3.  No  member  of  the  Technical 
Advisory  Council,  as  such,  shall  re- 
ceive from  the  Institute  any  pecuni- 
ary compensation  for  his  services, 
although  the  Institute  may  defray 
traveling  expenses  of  the  members  of 
the  Council  to  the  annual  meeting. 

Fiscal  Agent 

Art.  8.  The  Pan  American  Union 
shall  act  as  fiscal  agent  for  and  on  be- 
half of  the  Institute,  and  as  such 
shall  receive  and  disburse  the  funds 
of  the  Institute. 

Maintenance  of  the  Institute 

Art.  9.  The  income  of  the  Insti- 
tute for  its  maintenance  and  opera- 
tion shall  consist  of  annual  quotas 
paid  by  the  Contracting  States,  as 
well  as  of  legacies,  donations  and 
contributions  which  the  Institute 
may  accept.  Such  funds  and  con- 
tributions shall  be  used  only  for  pur- 
poses in  keeping  with  the  character 
of  the  Institute. 

The  annual  quotas  shall  be  deter- 
mined by  the  Board  of  Directors  of 
the  Institute  provided  the  vote  is 
unanimous  with  respect  to  the  mem- 
bers representing  the  Contracting 
States.  The  amounts  of  the  respec- 
tive quotas  shall  be  in  proportion  to 
the  population  of  each  Contracting 
State,  on  the  basis  of  the  latest  offi- 
cial statistics  in  possession  of  the  Pan 
American  Union  on  the  first  day  of 
July  of  each  year. 

The  annual  quota  payment  of  each 
Contracting  State  shall  not  exceed 
one  dollar  United  States  currency  per 
one  thousand  of  the  total  population 
of  that  State.  The  quota  payments 
may,  however,  be  increased  by  unani- 
mous recommendation  of  those  mem- 
bers of  the  Board  of  Directors  who 
represent  Contracting  States  and  the 
approval  by  the  appropriate  authori- 


la  reuni6n  propuesta.  Una  mayorfa 
de  los  miembros  del  Consejo  con- 
stituird  qu6rum. 

3.  Ningtin  miembrp  del  Consejo 
T6cnico  Consultivo  recibird  del  In- 
stituto, en  tal  capacidad,  remunera- 
ci6n  pecuniaria  alguna  por  sus 
servicios;  pero  el  Instituto  podrd 
sufragar  los  gastos  de  viaje  de  los 
miembros  del  Consejo  para  su  re- 
uni6n  anual. 

Agente  Fiscal 

Art.  8.  La  Uni6n  Panamericana 
actuard  como  agente  fiscal  del  In- 
stituto, y  en  tal  capacidad  recibird  y 
administrari  los  fondos  del  Instituto. 

Sostenimiento  del  Instituto 

Art.  9.  Los  recursos  para  sos- 
tener  y  fomentar  las  labores  del 
Instituto  consistirdn  en  las  cuotas 
anuales  que  cubran  los  Estados  Con- 
tratantes,  asf  como  en  los  legados, 
donatives  y  contribuciones  que  el 
Instituto  acepte.  Tales  fondos  y 
contribuciones  se  utilizar&n  exclu- 
sivamente  para  fines  que  est£n  de 
acuerdo  con  el  caricter  del  Instituto. 

La  Junta  Directiva  del  Instituto 
fijard  las  cuotas  anuales,  en  el  en- 
tendimiento  de  que  el  voto  deberd 
ser  undnime  en  lo  que  respecta  a  los 
miembros  que  representen  a  los 
Estados  Contratantes.  El  monto 
de  las  cuotas  respectivas  se  fijard  en 
proporci6n  con  el  ntimero  de  habi- 
tantes  de  cada  Estado  Contratante, 
tomdndose  como  base  las  ultimas 
estadfsticas  oficiales  que  existan  en 
la  Uni6n  Panamericana  el  i°  de 
julio  de  cada  afio. 

Se  fijard  la  cuota  anual  de  cada 
Estado  Contratante,  la  que  no  ex- 
cederd  de  un  d61ar  en  moneda  de  los 
Estados  Unidos  de  America,  por 
cada  mil  habitantes.  Sin  embargo, 
esa  cuota  podrd  aumentarse  medi- 
ante  la  recomendaci6n  undnime  de 
los  miembros  de  la  Junta  Directiva 
que  represente  los  Estados  Contra- 
tantes y  con  la  aprobaci6n  de  las 


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INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  631 


ties  of  each  of  the  Contracting  States 
of  the  increased  quota  of  that  State. 

The  quotas  shall  be  communicated 
annually  by  the  Pan  American  Union 
to  the  Governments  of  the  Contract- 
ing States,  and  shall  be  paid  before 
the  first  of  July  of  each  year. 

The  quota  payments  of  each  Con- 
tracting State  shall  commence  on  the 
day  on  which  this  Convention  enters 
into  force  with  respect  to  that  State, 
prorated  according  to  the  number  of 
full  calendar  months  remaining  in 
the  current  fiscal  year. 

The  fiscal  year  of  the  Institute 
shall  begin  on  the  first  day  of  July  of 
each  year. 

Languages 

Art.  I  p.  The  official  languages  of 
the  Institute  shall  be  English,  Span- 
ish, Portuguese  and  French. 

Postal  Privileges 

Art.  n.  The  Contracting  States 
agree  to  extend  to  the  Institute  forth- 
with the  domestic  and  international 
franking  privilege  provided  in  the 
existing  inter-American  postal  con- 
ventions and  to  ask  the  States  mem- 
bers of  the  Pan  American  Union 
which  have  not  ratified  the  present 
Convention  to  grant  the  Institute 
the  same  postal  privileges. 


Exemption  from  Taxation 

Art.  12.  Lands  and  buildings  in 
the  territory  of  any  of  the  Contract- 
ing States  of  which  the  Institute  is 
the  legal  or  equitable  owner  and 
which  are  used  exclusively  for  the 
purposes  of  the  Institute  shall  be 
exempt  from  taxation  of  every  kind, 
National,  State,  Provincial  or  Munic- 
ipal, other  than  assessments  levied 
for  services  or  for  local  public  im- 
provements by  which  the  premises 
are  benefited. 


autoridades  competentes  de  cada 
Estado  Contratante. 

La  Uni6n  Panamericana  comuni- 
cari  a  los  Gobiernos  de  los  Estados 
Contratantes  las  cantidades  que  les 
correspondan,  las  que  deberAn  pa- 
garse  antes  del  i°  de  julio  de  cada  afio. 

El  pago  de  la  cuota  correspon- 
diente  a  cada  Estado  Contratante  se 
comenzari  a  partir  de  la  fecha  en  que 
esta  Convenci6n  entre  en  vigor  con 
respecto  a  ese  Estado,  calculindose  la 
cantidad  a  base  del  numero  de  meses 
completos  que  quedaren  por  termi- 
narse  dentro  del  ano  fiscal  en  curso. 

El  ano  fiscal  del  Institute  comen- 
zarA  cada  i°  de  julio. 

Idiomas 

Art.  10.  Serdn  idiomas  oficiales 
del  Instituto  el  espanol,  el  ing!6s,  el 
portugufe  y  el  francos. 

Franquicia  Postal 

Art.  n.  Los  Estados  Contra- 
tantes acuerdan  hacer  extensiva  al 
Instituto,  desde  luego  dentro  de  sus 
respectivos  territorios,  y  entre  unos 
y  otros,  la  franquicia  postal  estab- 
lecida  en  las  convenciones  postales 
interamericanas  en  vigencia,  pidi- 
endo  a  los  Estados  miembros  de 
la  Uni6n  Panamericana,  que  no 
hayan  ratificado  la  presente  Con- 
venci6n,  que  concedan  al  Instituto 
dicha  prerrogativa. 

Exencidn  de  Impuestos 

Art.  12.  Los  bienes  inmuebles  que 
posea  el  Instituto,  en  derecho  o 
equidad,  en  cualquiera  de  los  Es- 
tados Contratantes,  y  que  se  utilicen 
exclusivamente  para  los  fines  que 
persigue  el  Instituto,  estarin  exentos 
de  impuestos  de  cualquiera  natu- 
raleza,  ya  sean  nacionales,  estaduales, 
provinciales  o  municipales,  con  ex- 
cepci6n  de  las  tasas  que  deban  ser 
pagadas  por  raz6n  de  servicios  o  de 
mejoramientos  piiblicos  locales  que 
redunden  en  beneficio  de  dichos 
inmuebles. 


Jan.  15,  1944  INSTITUTE  OF  AGRICULTURAL  SCIENCES 


IO9 


Furniture,  equipment,  supplies, 
construction  materials  and  any  other 
articles  intended  for  official  use  of  the 
Institute  shall  be  exempt  in  the  terri- 
tory of  any  of  the  Contracting  States 
from  every  form  of  taxation,  includ- 
ing but  not  limited  to  customs  duties, 
excise  and  surtaxes. 


All  funds  and  other  property  used 
for  the  purposes  of  the  Institute,  and 
all  contracts  and  other  official  acts 
of  the  Institute  within  the  scope  of 
its  purposes  shall  likewise  be  exempt 
from  taxation  of  every  kind  in  the 
territory  of  each  of  the  Contracting 
States. 

Movement  of  Funds 

Art.  13.  Each  of  the  Contracting 
States  shall  take  such  measures  as 
may  be  appropriate  to  facilitate  the 
movement  of  funds  of  the  Institute. 


Exemptions  and  Privileges  for 
Personnel  and  Students 

Art.  14.  Each  of  the  Contracting 
States  agrees  that  it  will  accord  to 
persons  engaged  in  the  work  of  the 
Institute  or  pursuing  studies  under 
the  auspices  of  the  Institute,  such 
privileges  with  respect  to  exemption 
from  taxation  and  other  burdens  af- 
fecting the  entry,  travel  and  residence 
of  such  persons  as  may  be  appropriate 
under  its  laws  and  regulations. 

Signature  and  Ratification 

Art.  15. — I.  The  original  of  the 
present  Convention  in  the  English, 
Spanish,  Portuguese  and  French  lan- 
guages shall  be  deposited  with  the 
Pan  American  Union  and  opened  for 
signature  by  the  Governments  of 
the  American  Republics.  The  Pan 
American  Union  shall  furnish  a  certi- 
fied copy  of  the  present  Convention 
to  each  signatory  Government  and 
to  the  Government  of  each  non-sig- 
natory State  which  is  a  member  of 
the  Union.  The  Pan  American  Union 


El  mobiliario,  los  efectos,  enseres, 
utensilios,  materiales  de  construc- 
ci6n  y  cualesquiera  otros  artfculos 
destinados  al  uso  oficial  del  Institute 
estardn  exentos,  en  el  territorio  de 
cualquiera  de  los  Estados  Contra- 
tantes,  de  todo  gravamen,  inclu- 
yendo  derechos  aduaneros,  contribu- 
ciones  indirectas  y  sobretasas,  o 
cualesquiera  otros. 

Estardn  tambten  exentos  de  toda 
clase  de  impuestos,  en  el  territorio  de 
cada  uno  de  los  Estados  Contratan- 
tes,  los  fondos  y  otros  bienes  que  se 
empleen  para  los  fines  del  Institute, 
y  todos  los  contratos  y  actos  oficia- 
les  del  Institute,  que  se  mantengan 
dentro  de  los  Ifmites  de  sus  funciones. 

Circulacidn  de  Fondos 

Art.  13.  Cada  uno  de  los  Estados 
Contratantes  tomard  las  medidas 
que  scan  necesarias  para  facilitar  el 
movimiento  de  los  fondos  del  Insti- 
tute. 

Facilidades  para  el 
Personal  y  Estudiantes 

Art.  14.  Cada  uno  de  los  Estados 
Contratantes  conviene  en  acordar  a 
las  personas  al  servicio  del  Institute, 
o  que  realicen  estudios  auspiciados 
por  61,  todas  aquellas  facilidades  que 
puedan  conceder  en  cuanto  con- 
cierne  a  exenciones  de  impuestos  y 
otros  recargos  que  afecten  la  entrada, 
viajes  y  residencia  de  tales  personas, 
conforme  a  sus  leyes  y  reglamentos. 

Firma  y  Ratification 

Art.  15, — i.  El  original  de  la 
presente  Convenci6n,  redacto  en  los 
idiomas  espanol,  ing!6s,  portugu6s  y 
francos,  serd  depositado  en  la  Uni6n 
Panamericana  y  abierto  a  la  firma  de 
los  Gobiernos  de  las  Reptiblicas  Ameri- 
canas.  La  Uni6n  Panamericana  en- 
viarA  copias  certificadas  aut6nticas 
de  la  presente  Convenci6n  a  los  go- 
biernos  signatarios  y  a  los  gobiernos 
de  los  Estados  no  signatarios  que 
scan  miembros  de  la  Uni6n  Paname- 
ricana. La  Uni6n  Panamericana  in- 


no 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  631 


shall  inform  all  the  Governments  of 
the  States  members  of  the  Pan  Amer- 
ican Union  with  respect  to  all  sig- 
natures and  the  respective  dates 
thereof. 

2.  The  present  Convention  shall 
be  ratified  by  the  signatory  States  in 
conformity  with  their  respective  con- 
stitutional procedures.    The  instru- 
ments of  ratification  shall  be  depos- 
ited with  the  Pan  American  Union, 
which  shall  notify  all  the  signatory 
Governments  of  each  ratification  de- 
posited and  the  date  of  its  deposit. 

3.  The  present  Convention  shall 
come  into  force  three  months  after 
the  deposit  of  not  less  than  five  rati- 
fications  with    the    Pan    American 
Union.    Any  ratification  received  af- 
ter the  date  of  entry  into  force  of  the 
Convention    shall    take   effect   one 
month  after  the  date  of  its  deposit 
with  the  Pan  American  Union. 

Denunciation 

Art.  16. — i.  The  present  Conven- 
tion shall,  subject  to  the  provisions  of 
Paragraph  2  of  this  Article,  remain 
in  force  indefinitely,  but  may  be  de- 
nounced by  any  Contracting  State 
by  a  notification  in  writing  to  the 
Pan  American  Union,  which  shall  in- 
form all  the  other  Contracting  States 
of  each  notification  of  denunciation 
received.  After  the  expiration  of  one 
year  from  the  date  of  the  receipt  by 
the  Pan  American  Union  of  a  noti- 
fication of  denunciation  by  any  Con- 
tracting State,  the  present  Conven- 
tion shall  cease  to  be  in  force  with 
respect  to  such  State,  but  the  Con- 
vention shall  remain  in  full  force  and 
effect  with  respect  to  all  the  other 
Contracting  States. 

2.  In  the  event  that  the  number 
of  Contracting  States  should  be  re- 
duced to  less  than  five  as  the  result  of 
denunciations,  the  remaining  Con- 
tracting States  shall  immediately 
consult  with  each  other  with  a  view 
to  revising  the  present  Convention 
and  with  a  view  to  determining  the 


formari  a  todos  los  gobiernps  de  los 
pafses  miembros  de  la  Uni6n  Pan- 
americana acerca  de  las  firmas  de 
adhesi6n  que  se  registren  y  de  las 
fechas  respectivas  de  las  mismas. 

2.  La  presente  Convenci6n  sera 
ratificada  por  los  Estados  Signatarios 
de  acuerdo  con  sus  respectivos  proce- 
dimientos  constitucionales.     Los  in- 
strumentos  de  ratificaci6n  serin  de- 
positados  en  la  Uni6n  Panamericana, 
la  que  comunicari  a  todos  los  Gobi- 
ernos  Signatarios  los  datos  sobre  cada 
ratificaci6n  depositada. 

3.  La  presente  Convenci6n  entrari 
en  vigor  tres  meses  despu£s  de  que  se 
hayan  depositado  en  la  Uni6n  Pana- 
mericana cinco  ratificaciones  cuando 
menos.     Cualquiera  ratificaci6n  que 
se  reciba  despu6s  de  que  la  presente 
Convenci6n  entre  en  vigor  tendra 
efecto  un  mes  despu&s  de  la  fecha  del 
dep6sito  de  dicha  ratificaci6n  en  la 
Uni6n  Panamericana. 

Denuncia 

Art.  16. — i.  La  presente  Conven- 
ci6n,  de  acuerdo  con  lo  dispuesto  en 
el  parrafo  2°  de  este  Artfculo,  regira 
indefinidamente,  pero  podr4  ser  de- 
nunciada  por  cualquier  Estado  Con- 
tratante,  dando  aviso  por  escrito  a 
la  Uni6n  Panamericana,  la  cual  in- 
formal a  todos  los  otros  Estados 
Contratantes  acerca  de  cada  notifica- 
ci6n  de  denuncia  que  sea  recibida. 
Transcurrido  un  ano  a  contar  de  la 
fecha  en  que  haya  sido  recibida  por 
la  Uni6n  Panamericana  la  notifica- 
ci6n  de  denuncia,  la  presente  Con- 
venci6n  cesari  en  sus  efectos  para  el 
Estado  denunciante,  pero  permane- 
ceri  en  pleno  efecto  en  lo  que  res- 
pecta  a  todos  los  otros  Estados  Con- 
tratantes. 

2.  En  el  case  de  que  el  numero  de 
Estados  Contratantes  quedare  re- 
ducido  a  menos  de  cinco,  como  resul- 
tado  de  las  denuncias,  los  Estados 
restantes  se  consultardn  reciproca- 
mente  y  de  modo  inmediato  con  el 
objeto  de  revisar  la  presente  Con- 
venci6n  y  resolver  lo  conveniente 


Feb.  7,  1944 


REGULATION  OF  WHALING 


III 


future  status  of  the  Institute.  If, 
within  two  years  after  the  date  upon 
which  the  number  of  Contracting 
States  is  reduced  to  less  than  five,  as 
the  result  of  denunciations,  no  agree- 
ment shall  have  been  reached  by  the 
remaining  Contracting  States  re- 
garding the  continuation  of  the  Con- 
vention and  the  status  of  the  Insti- 
tute, the  Convention  shall,  upon  the 
expiration  of  six  months'  written 
notice  by  any  remaining  Contracting 
State,  cease  to  be  in  force.  In  the 
event  that  the  Convention  should 
cease  to  be  in  force,  the  status  of  the 
Institute  shall  be  determined  by  the 
Governing  Board  of  the  Pan  Ameri- 
can Union. 

IN  WITNESS  WHEREOF,  the  under- 
signed Plenipotentiaries,  having  de- 
posited their  full  powers  found  to  be 
in  due  and  proper  form,  sign  this 
Convention  in  the  English,  Spanish, 
Portuguese  and  French  languages  at 
the  Pan  American  Union,  Washing- 
ton, D.  C.,  on  behalf  of  their  respec- 
tive Governments  and  affix  thereto 
their  seals  on  the  dates  appearing 
opposite  their  signatures. 


sobre  el  future  del  Instituto.  Si 
dentro  de  dos  anos,  a  partir  de  la 
fecha  en  que  el  numero  de  Estados 
quedare  reducido  a  menos  de  cinco, 
como  resultado  de  denuncias,  esos 
Estados  no  hubieren  llegado  a  un 
acuerdo  respecto  a  la  continuidad  de 
la  Convenci6n  y  al  futuro  del  Insti- 
tuto, la  Convenci6n  cesari  de  tener 
vigor  seis  meses  despu6s  de  la  fecha 
en  que  cualquiera  de  dichos  Estados 
notifique  por  escrito  a  los  otros  su 
intenci6n  de  terminarla.  En  el  caso 
de  que  la  Convenci6n  cesare  de  tener 
efecto,  el  futuro  destino  del  Instituto 
serd  determinado  por  el  Consejo 
Directivo  de  la  Uni6n  Panamericana. 

EN  FE  DE  LO  CUAL,  los  infrascritos 
Plenipotenciarios,  despu£s  de  haber 
depositado  sus  plenos  poderes,  que 
se  han  encontrado  en  buena  y  debida 
forma,  finnan  y  sellan  la  presente 
Convenci6n  en  espanol,  ing!6s,  por- 
tugu6s  y  francos,  en  la  Uni6n  Pan- 
americana, Washington,  D.  C.,  en 
nombre  de  sus  respectivos  Gobiernos, 
en  las  fechas  indicadas  al  lado  de  sus 
firmas. 


[Firmada:]  Por  Costa  Rica:  CARLOS  MANUEL  ESCALANTE,  15  de  enero  de 
1944;  por  Nicaragua:  GUILLERMO  SE  VILLA  SACASA,  15  dc  enero  de  1944; 
por  Panam£:  ENRIQUE  A.  JIMENEZ,  15  de  enero  de  1944;  for  the  United 
States  of  America:  CORDELL  HULL,  January  15,  1944;  Por  Cuba:  AURELIO 
F.  CONCHESO,  20  de  enero  de  1944;  por  Ecuador:  C.  E.  ALFARO,  20  de 
enero  de  1944. 

[The  Convention  was  also  signed  by  Bolivia,  Chile,  Dominican  Republic, 
El  Salvador,  Guatemala,  Honduras,  Uruguay,  and  Venezuela.] 


No.  632 

PROTOCOL  for  the  Regulation  of  Whaling.    Signed  at  London, 

February  7, 1944. 

PROTOCOLS  sur  la  r£glementation  de  la  chasse  &  la  baleine. 
Sign6  &  Londres,  7  f6vrier  1944. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  The  regulation  of  whaling  has  been  the  subject  of  continuous  legislation 
over  a  period  of  years,  and  the  successive  instruments  afford  a  striking  illustration  of  a 
continuous  process  of  international  legislation.  A  convention  opened  for  signature  at 


1 12  INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION  No.  632 

Geneva  on  September  24,  1931  (No.  295,  ante),  applied  to  baleens  or  whalebone  whales. 
An  agreement  of  June  8,  1937  (No.  485,  ante),  which  was  of  more  general  application,  was  to 
remain  in  force  until  June  30,  1938,  subject  to  extension  by  agreement;  an  amending  protocol 
of  June  24,  1938  (No.  4853,  ante),  extended  some  of  its  provisions  until  September  30,  1939, 
and  others  until  December  8,  1940.  Pelagic  whaling  having  been  interrupted  for  several 
years,  a  conference  of  certain  parties  to  the  1937  agreement  and  the  1938  protocol  was  held 
in  London,  January  4-31,  1944,  and  drafted  the  Protocol  of  February  7,  1944,  which  was 
designed  to  make  certain  provisions  of  the  1937  agreement  less  restrictive.  A  supplementary 
protocol  of  October  5,  1945,  was  concluded  to  bring  the  1944  Protocol  into  force  without 
awaiting  the  accession  of  Ireland.  British  Treaty  Series,  No.  44  (1946),  Cmd.  6941.  A 
protocol  of  November  26,  1945  (No.  6323,  post),  further  amended  the  1937  agreement  and 
the  1938  protocol,  making  certain  provisions  of  previous  instruments  applicable  for  the 
1946-1947  season.  A  protocol  of  March  15,  1946,  gave  permission  to  certain  factory  ships 
to  continue  whaling  operations  after  March  24,  1946.  British  Treaty  Series,  No.  44  (1946), 
Cmd.  6941.  The  provisions  of  the  protocol  of  November  26,  1945,  were  made  applicable 
for  the  1947-1948  season  by  a  protocol  of  December  2,  1946.  U.S.  Treaties  and  Other 
International  Acts  Series,  No.  1708.  A  new  convention,  signed  at  Washington  on  December 
2,  1946,  entered  into  force  on  November  10,  1948  (No.  632b,  post).  A  protocol  of  March  3, 
1947,  was  concluded  to  bring  into  force  in  its  entirety  the  protocol  of  November  26,  1945, 
without  awaiting  ratification  by  Mexico  and  the  Netherlands,  n  U.N.  Treaty  Series,  p.  52. 

RATIFICATIONS.  On  July  i,  1946,  ratifications  of  or  accessions  to  this  Protocol  had  been 
deposited  at  London  by  the  Argentine  Republic,  Canada,  Denmark,  Great  Britain,  Mexico, 
New  Zealand,  Norway,  South  Africa,  and  the  United  States  of  America. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Protocol  is  also  published  in  10  U.S.  Department  of 
State  Bulletin  (1944),  p.  592;  British  Treaty  Series,  No.  61  (1946),  Cmd.  6990;  Canada, 
Treaty  Series,  1944,  No.  20. 

Anon.,  "Antarctic  Whaling,"  101  Review  of  the  River  Plate  (November  15,  1946),  pp. 
18-19;  A.  G.  N.  Hildebrandt,  "Het  walvischvaartseizoen  1945/46,"  31  Economised 
statistische  Berichten  (1946),  pp.  596-98. 

Entered  into  force  October  5, 1945. 

Text  from  Br.  Parl.  Papers,  Misc.  No.  I  (1944),  Cmd.  6510. 

The  Governments  of  the  Union  of  pelagic  whaling  operations  in  the 
South  Africa,  the  United  States  of  area  to  which  Article  7  of  the  1937 
America,  the  Commonwealth  of  Agreement  applies  have  been  inter- 
Australia,  the  United  Kingdom  of  rupted  for  a  considerable  period  by 
Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ireland,  the  existence  of  hostilities  and  in 
Canada,  Eire,  New  Zealand  and  order  to  meet  the  present  emergency 
Norway,  without  prejudicing  the  conservation 

Being  parties  or  signatories  to  the  of  stocks  of  whales,  to  put  into  force 

International    Agreement    for    the  by  agreement  such  provisions  as  may 

Regulation    of   Whaling   signed   at  be  necessary  with  regard  to  pelagic 

London  on  the  8th  June,  1937  (here-  whaling  in  this  area  when  whaling 

inafter  referred  to  as  the  Agreement  operations  are  resumed  there: 

of  1937),  and  to  the  Protocol  signed  Have  agreed  as  follows: 

at  London  on  the  24th  June,  1938,  Article  x. — (i)  The  period  fixed  by 

introducing  certain  amendments  into  Article  7  of  the  Agreement  of  1937, 

the  Agreement  of  1937  (hereinafter  during   which    factory   ships   or   a 

referred  to  as  the  Protocol  of  1938);  whale  catcher  attached  thereto  may 

and  be  used  for  the  purpose  of  taking  or 

Desiring,  in  view  of  the  fact  that  treating  baleen  whales,  shall  be  ex- 


Feb.  7,  1944 


REGULATION  OF  WHALING 


tended  for  the  first  season  in  which 
whaling  operations  are  resumed  in 
the  area  referred  to  in  the  said 
Article  7,  so  as  to  cover  the  period 
from  the  24th  November  to  the  24th 
March,  both  dates  inclusive. 

(ii)  Each  Government  party  to 
the  present  protocol  shall  give  notice 
to  the  Government  of  the  United 
Kingdom  when  whale  factory  ships 
registered  under  the  law  of  any  ter- 
ritory under  its  authority  or  other- 
wise under  its  jurisdiction  engage  in 
whaling  operations  in  the  area  de- 
fined in  Article  7  of  the  Agreement 
of  1937.  The  Government  of  the 
United  Kingdom  will  inform  the 
other  Governments  party  to  the 
present  protocol  of  all  notices  re- 
ceived under  this  paragraph  and 
shall  itself  similarly  give  notice  to 
the  other  contracting  Governments 
if  whale  factory  ships  registered 
under  the  law  of  any  territory  under 
its  authority  or  otherwise  under  its 
jurisdiction  engage  in  whaling  opera- 
tions in  the  said  area. 

(iii)  For  the  purposes  of  paragraph 
(i)  of  this  article  the  first  season  in 
respect  of  which  any  notice  has  been 
given  under  paragraph  (ii)  above, 
shall  be  deemed  to  be  the  first  season 
in  which  whaling  operations  are 
resumed.  This  season  is  hereinafter 
referred  to  as  "the  first  season." 

Art.  2.  The  provisions  of  Article 
i  of  the  Protocol  of  1938  relating  to 
the  taking  of  humpback  whales  in 
any  waters  south  of  40  degrees  south 
latitude  shall  apply  during  the  first 
season. 

Art.  3. — (i)  During  the  first  sea- 
son, the  number  of  baleen  whales 
caught  in  the  area  referred  to  in 
Article  7  of  the  1937  Agreement  shall 
not  exceed  16,000  blue  whale  units. 

(ii)  For  the  purposes  of  paragraph 
(i)  of  this  article,  blue  whale  units 
shall  be  calculated  on  the  basis  that 
one  blue  whale  equals — 

(a)  2  fin  whales,  or 

(b)  2#  humpback  whales,  or 

(c)  6  sei  whales. 


(iii)  The  Government  of  the 
United  Kingdom  shall  consult  all 
the  Governments  who  have  given 
notice  under  Article  I  (ii)  of  this 
agreement  in  order  to  arrange  by 
co-operation  and  agreement  the 
measures  necessary  to  ensure  that 
the  total  number  of  baleen  whales 
caught  during  the  first  season  does 
not  exceed  the  number  specified  in 
paragraph  (i)  of  this  article. 

Art.  4.  In  the  absence  of  agree- 
ment to  the  contrary  none  of  the 
provisions  of  the  present  protocol 
shall  operate  except  in  the  first 
season. 

Art.  5.  The  present  protocol  shall 
be  ratified  and  the  instruments  of 
ratification  deposited  as  soon  as  pos- 
sible with  the  Government  of  the 
United  Kingdom. 

Art.  6. — (i)  The  present  protocol 
shall  be  open  to  accession  on  behalf 
of  any  Government  which  was  a 
party  to  the  1937  Agreement  and  has 
not  signed  the  present  protocol. 

(ii)  Accession  shall  be  effected  by 
means  of  a  notification  addressed  to 
the  Government  of  the  United 
Kingdom. 

Art.  7. — (i)  The  Government  of 
the  United  Kingdom  shall  inform 
the  Governments  of  the  United 
States  of  America,  Canada,  Eire, 
Mexico,  New  Zealand  and  Norway  of 
all  ratifications  of  this  protocol  or 
accessions  thereto. 

(ii)  The  present  protocol  shall 
come  into  force  as  soon  as  ratifica- 
tions or  accessions  have  been  de- 
posited on  behalf  of  all  Governments 
referred  to  in  paragraph  (i)  of  this 
article  and  of  the  Government  of  the 
United  Kingdom. 

(iii)  The  ratification  of  or  acces- 
sion to  the  present  protocol  by  a 
Government  which  is  a  signatory  but 
not  a  party  to  the  Agreement  of  1937 
shall  not  become  effective  until  such 
Government  becomes  a  party  to 
that  agreement  by  ratification. 

IN  WITNESS  WHEREOF  the  under- 
signed plenipotentiaries,  being  duly 


114  INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION  No. 

authorised  to  this  effect  by   their  which  shall  remain  deposited  in  the 

respective  Governments,  have  signed  archives  of  the  Government  of  the 

the    present    protocol    and    affixed  United  Kingdom  by  whom  certified 

thereto  their  seals.  copies  will  be  transmitted  to  all  the 

Done  at  London  this  yth  day  of  Governments  referred  to  in  Article 

February,    1944,  in  a  single  copy  7  (i). 

[Signed:]  For  the  Government  of  the  Union  of  South  Africa:  DENEYS 
REITZ,  A.  P.  VAN  DER  POST;  for  the  Government  of  the  United  States  of 
America:  LOYD  V.  STEERE;  for  the  Government  of  the  Commonwealth  of 
Australia:  S.  M.  BRUCE;  for  the  Government  of  the  United  Kingdom  of 
Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ireland:  A.  T.  A.  DOBSON,  J.  E.  DE  WATTE- 
VILLE;  for  the  Government  of  Canada:  VINCENT  MASSEY;  for  the  Govern- 
ment of  New  Zealand:  W.  J.  JORDAN;  for  the  Government  of  Norway: 
BIRGER  BERGERSEN. 


No.  632a 

Protocol  for  the  Regulation  of  Whaling.     Opened  for  signature  at 
London,  November  26,  1945. 

Protocole  sur  la  reglementation  de  la  chasse  &  la  baleine.     Ouvert 
a  la  signature  &  Londres,  26  novembre  1945. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Protocol,  prepared  at  the  International  Whaling  Conference  held 
at  London,  November  20-26,  1945,  amended  for  the  1946-1947  season  various  provisions  of 
the  1937  agreement  on  whaling  (No.  485,  ante)  and  of  the  1938  protocol  of  amendment  (No. 
48sa,  ante).  It  was  made  applicable  to  the  1947-1948  season  by  the  protocol  of  December  2, 
1946,  and  was  brought  into  force  by  the  protocol  of  March  3,  1947,  without  awaiting  ratifi- 
cation by  Mexico  and  the  Netherlands.  U.S.  Treaties  and  Other  International  Acts  Series, 
No.  1708;  ii  U.N.  Treaty  Series,  p.  52. 

RATIFICATIONS.  On  July  I,  1948,  ratifications  of  or  accessions  to  this  Protocol  had  been 
deposited  at  London  by  Australia,  Canada,  Denmark,  France,  Great  Britain,  Iceland, 
Mexico,  Netherlands,  New  Zealand,  Norway,  Panama,  South  Africa,  the  Soviet  Union,  and 
the  United  States  of  America. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Protocol  is  also  published  in  n  U.N.  Treaty  Series, 
p.  43;  17.5.  Treaties  and  Other  International  Acts  Series,  No.  1597;  Canada,  Treaty  Series, 
1945,  No.  21. 

Entered  into  force  March  3, 1947 ,l 

Text  from  British  Treaty  Series,  No.  70  (1946),  Cmd.  7009. 

The  Governments  of  the  Union  of  land,  Norway,  the  United  Kingdom 
South  Africa,  the  Commonwealth  of  of  Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ire- 
Australia,  Canada,  Denmark,  France,  land  and  the  United  States  of 
Mexico,  the  Netherlands,  New  Zea-  America; 

1  Registered  with  the  Secretariat  of  the  United  Nations,  No.  148,  November  26,  1947. 
Certain  articles  of  this  Protocol  became  binding  on  April  4,  1946,  in  pursuance  of  Article 


Nov.  26,  1945 


REGULATION  OF  WHALING 


Desiring,  in  view  of  the  fact  that 
pelagic  whaling  operations  in  the 
area  defined  by  Article  7  of  the  Inter- 
national Agreement  for  the  Regula- 
tion of  Whaling,  signed  at  London  on 
the  8th  June,  1937  (hereinafter  re- 
ferred to  as  the  Principal  Agreement), 
as  amended  by  the  Protocol  signed 
at  London  on  the  24th  June,  1938 
(hereinafter  referred  to  as  the  Proto- 
col of  1938),  have  been  interrupted 
for  a  considerable  period  by  the  war, 
and  in  order  to  meet  the  emergency 
produced  by  post-war  conditions 
without  prejudice  to  the  conserva- 
tion of  stocks  of  whales,  to  put  into 
force  by  agreement  such  provisions 
as  may  be  necessary  in  regard  to  pe- 
lagic whaling  for  the  season  1946/47; 

Have  agreed  as  follows: 

Article  i.  Subject  to  the  provi- 
sions of  Article  3  of  the  present 
Protocol,  the  period  fixed  by  Article 
7  of  the  Principal  Agreement,  during 
which  factory  ships  or  whalecatchers 
attached  thereto  may  be  used  for  the 
purpose  of  taking  or  treating  baleen 
whales,  shall  be  extended  for  the 
season  1946/47  so  as  to  cover  the 
period  from  the  8th  December  to  the 
7th  April  inclusive. 

Art.  2.  Each  contracting  Gov- 
ernment shall  give  notice  to  the  Gov- 
ernment of  the  United  Kingdom 
when  factory  ships  registered  under 
the  law  of  any  territory  under  its 
authority  or  otherwise  under  its  ju- 
risdiction engage  in  whaling  opera- 
tions in  the  area  defined  by  Article 
7  of  the  Principal  Agreement.  The 
Government  of  the  United  Kingdom 
will  inform  the  other  contracting 
Governments  of  all  notices  received 
under  this  paragraph  and  shall  itself 
similarly  give  notice  to  the  other 
contracting  Governments  if  factory 
ships  registered  under  the  law  of  any 
territory  under  its  authority  or  other- 
wise under  its  jurisdiction  engage  in 
whaling  operations  in  the  said  area. 

Art.  3 .  The  prohibition  contained 
in  Article  i  of  the  Protocol  of  1938 
relating  to  the  taking  of  hump  back 


LS1UV* 

(a) 
0) 


whales  in  any  waters  south  of  40° 
south  latitude  shall  apply  during  the 
season  of  1946/47. 

Art.  4. — (i)  During  the  season  of 
1946/47  the  number  of  baleen  whales 
caught  in  the  area  defined  by  Article 
7  of  the  Principal  Agreement  shall 
not  exceed  16,000  blue  whale  units. 

(2)  For  the  purposes  of  paragraph 
i  of  this  Article  blue  whale  units 
shall  be  calculated  on  the  basis  that 
one  blue  whale  equals — 

Two  fin  whales  or 
Two  and  a  half  hump  back 
whales  or 
(c)  Six  sei  whales. 

(3)  Each  contracting  Government 
undertakes  to  ensure  that  the  Inter- 
national Bureau  for  Whaling  Statis- 
tics shall  be  provided,  within  two 
days  after  the  end  of  each  calendar 
week,  with  data  on  the  number  of 
blue  whale  units  caught  by  each  fac- 
tory ship  under  the  jurisdiction  of 
the  said  Government  in  the  area  de- 
fined by  Article  7  of  the  Principal 
Agreement.    The    Government    of 
the  United  Kingdom  shall  consult 
from  time  to  time  with  the  Inter- 
national Bureau  for  Whaling  Statis- 
tics and  if  it  should  appear  that  the 
annual  quota  provided  by  paragraph 
(i)  of  this  Article  may  be  reached  be- 
fore the  7th  April,  the  International 
Bureau  for  Whaling  Statistics  shall 
be  requested  to  determine,  on  the 
basis  of  the  data  provided,  the  date 
on  which  the  annual  quota  of  blue 
whale  units  shall  be  deemed  to  have 
been  reached  and  to  notify  each  con- 
tracting Government  of  that  date 
not  less  than  two  weeks  in  advance 
thereof.    The  taking  of  baleen  whales 
shall   be   illegal  after  the  date  so 
determined. 

Art.  5.  The  provisions  of  Article 
3,  paragraph  (2),  of  the  Protocol  of 
1938,  regarding  the  operation  of  fac- 
tory ships  as  land  stations  in  the 
territorial  waters  of  any  contracting 
Government,  shall  not  apply  during 
the  period  from  ist  May,  1947,  to 
3  ist  October,  1947,  inclusive. 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  632a 


Art.  6. — (i)  In  the  present  Proto- 
col the  following  expressions  shall 
have  the  meanings  assigned  to  them 
in  Article  18  of  the  Principal  Agree- 
ment: "factory  ship,"  "whalecatcher," 
"land  station,"  "baleen  whale," 
"blue  whale,"  "hump  back  whale," 
"fin  whale." 

(2)  Sei  whale  means,  for  the  pur- 
poses of  this  Protocol,  any  whale 
known  by  the  name  of  balaenoptera 
borealis,  sei  whale,  Rudol phi's  ror- 
qual, pollack  whale,  or  coalfish  whale, 
and  shall  be  taken  to  include  Balae- 
noptera brydei,  Bryde's  whale. 

(3)  The  expression  "land  station" 
shall,  for  the  purposes  of  Article  5  of 
the  present  Protocol,  include  a  fac- 
tory ship  the  movements  and  an- 
chorage of  which  are  confined  to  the 
territorial  waters  of  any  contracting 
Government. 

Art.  7. — (i)  The  present  Protocol 
shall  be  ratified  and  the  instruments 
of  ratification  deposited  as  soon  as 
possible  with  the  Government  of  the 
United  Kingdom;  and  it  shall  be 
open  to  accession  on  behalf  of  any 
Government  which  is  a  party  to  the 
Principal  Agreement  and  the  Proto- 
col of  1938  and  has  not  signed  the 
present  Protocol. 

(2)  Accession  shall  be  effected  by 
notification  addressed  to  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  United  Kingdom. 

(3)  The  Government  of  the  United 
Kingdom  shall  inform  the  Govern- 
ments which  are  parties  or  signa- 
tories to  the  present  Protocol  of  all 
ratifications  of  this  Protocol  or  ac- 
cessions thereto. 

Art.  8.— (i)  The  present  Protocol 
shall  come  into  force  in  its  entirety 


when  all  the  Governments  referred 
to  in  the  Preamble  hereof  shall  have 
deposited  their  instruments  of  ratifi- 
cation or  given  notification  of  ac- 
cession. 

(2)  The  provisions  of  this  Article 
and  Articles  2,  3,  4,  6  (i),  6  (2)  and  7 
of  the  present  Protocol  shall,  when 
instruments  of  ratification  have  been 
deposited  by  at  least  three  signatory 
Governments,   become   binding    on 
those  Governments  and  shall  become 
binding  on  each  other  Government 
which  subsequently   ratifies  or  ac- 
cedes, on  the  date  of  the  deposit  of 
its  instrument  of  ratification  or  noti- 
fication of  its  accession. 

(3)  The  ratification  of  or  accession 
to  the  present  Protocol  by  a  Govern- 
ment which  is  not  a  party  to  the 
Principal  Agreement  and  the  Proto- 
col of  1938  shall  not  become  effective 
until  such  Government  becomes  a 
party  to  that  Agreement  and  the 
Protocol  of  1938. 

Art.  9.  The  present  Protocol  shall 
bear  the  date  on  which  it  is  opened 
for  signature  and  shall  remain  open 
for  signature  for  a  period  of  14  days 
thereafter. 

IN  WITNESS  WHEREOF  the  under- 
signed plenipotentiaries  being  duly 
authorised  to  this  end  by  their  re- 
spective Governments  have  signed 
the  present  Protocol. 

Done  at  London  this  26th  day  of 
November,  1945,  in  a  single  copy 
which  shall  remain  deposited  in  the 
archives  of  the  Government  of  the 
United  Kingdom,  by  whom  certified 
copies  will  be  transmitted  to  all  the 
Governments  referred  to  in  the  pre- 
amble. 


[Signed:]  For  the  Government  of  the  Union  of  South  Africa:  A.  P.  VAN 
DER  POST;  for  the  Government  of  the  Commonwealth  of  Australia:  J.  S. 
DUNCAN;  for  the  Government  of  Canada:  VINCENT  MASSEY;  for  the  Govern- 
ment of  Denmark:  P.  F.  ERICHSEN;  for  the  Provisional  Government  of  the 
French  Republic:  NOEL  HENRY;  for  the  Government  of  the  United  Mexican 
States:  ALFONSO  DE  ROSENZWEIG  DIAZ;  for  the  Government  of  the  Nether- 
lands: E.  TEIXEIRA  DE  MATTOS;  for  the  Government  of  New  Zealand:  R.  M. 
CAMPBELL;  for  the  Government  of  Norway:  BIRGER  BERGERSEN;  for  the 
Government  of  the  United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ireland: 


Dec.  2,  1946  REGULATION  OF  WHALING  117 

A.  T.  A.  DOBSON,  J.  E.  DE  WATTEVILLE;  for  the  Government  of  the  United 
States  of  America:  REMINGTON  KELLOGG,  IRA  N.  GABRIELSON. 


No.  632b 

Convention  for  the  Regulation  of  Whaling.    Signed  at  Washington, 

December  2,  1946. 

Convention  pour  la  reglementation  de  la  chasse   ft  la  baleine. 
Sign€e  ft  Washington,  2  decembre  1946. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Convention  was  drafted  at  the  International  Whaling  Conference 
which  met  at  Washington,  November  2O-December  2,  1946.  Br.  Parl.  Papers,  Misc.  No.  3 
(1947),  Cmd.  7403.  Amendments  to  paragraphs  6,  7,  and  10  of  the  Schedule  to  this  Con- 
vention were  adopted  by  the  International  Whaling  Commission  at  its  first  meeting  held 
at  London,  May  3O-June  7,  1949.  British  Treaty  Series,  No.  75  (1949),  Cmd.  7853.  For 
previous  agreements  on  the  subject,  see  Nos.  295,  485,  48sa,  632,  and  632a,  ante. 

RATIFICATIONS.  On  May  20,  1949,  ratifications  of  or  accessions  to  the  Convention  had 
been  deposited  at  Washington  by  Australia,  Canada,  France,  Great  Britain,  Iceland, 
Netherlands,  Norway,  Panama,  South  Africa,  the  Soviet  Union,  Sweden,  and  the  United 
States  of  America. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Convention  is  also  published  in  British  Treaty  Seriest 
No.  5  (1949),  Cmd.  7604;  Canada,  Treaty  Series,  1946,  No.  54. 

Entered  into  force  November  10, 1948. 

Text  from  U.S.  Treaties  and  Other  International  Acts  Series,  No.  1849. 

The    Governments    whose    duly  mon  interest  to  achieve  the  optimum 

authorized  representatives  have  sub-  level  of  whale  stocks  as  rapidly  as 

scribed  hereto,  possible  without  causing  widespread 

Recognizing  the  interest  of  the  na-  economic  and  nutritional  distress; 
tions  of  the  world  in  safeguarding  for  Recognizing  that  in  the  course  of 
future  generations  the  great  natural  achieving  these  objectives,  whaling 
resources  represented  by  the  whale  operations  should  be  confined  to 
stocks;  those  species  best  able  to  sustain  ex- 
Considering  that  the  history  of  ploitation  in  order  to  give  an  interval 
whaling  has  seen  overfishing  of  one  for  recovery  to  certain  species  of 
area  after  another  and  of  one  species  whales  now  depleted  in  numbers; 
of  whale  after  another  to  such  a  Desiring  to  establish  a  system  of 
degree  that  it  is  essential  to  protect  international  regulation  for  the  whale 
all  species  of  whales  from  further  fisheries  to  ensure  proper  and  effec- 
overfishing;  tive  conservation  and  development 
Recognizing  that  the  whale  stocks  of  whale  stocks  on  the  basis  of  the 
are  susceptible  of  natural  increases  if  principles  embodied  in  the  provisions 
whaling  is  properly  regulated,  and  of  the  International  Agreement  for 
that  increases  in  the  size  of  whale  the  Regulation  of  Whaling  signed  in 
stocks  will  permit  increases  in  the  London  on  June  8,  1937  and  the 
numbers  of  whales  which  may  be  protocols  to  that  Agreement  signed 
captured  without  endangering  these  in  London  on  June  24,  1938  and 
natural  resources;  November  26,  1945;  and 

Recognizing  that  it  is  in  the  com-  Having  decided  to  conclude  a  con* 


118 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  6326 


vention  to  provide  for  the  proper 
conservation  of  whale  stocks  and 
thus  make  possible  the  orderly  de- 
velopment of  the  whaling  industry; 

Have  agreed  as  follows: 

Article  i. — i.  This  Convention 
includes  the  Schedule  attached 
thereto  which  forms  an  integral  part 
thereof.  All  references  to  ''Conven- 
tion" shall  be  understood  as  includ- 
ing the  said  Schedule  either  in  its 
present  terms  or  as  amended  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  provisions  of 
Article  5. 

2.  This  Convention  applies  to  fac- 
tory ships,  land  stations,  and  whale 
catchers  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
Contracting  Governments,  and  to 
all  waters  in  which  whaling  is 
prosecuted  by  such  factory  ships, 
land  stations,  and  whale  catchers. 

Art.  2.  As  used  in  this  Conven- 
tion 

1.  "factory  ship"  means  a  ship  in 
which  or  on  which  whales  are  treated 
whether  wholly  or  in  part; 

2.  "land  station"  means  a  factory 
on   the  land  at  which  whales  are 
treated  whether  wholly  or  in  part; 

3.  "whale  catcher"  means  a  ship 
used  for  the  purpose  of  hunting,  tak- 
ing, towing,  holding  on  to,  or  scout- 
ing for  whales; 

4.  "Contracting     Government" 
means  any  Government  which  has 
deposited  an  instrument  of  ratifica- 
tion or  has  given  notice  of  adherence 
to  this  Convention. 

Art.  3. — i.  The  Contracting  Gov- 
ernments agree  to  establish  an  Inter- 
national Whaling  Commission,  here- 
inafter referred  to  as  the  Commis- 
sion, to  be  composed  of  one  member 
from  each  Contracting  Government. 
Each  member  shall  have  one  vote 
and  may  be  accompanied  by  one  or 
more  experts  and  advisers. 

2.  The  Commission  shall  elect 
from  its  own  members  a  Chairman 
and  Vice  Chairman  and  shall  deter- 
mine its  own  Rules  of  Procedure. 
Decisions  of  the  Commission  shall  be 
taken  by  a  simple  majority  of  those 


members  voting  except  that  a  three- 
fourths  majority  of  those  members 
voting  shall  be  required  for  action  in 
pursuance  of  Article  5.  The  Rules 
of  Procedure  may  provide  for  deci- 
sions otherwise  than  at  meetings  of 
the  Commission. 

3.  The  Commission  may  appoint 
its  own  Secretary  and  staff. 

4.  The  Commission  may  set  up, 
from  among  its  own  members  and 
experts  or  advisers,  such  committees 
as  it  considers  desirable  to  perform 
such  functions  as  it  may  authorize. 

5.  The  expenses  of  each  member 
of  the  Commission  and  of  his  experts 
and  advisers  shall  be  determined  and 
paid  by  his  own  Government. 

6.  Recognizing    that    specialized 
agencies  related  to  the  United  Na- 
tions  will   be   concerned   with   the 
conservation    and    development    of 
whale    fisheries    and    the    products 
arising   therefrom   and  desiring   to 
avoid  duplication  of  functions,  the 
Contracting  Governments  will  con- 
sult among  themselves  within  two 
years  after  the  coming  into  force  of 
this  Convention  to  decide  whether 
the   Commission   shall   be   brought 
within  the  framework  of  a  specialized 
agency  related  to  the  United  Na- 
tions. 

7.  In  the  meantime  the  Govern- 
ment  of   the   United   Kingdom   of 
Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ireland 
shall  arrange,  in  consultation  with 
the  other  Contracting  Governments, 
to  convene  the  first  meeting  of  the 
Commission,  and  shall  initiate  the 
consultation  referred  to  in  paragraph 
6  above. 

8.  Subsequent    meetings    of    the 
Commission  shall  be  convened  as  the 
Commission  may  determine. 

Art.  4. — i.  The  Commission  may 
either  in  collaboration  with  or 
through  independent  agencies  of  the 
Contracting  Governments  or  other 
public  or  private  agencies,  establish- 
ments, or  organizations,  or  inde- 
pendently 

(a)  encourage,  recommend,  or  if 


Dec.  2,  1946 


REGULATION  OP  WHALING 


119 


necessary,  organize  studies  and  in- 
vestigations relating  to  whales  and 
whaling; 

(b)  collect  and  analyze  statistical 
information  concerning  the  current 
condition  and  trend  of  the  whale 
stocks  and  the  effects  of  whaling 
activities  thereon ; 

(c)  study,  appraise,  and  dissemi- 
nate information  concerning  meth- 
ods of  maintaining  and  increasing 
the  populations  of  whale  stocks. 

2.  The  Commission  shall  arrange 
for  the  publication  of  reports  of  its 
activities,  and  it  may  publish  inde- 
pendently or  in  collaboration  with 
the  International  Bureau  for  Whal- 
ing Statistics  at  Sandefjord  in  Nor- 
way and  other  organizations  and 
agencies  such  reports  as  it  deems 
appropriate,  as  well  as  statistical, 
scientific,  and  other  pertinent  in- 
formation relating  to  whales  and 
whaling. 

Art.  5. — i.  The  Commission  may 
amend  from  time  to  time  the  provi- 
sions of  the  Schedule  by  adopting 
regulations  with  respect  to  the  con- 
servation and  utilization  of  whale 
resources,  fixing  (a)  protected  and 
unprotected  species;  (ft)  open  and 
closed  seasons;  (c)  open  and  closed 
waters,  including  the  designation  of 
sanctuary  areas;  (d)  size  limits  for 
each  species;  (e)  time,  methods,  and 
intensity  of  whaling  (including  the 
maximum  catch  of  whales  to  be 
taken  in  any  one  season);  (/)  types 
and  specifications  of  gear  and  ap- 
paratus and  appliances  which  may 
be  used;  (g)  methods  of  measure- 
ment; and  (h)  catch  returns  and 
other  statistical  and  biological  rec- 
ords. 

2.  These  amendments  of  the 
Schedule  (a)  shall  be  such  as  are 
necessary  to  carry  out  the  objectives 
and  purposes  of  this  Convention  and 
to  provide  for  the  conservation,  de- 
velopment, and  optimum  utilization 
of  the  whale  resources;  (b)  shall  be 
based  on  scientific  findings;  (c)  shall 
not  involve  restrictions  on  the  num- 


ber or  nationality  of  factory  ships  or 
land  stations,  nor  allocate  specific 
quotas  to  any  factory  ship  or  land 
station  or  to  any  group  of  factory 
ships  or  land  stations;  and  (d)  shall 
take  into  consideration  the  interests 
of  the  consumers  of  whale  products 
and  the  whaling  industry. 

3.  Each  of  such  amendments  shall 
become  effective  with  respect  to  the 
Contracting    Governments    ninety 
days  following  notification  of   the 
amendment  by  the  Commission  to 
each   of   the   Contracting   Govern- 
ments, except  that  (a)  if  any  Gov- 
ernment presents  to  the  Commission 
objection  to  any  amendment  prior 
to  the  expiration  of  this  ninety-day 
period,  the  amendment  shall  not  be- 
come effective  with  respect  to  any  of 
the  Governments  for  an  additional 
ninety    days;    (6)    thereupon,    any 
other  Contracting  Government  may 
present  objection  to  the  amendment 
at  any  time  prior  to  the  expiration  of 
the  additional  ninety-day  period,  or 
before  the  expiration  of  thirty  days 
from  the  date  of  receipt  of  the  last 
objection  received  during  such  addi- 
tional ninety-day  period,  whichever 
date  shall  be  the  later;  and  (c)  there- 
after, the  amendment  shall  become 
effective  with  respect  to  all  Con- 
tracting Governments  which  have 
not  presented  objection  but  shall  not 
become  effective  with  respect  to  any 
Government  which  has  so  objected 
until  such  date  as  the  objection  is 
withdrawn.     The  Commission  shall 
notify  each  Contracting  Government 
immediately  upon   receipt  of  each 
objection  and  withdrawal  and  each 
Contracting  Government  shall  ac- 
knowledge receipt  of  all  notifications 
of    amendments,    objections,    and 
withdrawals. 

4.  No  amendments  shall  become 
effective  before  July  I,  1949. 

Art.  6.  The  Commission  may 
from  time  to  time  make  recommen- 
dations to  any  or  all  Contracting 
Governments  on  any  matters  which 
relate  to  whales  or  whaling  and  to 


120 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  6326 


the  objectives  and  purposes  of  this 
Convention. 

Art.  7.  The  Contracting  Govern- 
ments shall  ensure  prompt  transmis- 
sion to  the  International  Bureau  for 
Whaling  Statistics  at  Sandef jord  in 
Norway,  or  to  such  other  body  as 
the  Commission  may  designate,  of 
notifications  and  statistical  and  other 
information  required  by  this  Con- 
vention in  such  form  and  manner  as 
may  be  prescribed  by  the  Commis- 
sion. 

Art.  8. — i.  Notwithstanding  any- 
thing contained  in  this  Convention, 
any  Contracting  Government  may 
grant  to  any  of  its  nationals  a  special 
permit  authorizing  that  national  to 
kill,  take,  and  treat  whales  for  pur- 
poses of  scientific  research  subject  to 
such  restrictions  as  to  number  and 
subject  to  such  other  conditions  as 
the  Contracting  Government  thinks 
fit,  and  the  killing,  taking,  and  treat- 
ing of  whales  in  accordance  with  the 
provisions  of  this  Article  shall  be  ex- 
empt from  the  operation  of  this  Con- 
vention. Each  Contracting  Gov- 
ernment shall  report  at  once  to  the 
Commission  all  such  authorizations 
which  it  has  granted.  Each  Con- 
tracting Government  may  at  any 
time  revoke  any  such  special  permit 
which  it  has  granted. 

2.  Any  whales  taken  under  these 
special  permits  shall  so  far  as  prac- 
ticable be  processed  and  the  proceeds 
shall  be  dealt  with  in  accordance 
with  directions  issued  by  the  Gov- 
ernment by  which  the  permit  was 
granted. 

3.  Each  Contracting  Government 
shall  transmit  to  such  body  as  may 
be  designated  by  the  Commission, 
insofar  as  practicable,  and  at  inter- 
vals of  not  more  than  one  year, 
scientific   information   available   to 
that  Government  with  respect  to 
whales  and  whaling,  including  the 
results  of  research  conducted  pur- 
suant to  paragraph  I  of  this  Article 
and  to  Article  4. 

4.  Recognizing    that    continuous 


collection  and  analysis  of  biological 
data  in  connection  with  the  opera- 
tions of  factory  ships  and  land  sta- 
tions are  indispensable  to  sound  and 
constructive  management  of  the 
whale  fisheries,  the  Contracting  Gov- 
ernments will  take  all  practicable 
measures  to  obtain  such  data. 

Art  9. — i.  Each  Contracting  Gov- 
ernment shall  take  appropriate  meas- 
ures to  ensure  the  application  of  the 
provisions  of  this  Convention  and 
the  punishment  of  infractions  against 
the  said  provisions  in  operations  car- 
ried out  by  persons  or  by  vessels 
under  its  jurisdiction. 

2.  No  bonus  or  other  remunera- 
tion calculated  with  relation  to  the 
results  of  their  work  shall  be  paid  to 
the    gunners   and    crews   of   whale 
catchers  in  respect  of  any  whales  the 
taking  of  which  is  forbidden  by  this 
Convention. 

3.  Prosecution      for      infractions 
against   or   contraventions   of    this 
Convention  shall  be  instituted  by 
the  Government  having  jurisdiction 
over  the  offense. 

4.  Each  Contracting  Government 
shall  transmit  to  the  Commission 
full  details  of  each  infraction  of  the 
provisions   of   this   Convention   by 
persons  or  vessels  under  the  jurisdic- 
tion of  that  Government  as  reported 
by  its  inspectors.     This  information 
shall  include  a  statement  of  meas- 
ures taken  for  dealing  with  the  in- 
fraction and  of  penalties  imposed. 

Art.  10. — i.  This  Convention  shall 
be  ratified  and  the  instruments  of 
ratification  shall  be  deposited  with 
the  Government  of  the  United  States 
of  America. 

2.  Any  Government  which  has  not 
signed  this  Convention  may  adhere 
thereto  after  it  enters  into  force  by  a 
notification  in  writing  to  the  Govern- 
ment   of    the    United    States    of 
America. 

3.  The  Government  of  the  United 
States  of  America  shall  inform  all 
other  signatory  Governments  and  all 
adhering  Governments  of  all  ratifica- 


Dec.  2,  1946 


REGULATION  OF  WHALING 


121 


tions  deposited  and  adherences  re- 
ceived. 

4.  This  Convention   shall,  when 
instruments  of  ratification  have  been 
deposited  by  at  least  six  signatory 
Governments,   which   shall   include 
the    Governments   of   the    Nether- 
lands, Norway,  the  Union  of  Soviet 
Socialist  Republics,  the  United  King- 
dom of  Great  Britain  and  Northern 
Ireland,  and  the  United  States  of 
America,  enter  into  force  with  respect 
to  those  Governments  and  shall  en- 
ter into  force  with  respect  to  each 
Government  which  subsequently  rat- 
ifies or  adheres  on  the  date  of  the 
deposit  of  its  instrument  of  ratifica- 
tion or  the  receipt  of  its  notification 
of  adherence. 

5.  The  provisions  of  the  Sched- 
ule shall  not  apply  prior  to  July  I, 
1948.  Amendments  to  the  Schedule 
adopted  pursuant  to  Article  5  shall 
not  apply  prior  to  July  I,  1949. 

Art.  n.  Any  Contracting  Gov- 
ernment may  withdraw  from  this 
Convention  on  June  thirtieth  of  any 
year  by  giving  notice  on  or  before 
January  first  of  the  same  year  to  the 
depositary  Government,  which  upon 


receipt  of  such  a  notice  shall  at  once 
communicate  it  to  the  other  Con- 
tracting Governments.  Any  other 
Contracting  Government  may,  in 
like  manner,  within  one  month  of  the 
receipt  of  a  copy  of  such  a  notice 
from  the  depositary  Government, 
give  notice  of  withdrawal,  so  that  the 
Convention  shall  cease  to  be  in  force 
on  June  thirtieth  of  the  same  year 
with  respect  to  the  Government  giv- 
ing such  notice  of  withdrawal. 

This  Convention  shall  bear  the 
date  on  which  it  is  opened  for  signa- 
ture and  shall  remain  open  for  signa- 
ture for  a  period  of  fourteen  days 
thereafter. 

IN  WITNESS  WHEREOF  the  under- 
signed, being  duly  authorized,  have 
signed  this  Convention. 

Done  in  Washington  this  second 
day  of  December  1946,  in  the  Eng- 
lish language,  the  original  of  which 
shall  be  deposited  in  the  archives  of 
the  Government  of  the  United  States 
of  America.  The  Government  of 
the  United  States  of  America  shall 
transmit  certified  copies  thereof  to 
all  the  other  signatory  and  adhering 
Governments. 


[Signed:]  For  Argentina:  O.  IVANISSEVICH,  J.  M.  MONETA,  G.  BROWN, 
PEDRO  H.  BRUNO  VIDELA;  for  Australia:  F.  F.  ANDERSON;  for  Brazil: 
PAULO  FR6ES  DA  CRUZ;  for  Canada:  H.  H.  WRONG,  HARRY  A.  SCOTT;  for 
Chile:  AGUSTIN  R.  EDWARDS;  for  Denmark:  P.  F.  ERICHSEN;  for  France: 
FRANCIS  LACOSTE;  for  the  Netherlands:  D.  J.  VAN  DIJK;  for  New  Zealand: 
G.  R.  POWLES;  for  Norway:  BIRGER  BERGERSEN;  for  Peru:  C.  ROTALDE; 
for  the  Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics:  A.  BOGDANOV,  E.  NIKISHIN; 
for  the  United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ireland:  A.  T.  A. 
DOBSON,  JOHN  THOMSON;  for  the  United  States  of  America:  REMINGTON 
KELLOGG,  IRA  N.  GABRIELSON,  WILLIAM  E.  S.  FLORY;  for  the  Union  of 
South  Africa:  H.  T.  ANDREWS. 


SCHEDULE 

i.  (a)  There  shall  be  maintained  on 
each  factory  ship  at  least  two  inspectors 
of  whaling  for  the  purpose  of  maintaining 
twenty-four  hour  inspection.  These  in- 
spectors shall  be  appointed  and  paid  by 
the  Government  having  jurisdiction  over 
the  factory  ship. 


(b)  Adequate  inspection  shall  be  main- 
tained at  each  land  station.  The  inspec- 
tors serving  at  each  land  station  shall 
be  appointed  and  paid  by  the  Govern- 
ment having  jurisdiction  over  the  land 
station. 

2.  It  is  forbidden  to  take  or  kill  gray 
whales  or  right  whales,  except  when  the 
meat  and  products  of  such  whales  are  to 


122 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  632b 


be  used  exclusively  for  local  consumption 
by  the  aborigines. 

3.  It  is  forbidden  to  take  or  kill  calves 
or  suckling  whales  or  female  whales  which 
are  accompanied  by  calves  or  suckling 
whales. 

4.  It  is  forbidden  to  use  a  factory  ship 
or  a  whale  catcher  attached  thereto  for 
the  purpose  of  taking  or  treating  baleen 
whales  in  any  of  the  following  areas: 

(a)  in  the  waters  north  of  66°  North 
Latitude   except   that   from    150°   East 
Longitude  eastward  as  far  as  140°  West 
Longitude  the  taking  or  killing  of  baleen 
whales  by  a  factory  ship  or  whale  catcher 
shall  be  permitted  between  66°  North 
Latitude  and  72°  North  Latitude; 

(b)  in  the  Atlantic  Ocean  and  its  de- 
pendent waters  north  of  40°  South  Lati- 
tude; 

(c)  in  the  Pacific  Ocean  and  its  de- 
pendent waters  east  of  150°  West  Longi- 
tude between  40°  South  Latitude  and  35° 
North  Latitude; 

(d)  in  the  Pacific  Ocean  and  its  de- 
pendent waters  west  of  150°  West  Longi- 
tude between  40°  South  Latitude  and  20° 
North  Latitude; 

(e)  in  the  Indian  Ocean  and  its  de- 
pendent waters  north  of  40°  South  Lati- 
tude. 

5.  It  is  forbidden  to  use  a  factory  ship 
or  a  whale  catcher  attached  thereto  for 
the  purpose  of  taking  or  treating  baleen 
whales  in  the  waters  south  of  40°  South 
Latitude  from  70°  West  Longitude  west- 
ward as  far  as  160°  West  Longitude. 

6.  It  is  forbidden   to    use   a   factory 
ship  or  a  whale  catcher  attached  thereto 
for  the  purpose  of  taking  or  treating 
humpback  whales  in  any  waters  south  of 
40°  South  Latitude. 

7.  (a)  It  is  forbidden  to  use  a  factory 
ship  or  a  whale  catcher  attached  thereto 
for  the  purpose  of  taking  or  treating 
baleen  whales  in  any  waters  south  of  40 
South  Latitude,  except  during  the  period 
from  December  15  to  April  I  following, 
both  days  inclusive. 

(b)  Notwithstanding  the  above  prohi- 
bition of  treatment  during  a  closed  season, 
the  treatment  of  whales  which  have  been 
taken  during  the  open  season  may  be 
completed  after  the  end  of  the  open  sea- 
son. 

8.  (a)  The  number  of  baleen  whales 
taken  during  the  open  season  caught  in 
any  waters  south  of  40°  South  Latitude 
by  whale  catchers  attached  to  factory 


ships  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Con- 
tracting Governments  shall  not  exceed 
sixteen  thousand  blue-whale  units. 

(b)  For  the  purposes  of  subparagraph 
(a)  of  this  paragraph,  blue-whale  units 
shall  be  calculated  on  the  basis  that  one 
blue  whale  equals: 


(i)  two  fin  whales  or 
(a) 


two  and  a  half  humpback  whales 
or 
(3)  six  sei  whales. 

(c)  Notification  shall  be  given  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  provisions  of  Article  7 
of  the  Convention,  within  two  days  after 
the  end  of  each  calendar  week,  of  data  on 
the  number  of  blue-whale  units  taken  in 
any  waters  south  of  40°  South  Latitude 
by  all  whale  catchers  attached  to  factory 
ships  under  the  jurisdiction  of  each  Con- 
tracting Government. 

(d)  If  it  should  appear  that  the  maxi- 
mum catch  of  whales  permitted  by  sub- 
paragraph  (a)  of  this  paragraph  may  be 
reached  before  April  I  of  any  year,  the 
Commission,  or  such  other  body  as  the 
Commission  may  designate,  shall  deter- 
mine, on  the  basis  of  the  data  provided, 
the  date  on  which  the  maximum  catch  of 
whales  shall  be  deemed  to  have  been 
reached  and  shall  notify  each  Contracting 
Government  of  that  date  not  less  than  two 
weeks  in  advance  thereof.    The  taking  of 
baleen  whales  by  whale  catchers  attached 
to  factory  ships  shall  be  illegal  in  any 
waters  south  of  40°  South  Latitude  after 
the  date  so  determined. 

(e)  Notification  shall  be  given  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  provisions  of  Article  7 
of  the  Convention  of  each  factory  ship 
intending  to  engage  in  whaling  operations 
in  any  waters  south  of  40°  South  Latitude. 

9.  It  is  forbidden  to  take  or  kill  any 
blue,  fin,  sei,  humpback,  or  sperm  whales 
below  the  following  lengths: 

(a)  blue  whales,  70  feet  (21.3  meters) 

(b)  fin  whales,  55  feet  (16.8  meters) 
(c}  sei  whales,  40  feet  (12.2  meters) 

(d)  humpback  whales,  35  feet  (10.7  meters) 

(e)  sperm  whales,  35  feet  (10.7  meters) 

except  that  blue  whales  of  not  less  than  65 
feet  (19.8  meters),  fin  whales  of  not  less 
than  50  feet  (15.2  meters),  and  sei  whales 
of  not  less  than  35  feet  (10.7  meters)  in 
length  may  be  taken  for  delivery  to  land 
stations  provided  that  the  meat  of  such 
whales  is  to  be  used  for  local  consumption 
as  human  or  animal  food. 
Whales  must  be  measured  when  at  rest 


Dec.  2,  1946 


REGULATION  OF  WHALING 


123 


on  deck  or  platform,  as  accurately  as  pos- 
sible by  means  of  a  steel  tape  measure 
fitted  at  the  zero  end  with  a  spiked  handle 
which  can  be  stuck  into  the  deck  planking 
abreast  of  one  end  of  the  whale.  The 
tape  measure  shall  be  stretched  in  a 
straight  line  parallel  with  the  whale's 
body  and  read  abreast  the  other  end  of 
the  whale.  The  ends  of  the  whale,  for 
measurement  purposes,  shall  be  the  point 
of  the  upper  jaw  and  the  notch  between 
the  tail  flukes.  Measurements,  after 
being  accurately  read  on  the  tape  measure, 
shall  be  logged  to  the  nearest  foot:  that  is 
to  say,  any  whale  between  75'  6"  and  76' 
6"  shall  be  logged  as  76',  and  any  whale 
between  76'  6r/  and  77'  6"  shall  be  logged 
as  77'.  The  measurement  of  any  whale 
which  falls  on  an  exact  half  foot  shall  be 
logged  at  the  next  half  foot,  e.g.  76'  6" 
precisely,  shall  be  logged  as  77'. 

10.  It  is  forbidden  to  use  a  land  sta- 
tion or  a  whale  catcher  attached  thereto 
for  the  purpose  of  taking  or  treating  baleen 
whales  in  any  area  or  in  any  waters  for 
more  than  six  months  in  any  period  of 
twelve  months,  such  period  of  six  months 
to  be  continuous. 

11.  It  is  forbidden  to  use  a  factory 
ship,  which  has  been  used  during  a  season 
in  any  waters  south  of  40°  South  Latitude 
for  the  purpose  of  treating  baleen  whales, 
in  any  other  area  for  the  same  purpose 
within  a  period  of  one  year  from  the  ter- 
mination of  that  season. 

12.  (a)  All  whales  taken  shall  be  de- 
livered to  the  factory  ship  or  land  station 
and  all   parts  of  such  whales  shall  be 
processed  by  boiling  or  otherwise,  except 
the  internal  organs,  whale  bone  and  flip- 
pers of  all  whales,  the  meat  of  sperm 
whales  and  of  parts  of  whales  intended  for 
human  food  or  feeding  animals. 

(b)  Complete  treatment  of  the  carcasses 
of  "Dauhval"  and  of  whales  used  as 
fenders  will  not  be  required  in  cases  where 
the  meat  or  bone  of  such  whales  is  in  bad 
condition. 

13.  The  taking  of  whales  for  delivery 
to  a  factory  ship  shall  be  so  regulated  or 
restricted  by  the  master  or  person  in 
charge  of  the  factory  ship  that  no  whale 
carcass  (except  of  a  whale  used  as  a  fend- 
er) shall  remain  in  the  sea  for  a  longer 
period  than  thirty-three  hours  from  the 
time  of  killing  to  the  time  when  it  is  taken 
up  on  to  the  deck  of  the  factory  ship  for 
treatment.    All  whale  catchers  engaged  in 
taking  whales  must  report  by  radio  to  the 


factory  ship  the  time  when  each  whale  is 
caught. 

14.  Gunners    and    crews   of  factory 
ships,  land  stations,  and  whale  catchers 
shall  be  engaged  on  such  terms  that  their 
remuneration  shall  depend  to  a  consider- 
able extent  upon  such  factors  as  the  spe- 
cies, size,  and  yield  of  whales  taken,  and 
not  merely  upon  the  number  of  the  whales 
taken.    No  bonus  or  other  remuneration 
shall  be  paid  to  the  gunners  or  crews  of 
whale  catchers  in  respect  of  the  taking  of 
milkfilled  or  lactating  whales. 

15.  Copies  of  all  official  laws  and  regu- 
lations relating  to  whales  and  whaling 
and  changes  in  such  laws  and  regulations 
shall  be  transmitted  to  the  Commission. 

1 6.  Notification    shall    be    given    in 
accordance  with  the  provisions  of  Article 
7  of  the  Convention  with  regard  to  all  fac- 
tory ships  and  land  stations  of  statistical 
information  (a)  concerning  the  number  of 
whales  of  each  species  taken,  the  number 
thereof  lost,  and  the  number  treated  at 
each  factory  ship  or  land  station,  and  (b) 
as  to  the  aggregate  amounts  of  oil  of  each 
grade  and  quantities  of  meal,  fertilizer 
(guano),  and  other  products  derived  from 
them,  together  with  (c)  particulars  with 
respect  to  each  whale  treated  in  the  fac- 
tory ship  or  land  station  as  to  the  date  and 
approximate  latitude  and   longitude  of 
taking,  the  species  and  sex  of  the  whale, 
its  length  and,  if  it  contains  a  foetus,  the 
length  and  sex,  if  ascertainable,  of  the 
foetus.    The  data  referred  to  in  (a)  and 
(c)  above  shall  be  verified  at  the  time  of 
the  tally  and  there  shall  also  be  notifica- 
tion to  the  Commission  of  any  informa- 
tion which  may  be  collected  or  obtained 
concerning  the  calving  grounds  and  mi- 
gration routes  of  whales. 

In    communicating    this    information 
there  shall  be  specified : 

(a)  the  name  and  gross  tonnage  of  each 
factory  ship; 

(b)  the  number  and  aggregate  gross 
tonnage  of  the  whale  catchers; 

(c)  a  list  of  the  land  stations  which 
were  in  operation  during  the  period  con- 
cerned. 

17.  Notwithstanding  the  definition  of 
land  station  contained  in  Article  2  of  the 
Convention,    a   factory    ship   operating 
under  the  jurisdiction  of  a  Contracting 
Government,    and    the    movements    of 
which  are  confined  solely  to  the  territorial 
waters  of  that  Government,  shall  be  sub- 
ject to  the  regulations  governing  the  op- 


I24 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  633 


eration  of  land  stations  within  the  follow- 
ing areas: 

(a)  on  the  coast  of  Madagascar  and  its 
dependencies,  and  on  the  west  coasts  of 
French  Africa; 

(b)  on  the  west  coast  of  Australia  in 
the  area  known  as  Shark  Bay  and  north- 
ward to  Northwest  Cape  and  including 
Exmouth  Gulf  and  King  George's  Sound, 
including  the  port  of  Albany;  and  on  the 
east  coast  of  Australia,  in  Twofold  Bay 
and  Jervis  Bay. 

18.  The  following  expressions  have  the 
meanings  respectively  assigned  to  them, 
that  is  to  say: 

"baleen  whale"  means  any  whale  other 
than  a  toothed  whale; 

"blue  whale"  means  any  whale  known 
by  the  name  of  blue  whale,  Sibbald's 
rorqual,  or  sulphur  bottom; 

"fin  whale"  means  any  whale  known 
by  the  name  of  common  finback,  common 
rorqual,  finback,  finner,  fin  whale,  herring 
whale,  razorback,  or  true  fin  whale; 

"sei  whale"  means  any  whale  known 
by  the  name  of  Balaenoptera  borealis,  sei 


whale,  Rudolphi's  rorqual,  pollack  whale, 
or  coalfish  whale,  ana  shall  be  taken  to 
include  Balaenoptera  brydei,  Bryde's  whale; 

"gray  whale"  means  any  whale  known 
by  the  name  of  gray  whale,  California 
gray,  devil  fish,  hard  head,  mussel  digger, 
gray  back,  rip  sack; 

"humpback  whale"  means  any  whale 
known  by  the  name  of  bunch,  hump- 
back, humpback  whale,  humpbacked 
whale,  hump  whale,  or  hunchbacked 
whale; 

"right  whale"  means  any  whale  known 
by  the  name  of  Atlantic  right  whale, 
Arctic  right  whale,  Biscayan  right  whale, 
bpwhead,  great  polar  whale,  Greenland 
right  whale,  Greenland  whale,  Nord- 
kaper,  North  Atlantic  right  whale,  North 
Cape  whale,  Pacific  right  whale,  pigmy 
right  whale,  Southern  pigmy  right  whale, 
or  Southern  right  whale; 

"sperm  whale"  means  any  whale 
known  by  the  name  of  sperm  whale,  sper- 
macet  whale,  cachalot,  or  pot  whale; 

"Dauhval"  means  any  Unclaimed  dead 
whale  found  floating. 


No.  633 

DECLARATION  concerning  the  Aims  and  Purposes  of  the  Interna- 
tional Labor  Organization.  Adopted  at  Philadelphia,  May  10,  1944. 

DECLARATION  concernant  les  buts  et  les  objectif  s  de  I'Organisation 
Internationale  du  Travail.  Adoptee  &  Philadelphie,  10  mai  1944. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Declaration,  adopted  by  the  International  Labor  Conference  at 
its  twenty-sixth  session,  reaffirmed  the  statement  of  "general  principles"  contained  in 
Article  41  (427)  of  the  Constitution  of  the  International  Labor  Organization  (No.  2,  ante). 
It  became  an  annex  to  the  Constitution  of  the  Organization  as  amended  by  the  instrument  of 
October  9,  1946  (No.  665a,  post), 

RATIFICATIONS.    This  Declaration  was  not  subject  to  ratification. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Declaration  is  also  published  in  26  International  Labour 
Office,  Official  Bulletin  (1944),  pp.  1-3;  10  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1944),  pp. 
482-83.  See  also  International  Labour  Conference,  Twenty-Sixth  Session,  Report  I: 
Future  Policy,  Programme  and  Status  of  the  International  Labour  Organisation  (Montreal, 

1944).  PP-  i-2ii  185-86; ,  Record  of  Proceedings  (Montreal,  1944),  pp.  I35t  187-88, 

3i5-i7f  350-51,  621-23;  98  Bundesblatt  der  schweizerischen  Eidgenossenschaft  (1946),  I,  pp. 
780-805. 

Anon.,  "The  Twenty-Sixth  Session  of  the  International  Labour  Conference,"  50  Int. 
Labour  Rev.  (1944),  pp.  i~39;  H.  W.  A.,  "The  International  Labour  Conference,"  21  Bulletin 
of  International  News  (i944)»  PP-  431-36;  M.  Blanco  Fasten,  La  26*  Conferenda  International 
del  Trabajo  (Santiago  de  Chile,  1945),  103  pp.;  A.  Demaison,  "La  XXVI  Conferencia  Inter- 
nacional  del  Trabajo,"  4  Revista  peruana  de  derecho  international  (1944),  pp.  50-56;  D.  T. 


May  10,  1944 


AIMS  AND  PURPOSES  OF  THE  ILO 


125 


Elorrieta  y  Artaza,  "La  Carta  del  Atlantico  y  la  Carta  de  Filadelfia,"  25  Boletin  minero  e 

industrial  (1946),  pp.  173-82; ,  La  Carta  del  Atlantico  y  la  Carta  de  Filadelfia  (Madrid, 

1945),  239  pp.;  C.  Goodrich,  "International  Labor  Conference  of  1944,"  58  Monthly  Labor 
Review  (1944),  PP-  49°~99I  C.  Goodrich  and  J.  Gambs,  "  Results  of  International  Labor 
Conference,  April-May  1944,"  59  idem  (1944),  pp.  1-12;  J.  Hal  Is  worth,  "I.  L.  O.  Confer- 
ence in  Philadelphia,"  2  Trade  Union  World  (1944),  pp.  2-5;  International  Labour  Office, 
11 A  New  Era"— The  Philadelphia  Conference  and  the  Future  of  the  I.  L.  0.  (Montreal,  1944), 
145  pp.;  O.  E.  Mulliken,  "The  International  Labor  Conference  at  Philadelphia,"  10  Depart- 
ment of  State  Bulletin  (1944).  PP-  316-25;  F.  Perkins,  "Twenty-Sixth  International  Labor 
Conference,"  n  idem  (1944),  PP-  258-62;  J.  R.  Pichetto,  "Normas  de  derecho  creadas  par 
la  Organizaci6n  International  del  Trabajo,"  8  Revista  argentina  de  derecho  internacional 
(1945),  pp.  131-55;  J.  Price,  "The  International  Labor  Organization,"  21  International 
Affairs  (1945),  pp.  30-39;  J.  E.  Sandoval,  Problemas  sociales  de  la  guerra  y  la  paz:  XXVI 
reunidn  de  la  Conferencia  Internacional  del  Trabajo  (La  Habana,  1944),  245  pp.;  J.  Secretan, 
"XXVIe  session  de  la  Conference  Internationale  du  Travail,"  22  Mitteilungen  der  schweizer- 
ischen  Vdlkerbundsvereinigung  (1944),  pp.  59-62;  S.  Simpson,  "Constitutional  Development 
of  the  I.  L.  O.  as  Affected  by  the  Recent  International  Labor  Conference,"  38  Am.  Pol.  Sci. 

Rev.  (1944),  pp.  719-25; ,  "International  Labor  Conference:  26th  Session,"  38  Am. 

Jour.  Int.  Law  (1944),  pp.  557-76;  F.  Yllanes  Ramos,  Comentario  sobre  la  XXVI  Confer- 
encia  de  la  Organizaci6n  Internacional  del  Trabajo  (Mexico,  1944),  225  pp. 

Entered  into  force  May  10, 1944. 

Text  supplied  by  the  International  Labor  Office. 


The  General  Conference  of  the 
International  Labour  Organisation, 
meeting  in  its  Twenty-sixth  Session 
in  Philadelphia,  hereby  adopts,  this 
tenth  day  of  May  in  the  year  nine- 
teen hundred  and  forty-four,  the 
present  Declaration  of  the  aims  and 
purposes  of  the  International  Labour 
Organisation  and  of  the  principles 
which  should  inspire  the  policy  of  its 
Members. 

I.  The  Conference  reaffirms  the 
fundamental  principles  on  which  the 
Organisation  is  based  and,  in  par- 
ticular, that: 

(a)  labour  is  not  a  commodity; 

(b)  freedom  of  expression  and  of 
association  are  essential  to  sustained 
progress; 

(c)  poverty  anywhere  constitutes 
a  danger  to  prosperity  everywhere; 

(d)  the  war  against  want  requires 
to  be  carried  on  with  unrelenting 
vigour  within  each  nation,  and  by 
continuous  and  concerted  interna- 
tional effort  in  which  the  representa- 


La  Conference  g6n£rale  de  1'Or- 
ganisation  Internationale  du  Travail, 
r6unie  £  Philadelphie  en  sa  vingt- 
six&me  session,  adopte,  ce  dixi&me 
jour  de  mai  1944,  la  pr6sente  D6cla- 
ration  des  buts  et  objectifs  de  1'Or- 
ganisation  Internationale  du  Travail, 
ainsi  que  des  principes  dont  devrait 
s'inspirer  la  politique  de  ses  Membres. 


I.  La  Conference  affirme  £  nou- 
veau  les  principes  fondamentaux 
sur  lesquels  est  fondle  1'Organisa- 
tion,  £  savoir  notamment: 

a)  le  travail  n'est  pas  une  mar- 
chandise; 

b)  la  libert£  d' expression  et  d' asso- 
ciation est  une  condition  indispen- 
sable d'un  progr&s  soutenu; 

c)  la  pauvret6,  oti  qu'elle  existe, 
constitue  un  danger  pour  la  prospfi- 
rit6  de  tous; 

d)  la  lutte  contre  le  besoin  doit  6tre 
menfee  avec  une  inlassable  6nergie 
au  sein  de  chaque  nation,  et  par 
un  effort  international  continu  et 
concerte  dans  lequel  les  repr&sentants 


126 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  633 


tives  of  workers  and  employers,  en- 
joying equal  status  with  those  of 
Governments,  join  with  them  in  free 
discussion  and  democratic  decision 
with  a  view  to  the  promotion  of  the 
common  welfare. 

II.  Believing  that  experience  has 
fully  demonstrated  the  truth  of  the 
statement  in  the  Constitution  of  the 
International  Labour  Organisation 
that  lasting  peace  can  be  established 
only  if  it  is  based  on  social  justice, 
the  Conference  affirms  that: 

(a)  all  human  beings,  irrespective 
of  race,  creed  or  sex,  have  the  right 
to  pursue  both  their  material  well- 
being  and  their  spiritual  develop- 
ment in  conditions  of  freedom  and 
dignity,  of  economic  security  and 
equal  opportunity; 

(fr)  the  attainment  of  the  condi- 
tions in  which  this  shall  be  possible 
must  constitute  the  central  aim  of 
national  and  international  policy; 

(c)  all  national  and  international 
policies  and  measures,  in  particular 
those  of  an  economic  and  financial 
character,  should  be  judged  in  this 
light  and  accepted  only  in  so  far  as 
they  may  be  held  to  promote  and 
not  to  hinder  the  achievement  of  this 
fundamental  objective; 


(d)  it  is  a  responsibility  of  the 
International   Labour  Organisation 
to  examine  and  consider  all  inter- 
national economic  and  financial  pol- 
icies and  measures  in  the  light  of  this 
fundamental  objective; 

(e)  in  discharging  the  tasks  en- 
trusted to  it  the  International  La- 
bour Organisation,  having  considered 
all  relevant  economic  and  financial 
factors,  may  include  in  its  decisions 
and  recommendations  any  provisions 
which  it  considers  appropriate. 

III.    The  Conference  recognises 
the  solemn  obligation  of  the  Inter- 


des  travailleurs  et  des  employeurs, 
coop£rant  sur  un  pied  d'6galit&  avec 
ceux  des  gouvernements,  participent 
£  de  libres  discussions  et  £  des  d£- 
cisions  de  caractfere  d^mocratique  en 
vue  de  promouvoir  le  bien  commun. 

II.  Convaincue  que  I'exp6rience 
a  pleinement  d<6montr£  le  bien-fonde 
de  la  declaration  contenue  dans  la 
Constitution  de  1'Organisation  Inter- 
nationale du  Travail,  et  d'apr&s  la- 
quelle  une  paix  durable  ne  peut  £tre 
etablie  que  sur  la  base  de  la  justice 
sociale,  la  Conference  affirme  que: 

a)  tpus  les  etres  humains,  quels 
que  soient  leur  race,  leur  croyance  ou 
leur  sexe,  ont  le  droit  de  poursuivre 
leur  progr&s  materiel  et  leur  develop- 
pement  spirituel  dans  la  liberte  et  la 
dignit6,  dans  la  s£curit£  £conomique 
et  avec  des  chances  egales; 

b)  la    realisation    des    conditions 
permettant  d'aboutir  £  ce  r6sultat 
doit   constituer   le   but   central   de 
toute  politique  nationale  et  inter- 
nationale; 

c)  tous  les  programmes  d 'action  et 
mesures  prises  sur  le  plan  national 
et  international,  notamment  dans  le 
domaine   6conomique    et    financier, 
doivent  Stre  appr6ci6s  de  ce  point  de 
vue  et  accept6s  seulement  dans  la 
mesure  oil  ils  apparaissent  de  nature 
£  favoriser,  et  non  £  entraver,  Tac- 
complissement  de  cet  objectif  fonda- 
mental; 

d)  il  incombe  £  1'Organisation  in- 
ternationale  du  Travail  d'examiner 
et  de  considerer  &  la  lumifere  de  cet 
objectif   fondamental,   dans  le  do- 
maine international,   tous  les  pro- 
grammes d'action  et  mesures  d'ordre 
6conomique  et  financier; 

e)  en  s'acquittant  des  tSches  qui 
lui  sont  confines,  TOrganisation  inter- 
national  du   Travail,   aprfes   avoir 
tenu  compte  de  tous  les  facteurs 
6conomiques  et  financiers  pertinents, 
a  quality  pour  inclure  dans  ses  de- 
cisions et  recommendations  toutes 
dispositions  qu'elle  juge  approprtees. 

III.  La  Conference  reconnatt  To- 
bligation  solennelle  pour  1'Organisa- 


May  10,  1944 


AIMS  AND  PURPOSES  OF  THE  ILO 


127 


national  Labour  Organisation  to 
further  among  the  nations  of  the 
world  programmes  which  will  achieve : 

(a)  full  employment  and  the  rais- 
ing of  standards  of  living; 

(ft)  the  employment  of  workers  in 
the  occupations  in  which  they  can 
have  the  satisfaction  of  giving  the 
fullest  measure  of  their  skill  and  at- 
tainments and  make  their  greatest 
contribution  to  the  common  well- 
being; 

(c)  the  provision,  as  a  means  to 
the  attainment  of  this  end  and  under 
adequate    guarantees    for    all    con- 
cerned, of  facilities  for  training  and 
the  transfer  of  labour,  including  mi- 
gration for  employment  and  settle- 
ment; 

(d)  policies  in  regard  to  wages  and 
earnings,  hours  and  other  conditions 
of  work  calculated  to  ensure  a  just 
share  of  the  fruits  of  progress  to  all, 
and  a  minimum  living  wage  to  all 
employed  and  in  need  of  such  pro- 
tection ; 

(e)  the  effective  recognition  of  the 
right  of  collective  bargaining,  the  co- 
operation of  management  and  labour 
in  the  continuous  improvement  of 
productive  efficiency,  and  the  col- 
laboration of  workers  and  employers 
in  the  preparation  and  application  of 
social  and  economic  measures; 

(/)  the  extension  of  social  security 
measures  to  provide  a  basic  income 
to  all  in  need  of  such  protection  and 
comprehensive  medical  care; 


(g)  adequate  protection  for  the 
life  and  health  of  workers  in  all 
occupations; 

(h)  provision  for  child  welfare  and 
maternity  protection; 

(*)  the  provision  of  adequate  nu- 
trition, housing  and  facilities  for 
recreation  and  culture; 

0)  the  assurance  of  equality  of 


tion  Internationale  du  Travail  de 
seconder  la  mise  en  ceuvre,  parmi  les 
diff6rentes  nations  du  monde,  de  pro- 
grammes propres  a  r6aliser: 

a)  la  plenitude  de  1'emploi  et  T616- 
vation  des  niveaux  de  vie; 

b)  1'emploi  des  travailleurs  £  des 
occupations  oft  ils  aient  la  satisfac- 
tion de  donner  toute  la  mesure  de 
leur  habilete  et  de  leurs  connais- 
sances  et  de  contribuer  le  mieux  au 
bien-6tre  commun; 

c)  pour  atteindre  ce  but,  la  mise 
en    ceuvre,     moyennant    garanties 
ad£quates  pour  tous  les  int£ress£s,  de 
possibility  de  formation  et  de  moy- 
ens  propres  a  faciliter  les  transferts 
de  travailleurs,  y  compris  les  mi- 
grations  de    main   d'ceuvre   et   de 
colons; 

d)  la  possibility  pour  tous  d'une 
participation  6qui table  aux  fruits  du 
progr&s  en  mati&re  de  salaires  et  de 
gains,  de  dur6e  du  travail  et  autres 
conditions  de  travail,  et  un  salaire 
minimum  vital  pour  tous  ceux  qui 
ont  un  emploi  et  ont  besoin  d'une 
telle  protection; 

e)  reconnaissance  effective  du  droit 
de  n6gociation  collective  et  la  coop£- 
ration  des  employeurs  et  de  la  main 
d'oeuvre    pour    I'am61ioration    con- 
tinue de  1'organisation  de  la  produc- 
tion, ainsi  que  la  collaboration  des 
travailleurs    et    des    employeurs    a 
l'£laboration  et  a  1'application  de  la 
politique  sociale  et  £conomique; 

/)  1'extension  des  mesures  de  s£cu- 
rit6  sociale  en  vue  d 'assurer  un 
revenu  de  base  a  tous  ceux  qui 
ont  besoin  d'une  telle  protection, 
ainsi  que  des  soins  m£dicaux  com- 
plets; 

g)  une  protection  adequate  de  la 
vie  et  de  la  sant£  des  travailleurs 
dans  toutes  les  occupations; 

h)  la  protection  de  1'enfance  et  de 
la  maternite ; 

*)  un  niveau  ad6quat  d 'alimenta- 
tion, de  logement,  et  de  moyens  de 
r6cr6ation  et  de  culture; 

j)  la  garantie  de  chances  £gales 


128 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  633 


educational  and  vocational  oppor- 
tunity. 

IV.  Confident  that  the  fuller  and 
broader  utilisation  of  the  world's 
productive  resources  necessary  for 
the  achievement  of  the  objectives 
set  forth  in  this  Declaration  can  be 
secured  by  effective  international 
and  national  action,  including  meas- 
ures to  expand  production  and  con- 
sumption, to  avoid  severe  economic 
fluctuations,  to  promote  the  eco- 
nomic and  social  advancement  of  the 
less  developed  regions  of  the  world, 
to  assure  greater  stability  in  world 
prices  of  primary  products,  and  to 
promote  a  high  and  steady  volume 
of  international  trade,  the  Confer- 
ence pledges  the  full  co-operation  of 
the  International  Labour  Organisa- 
tion with  such  international  bodies 
as  may  be  entrusted  with  a  share  of 
the  responsibility  for  this  great  task 
and  for  the  promotion  of  the  health, 
education  and  well-being  of  all 
peoples. 


V.  The  Conference  affirms  that 
the  principles  set  forth  in  this  Decla- 
ration are  fully  applicable  to  all  peo- 
ples everywhere  and  that,  while  the 
manner  of  their  application  must  be 
determined  with  due  regard  to  the 
stage  of  social  and  economic  develop- 
ment reached  by  each  people,  their 
progressive  application  to  peoples 
who  are  still  dependent,  as  well  as  to 
those  who  have  already  achieved 
self-government,  is  a  matter  of  con- 
cern to  the  whole  civilised  world. 

The  foregoing  is  the  authentic  text 
of  the  Declaration  concerning  the 
aims  and  purposes  of  the  Interna- 
tional Labour  Organisation  unani- 
mously adopted  by  the  General  Con- 
ference of  the  International  Labour 
Organisation  at  Philadelphia  during 
its  Twenty-sixth  Session,  on  10  May 
1944. 


dans  le  domaine  educatif  et  profes- 
sion n  el. 

IV.  Convaincue  qu'une  utilisa- 
tion plus  complete  et  plus  large  des 
ressources   productives   du   monde, 
necessaire  a  1'accomplissement  des 
objectifs  enumeres  dams  la  prfisente 
Declaration,  peut  6tre  assume  par 
une  action  efficace  sur  le  plan  inter- 
national et  national,  et  notamment 
par  des  mesures  tendant  £  promou- 
voir  1' expansion  de  la  production  et 
de  la  cpnsommation,  £  eviter  des 
fluctuations  6conomiques  graves,  £ 
r6aliser  Tavancement  6conomique  et 
social  des  regions  dont  la  mise  en 
valeur  est  peu  avancee,  £  assurer  une 
plus  grande  stabilite  des  prix  mon- 
diaux    des    matiferes    premieres    et 
denies,  et  a  promouvoir  un  com- 
merce international  de  volume  61ev6 
et  constant,  la  Conference  promet 
Tentifere  collaboration  de  1'Organisa- 
tion  international  du  Travail  avec 
tous  organismes  internationaux  aux- 
quels  pourra  Stre  confine  une  part  de 
responsibility    dans    cette    grande 
t&che,  ainsi  que  dans  Amelioration 
de  la  sant6,  de  1'education  et  du  bien- 
Stre  de  tous  les  peuples. 

V.  La  Conference  affirme  que  les 
principes  £nonc£s  dans  la  pr6sente 
Declaration  sont  pleinement  appli- 
cables  £  tous  les  peuples  du  monde, 
et  que,  si,  dans  les  modalit£s  de  leur 
application,  il  doit  6tre  dflment  tenu 
compte  du  degre  de  dfrveloppement 
social    et    6conomique    de    chaque 
peuple,  leur  application  progressive 
aux  peuples  qui  sont  encore  depen- 
dants, aussi  bien  qu'a  ceux  qui  ont 
atteint  le  stade  oft  ils  se  gouvernent 
eux-mfimes,  int£resse  1'ensemble  du 
monde  civilise. 

Ce  qui  precede  est  le  texte  authen- 
tique  de  la  Declaration  concernant 
les  buts  et  objectifs  de  TOrganisation 
Internationale  du  Travail,  adoptee  a 
1'unanimite  par  la  Conference  inter- 
national du  Travail  i  Philadelphie 
au  cours  de  sa  vingt-sixidme  session, 
le  10  mai  1944. 


Aug.  5,  1944  CONTROL  OF  MERCHANT  SHIPPING  129 

IN  FAITH  WHEREOF  we  have  ap-  EN  FOI  DE  QUOI  ont  appos6  leurs 
pended  our  signatures,  this  seven-  signatures,  ce  dix-septteme  jour  de 
teenth  day  of  May  1944.  mai  1944. 

The  President  of  the  Conference,  W.  NASH. 
The  Acting  Director  of  the  International  Labour  Office,  EDWARD  J.  PHELAN. 


No.  634 

AGREEMENT  on  the  Continuance  of  Co-ordinated  Control  of 
Merchant  Shipping.    Signed  at  London,  August  5,  1944. 

ACCORD  sur  la  continuation  de  la  controle  coordonnee  de  la  marine 
marchande.    Sign£  a  Londres,  5  aofit  1944. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Agreement,  drafted  at  the  Inter-Allied  Shipping  Conference  held 
in  London,  July  i^-August  5,  1944,  became  of  more  than  temporary  significance  by  reason 
of  its  influence  on  subsequent  developments.  The  United  Maritime  Executive  Board, 
referred  to  in  paragraph  I  (b)  of  the  Annex,  held  its  first  session  at  Washington,  November 
20-24,  X944t  at  its  fourth  and  final  session  in  London,  February  4-12,  1946,  it  recommended 
a  transitional  arrangement  which  was  in  force  from  March  3,  1946,  to  October  31,  1946. 
U.S.  Treaties  and  Other  International  Acts  Series,  No.  1723.  The  United  Maritime  Con- 
sultative Council  established  under  this  arrangement  was  succeeded  by  a  Provisional  Mari- 
time Consultative  Council  created  by  the  agreement  of  October  30,  1946  (No.  6343,  post). 
The  United  Nations  Maritime  Conference,  held  at  Geneva,  February  19-March  6,  1948, 
adopted  a  convention  creating  the  Intergovernmental  Maritime  Consultative  Organization. 
Br.  Parl.  Papers,  Misc.  No.  6  (1948),  Cmd.  7412. 

RATIFICATIONS.  This  Agreement  was  not  subject  to  ratification.  On  March  2,  1946, 
it  had  been  acceded  to  by  Australia,  Belgium,  Brazil,  Canada,  Chile,  Denmark,  France, 
Great  Britain,  Greece,  India,  Netherlands,  New  Zealand,  Norway,  Poland,  South  Africa, 
Sweden,  the  United  States  of  America,  and  Yugoslavia. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Agreement  was  also  published  in  U.S.  Treaties  and 
Other  International  Acts  Series,  No.  1722;  Canada,  Treaty  Series,  1944,  No.  28. 

J.  C.  Maclay,  "The  General  Shipping  Situation,"  22  International  Affairs  (1946),  pp. 
488-500;  O.  Mance  and  J.  £.  Wheeler,  International  Sea  Transport  (London,  1945),  pp.  146- 
48;  D.  Marx,  Jr.,  "International  Organization  of  Shipping,"  55  Yale  Law  Journal  (1946), 
pp.  1214-32;  C.  Parry,  "The  United  Maritime  Authority,"  23  British  Year  Book  of  Inter- 
national Law  (1946),  pp.  491-95. 

Entered  into  force  August  5,  i044*& 
Text  from  Br.  Parl.  Papers,  Misc.  No.  3  (1944),  Cmd.  6556. 

The  undersigned  representatives,  declare  that  they  accept  as  a  com- 
duly  authorised  by  their  respective  mon  responsibility  the  provision  of 

Governments  or  Authorities,  herein-  shipping  for  all  military  and  other 

after  referred  to  as  contracting  Gov-  tasks  necessary  for,  and  arising  out 

ernments,  have  agreed  as  follows:  of,  the  completion  of  the  war  in  Eu- 

i.  The  contracting  Governments  rope  and  the  Far  East  and  for  the  sup- 
1  Terminated  March  2,  1946. 


130 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  634 


plying  of  all  the  liberated  areas  as  well 
as  of  the  United  Nations  generally 
and  territories  under  their  authority. 

2.  The  contracting  Governments 
undertake  to  continue  to  maintain 
such  powers  of  control  over  all  ships 
which  are  registered  in  their  terri- 
tories or  are  otherwise  under  their 
authority  as  will  enable  them  effec- 
tively to  direct  each  ship's  employ- 
ment in  accordance  with  the  fore- 
going declaration.    Subject  to  the 
provisions  of  paragraphs  3  and  9, 
this  control  shall  continue  to  be  exer- 
cised by  each  contracting  Govern- 
ment   through    the   mechanism    of 
requisitioning  for  use  or  title. 

3.  The  contracting  Governments 
agree  not  to  release  from  control  any 
ships  under  their  authority  or  per- 
mit them  to  be  employed  in  any  non- 
essential  services  or  for  any  non- 
essential  car^o  unless  the  total  over- 
all tonnage  is  in  excess  of  the  total 
overall  requirements,  and  then  only 
in  accordance  with  a  mutually  ac- 
ceptable formula  which  shall  not  dis- 
criminate  against    the   commercial 
shipping  interests  of  any  nation  and 
shall  extend  to  all  contracting  Gov- 
ernments an  equitable  opportunity 
for  their  respective  tonnages  to  en- 
gage in  commercial  trades. 

4.  Neutral   Governments   having 
ships  under  their  control  in  excess  of 
the  tonnage  required   to  carry  on 
their  essential  import  requirements 
shall  be  invited  to  subscribe  to  obli- 
gations in  respect  of  all  their  ships 
which  shall  ensure  that  their  employ- 
ment is  in  conformity  with  the  general 
purposes  of  the  United  Nations. 

5.  The  contracting  Governments 
undertake  to  exercise  control  over 
the  facilities  for  shipping  available 
in  their  territories,  by  suitable  meas- 
ures on  the  lines  of  the  United  States 
and  British  Ship  Warrant  Schemes, 
and  to  take  such  other  measures  as 
may  be  necessary  to  secure  that  ships 
under  all  flags  are  used  in  conformity 
with  the  purposes  of  the  United  Na- 
tions.   Other  Governments  acceding 


hereto  shall  give  a  similar  under- 
taking. 

6.  Without  prejudice  to  ques- 
tions of  disposition  or  title,  the  em- 
ployment of  such  ships  as  may  at 
any  time  be  permitted  to  operate 
under  enemy  nag  or  authority  shall 
be  determined  to  serve  the  require- 
ments of  the  United  Nations. 

7. — (a)  In  order  that  the  alloca- 
tion of  all  ships  under  United  Na- 
tions control  may  continue  to  be 
effectively  determined  to  meet  the 
requirements  of  the  United  Nations, 
a  central  authority  shall  be  estab- 
lished, to  come  into  operation  upon 
the  general  suspension  of  hostilities 
with  Germany.  The  central  author- 
ity shall  be  organised  in  accordance 
with  the  plan  agreed  in  the  Annex. 

(&)  The  central  authority  shall 
determine  the  employment  of  ships 
for  the  purpose  of  giving  effect  to 
the  responsibilities  assumed  by  each 
contracting  Government  in  para- 
graph I  to  provide  the  tonnage  re- 
quired from  time  to  time  to  meet 
current  requirements  for  ships  for 
the  military  and  other  purposes  of 
the  United  Nations,  and  ships  shall 
be  allocated  for  those  purposes  by 
those  Governments  in  accordance 
with  the  decisions  of  the  central 
authority.  So  far  as  is  consistent 
with  the  efficient  overall  use  of  ship- 
ping as  determined  by  the  central 
authority  for  those  purposes,  and 
with  the  provisions  of  paragraph  7 
(c),  each  contracting  Government 
may  allocate  ships  under  its  own 
authority,  wholly  or  partly  to  cover 
the  essential  import  requirements  of 
territories  for  which  it  has  special 
shipping  responsibilities. 

(c)  In  general,  ships  under  the 
flag  of  one  of  the  contracting  Gov- 
ernments shall  be  under  the  control 
of  the  Government  of  that  flag,  or 
the  Government  to  which  they  have 
been  chartered. 

In  order  to  meet  the  special  case  of 
military  requirements  those  ships 
which  have  been  taken  up,  under 


Aug.  5,  1944 


CONTROL  OF  MERCHANT  SHIPPING 


agreements  made  by  the  United 
States  Government  and/or  United 
Kingdom  Government  with  the 
other  Governments  having  authority 
for  those  ships,  for  use  as  troopships, 
hospital  ships,  and  for  other  purposes 
in  the  service  of  the  armed  forces, 
shall  remain  on  charter  as  at  present 
to  the  War  Shipping  Administration 
and/or  the  Ministry  of  War  Trans- 
port as  the  case  may  be,  under  ar- 
rangements to  be  agreed  between  the 
Governments  severally  concerned. 
(Any  further  ships  required  for  such 
purposes  shall  be  dealt  with  in  a  like 
manner.) 

The  fact  that  these  ships  are  as- 
signed to  military  requirements  shall 
not  prejudice  the  right  of  the  Gov- 
ernments concerned  to  discuss  with 
the  central  authority  the  measures 
to  be  taken  to  provide  shipping  for 
their  essential  requirements  within 
the  scope  of  paragraph  I. 

(d)  The  contracting  Governments 
shall  supply  to  one  another,  through 
the  central  authority,  all  information 
necessary  to  the  effective  working  of 
the  arrangements,  e.g.,  regarding  pro- 
grammes, employment  of  tonnage, 
and  projected  programmes,  subject  to 
the  requirement  of  military  secrecy. 

(e)  The    central    authority    shall 
also  initiate  the  action  to  be  taken  to 
give  effect  to  paragraph  5  and  shall 
direct  action  under  paragraph  6. 

(/)  The  terms  of  remuneration  to 
be  paid  by  the  users  (Government  or 
private)  of  ships  shall  be  determined 
by  the  central  authority  on  a  fair 
and  reasonable  basis  in  such  manner 
as  to  give  effect  to  the  following  two 
basic  principles: 

(i)  Ships  of  all  flags  performing 


the  same  or  similar  services  should 
charge  the  same  freights. 

(ii)  Ships  must  be  employed  as  re- 
quired without  regard  to  financial 
considerations. 

8.  The   principles   herein   agreed 
shall  apply  to  all  types  of  merchant 
ships,  irrespective  of  size,  including 
passenger  ships,  tankers  and  whale 
factories  when  not  used  for  whaling 
(but  paragraph  7  (ft)  will  not  be  ap- 
plicable to  ships  engaged  in  coastal 
trades    and    short    trades    between 
nearby  countries,  the  arrangements 
for  control  of  which  shall  be  appro- 
priate to  meet  the  requirements  pre- 
vailing in  each  particular  area). 

The  principles  shall  also  be  applied 
to  the  extent  necessary,  through  suit- 
able machinery,  to  fishing  vessels, 
whale  catchers,  and  other  similar 
craft  in  those  areas  where  special 
measures  in  respect  of  such  craft  are 
agreed  to  be  necessary.  A  special 
authority  shall  be  set  up  capable  of 
apportioning  between  naval  and 
commercial  services  such  craft  as  are 
available  in  those  areas. 

9.  The  foregoing  principles  shall 
take  effect  on  the  coming  into  opera- 
tion of  the  central  authority,  and 
shall  remain  in  effect  for  a  period  not 
extending  beyond  six  months  after 
the  general  suspension  of  hostilities 
in  Europe  or  the  Far  East,  which- 
ever may  be  the  later,  unless  it  is 
unanimously  agreed  among  the  Gov- 
ernments represented  on  the  duly 
authorised    body    of    the    central 
authority   that  any  or  all   of   the 
agreed  principles  may  be  terminated 
or  modified  earlier. 

DONE  in  London  on  the  5th  day  of 
August,  1944. 


[Signed:]  For  the  Government  of  Belgium:  A.  BALTHAZAR;  for  the  Gov- 
ernment of  Canada:  VINCENT  MASSEY,  A.  L.  MACCALLUM;  for  the  Royal 
Hellenic  Government:  G.  VASSILIADIS;  for  the  Government  of  the  Nether- 
lands: J.  M.  DE  BOOY;  for  the  Government  of  Norway:  ARNE  SUNDE;  for 
the  Government  of  the  Republic  of  Poland:  J.  KWAPINSKI;  for  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ireland: 
LEATHERS;  for  the  Government  of  the  United  States  of  America:  PHILIP  D. 
REED,  HUNTINGTON  T.  MORSE,  WALTER  A.  RADIUS,  JOHN  M.  ALLISON. 


132 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  634 


ANNEX 

ORGANISATION  OF  THE  CENTRAL 
AUTHORITY 

1.  The  central  authority  shall  consist 
of— 

(a)  A  Council  (United  Maritime  Coun- 
cil). 

(b)  An  Executive  Board  (United  Mari- 
time Executive  Board). 

(a)  The  United  Maritime  Council 

2.  Each  contracting  Government  shall 
be  represented  on  the  Council.    Member- 
ship of  the  Council  shall  also  be  open  to 
all  other  Governments,  whether  of  the 
United  Nations  or  of  neutral  countries, 
which  desire  to  accede  and  are  prepared 
to  accept  the  obligations  of  contracting 
Governments. 

3.  The  Council  shall  meet  when  deemed 
necessary  and  at  least  twice  a  year  at  such 
places  as  may  be  convenient.    Meetings 
shall  be  arranged  by  the  Executive  Board. 
The  Council  shall  elect  its  own  Chairman 
and  determine  its  own  procedure.    The 
meetings  of  the  Council  are  intended  to 
provide  the  opportunity  for  informing  the 
contracting  Governments  as  to  the  over- 
all shipping  situation  and  to  make  possible 
the  interchange  of  views  between  the 
contracting    Governments    on    general 
questions  of  policy  arising  out  of  the  work- 
ing of  the  Executive  Board. 

(b)  The  United  Maritime  Executive  Board 

4.  The  Executive  Board  shall  be  estab- 
lished with  Branches  in  Washington  and 
London  under  War  Shipping  Administra- 
tion and  Ministry  of  War  Transport  chair- 
manship respectively. 

5.  The  Executive  Board  shall  exercise 
through  its  Branches  the  executive  func- 
tions of  the  central  authority.    Appropri- 
ate machinery  under  the  two  Branches 
shall  be  established  for  the  purpose  of 
enabling  them  to  discharge  the  functions 
described  in  paragraph  7  of  the  Agree- 
ment on  Principles.    Machinery  to  carry 
out  the  arrangements  under  paragraph  8 
of  that  Agreement  as  regards  ships  en- 
gaged in  coasting  and  short  sea  trades,  and 
as  regards  small  craft  shall  be  set  up  under 
the  Executive  Board. 

^  6.  The  division  of  day-to-day  responsi- 
bility between  the  two  Branches  of  the 
Executive  Board  shall  be  established  as 
convenient  from  time  to  time.  So  that 


the  two  Branches  of  the  Executive  Board 
may  work  in  unison,  meetings  of  the  Ex- 
ecutive Board  as  a  whole  shall  be  arranged 
at  the  instance  of  the  two  chairmen,  as 
often  as  may  be  necessary,  and  at  such 
place  as  may  be  convenient  from  time  to 
time. 

7.  The  membership  of  the  Executive 
Board  shall  be  restricted  in  numbers.    By 
reason  of  their  large  experience  in  ship- 
ping normally  engaged  in  international 
trade,  and  their  large  contribution  of  ships 
for  the  common  purpose,  the  following 
Governments  shall  be  represented  on  the 
Executive  Board: 

Government  of  the  United  Kingdom 
of  Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ire- 
land; 
Government  of  the  United  States  of 

America; 

Government  of  the  Netherlands; 
Government  of  Norway. 
It  shall  be  open  to  the  members  of  the 
Executive  Board  to  recommend  to  con- 
tracting Governments  additions  to  the 
membership  of  the  Executive  Board  as 
circumstances  may  require  in  order  to 
promote   the   effective  working  of   the 
central  authority. 

8.  Each  contracting  Government  not 
represented  on  the  Executive  Board  shall 
be  represented  by  an  associate  member 
who  shall  be  consulted  by,  and  entitled  to 
attend  meetings  of,  the  Executive  Board 
or  its  Branches  on  matters  affecting  ships 
under  the  authority  of  that  Government, 
or  on  matters  affecting  the  supply  of  ships 
for  the  territories  under  the  authority  of 
that  Government. 

9.  The  Executive  Board  and  its  Branches 
shall  proceed  by  agreement  among  the 
members.    There  shall  be  no  voting. 

10.  The   decisions   of   the    Executive 
Board  affecting  the  ships  under  the  au- 
thority of  any  contracting  Government 
shall  be  reached  with  the  consent  of  that 
Government,  acting  through  its  represent- 
ative on  the  Executive  Board  or  through 
its  associate  member,  as  the  case  may  be. 

11.  The  Executive  Board  shall  be  the 
duly  authorised  body  for  the  purpose  of 
paragraph  9  of  the  Agreement  on  Princi- 
ples, but  it  is  understood  that  no  decision 
reached  under  that  paragraph  by  the 
Governments  represented  on  the  Execu- 
tive Board  shall  impose  any  new  or  greater 
obligation  on  any  other  contracting  Gov- 
ernment without  its  express  consent. 

12.  A  Planning  Committee  shall  be 


Oct.  30,  1946     PROVISIONAL  MARITIME  CONSULTATIVE  COUNCIL 


133 


set  up  to  begin  work  in  London  as  soon  as 
possible  after  the  signature  of  the  Agree- 
ment on  Principles  for  the  purpose  of 
working  out  on  a  basis  satisfactory  to  the 
contracting  Governments  the  details  of 
the  machinery  required  to  enable  the 
Executive  Board  to  discharge  its  func- 
tions, including  the  functions  under  para- 
graph 7  (/).  Any  contracting  Govern- 
ment may  be  represented  on  the  Planning 
Committee. 

13.  The  Executive  Board  shall  have  the 
full  use  of  the  machinery  and  procedure 
of  the  War  Shipping  Administration  and 
Ministry  of  War  Transport  in  order  to 
avoid  duplication. 


14.  The  contracting  Governments  shall 
nominate  their  representatives  on  the 
Planning  Committee  to  the  Governments 
of  the  United  States  and  the  United  King- 
dom, as  soon  as  practicable.  They  shall 
also  so  nominate  their  representatives  as 
members  or  as  associate  members  of  the 
Executive  Board  as  the  case  may  be. 
The  Governments  of  the  United  States 
and  the  United  Kingdom  ^shall  be  re- 
sponsible, in  consultation  with  the  other 
contracting  Governments  concerned,  for 
determining  the  date  of  coming  into  op- 
eration of  the  central  authority  in  accord- 
ance with  paragraph  7  (a)  of  the  Agree- 
ment on  Principles. 


No.  634a 

Agreement  for  the  Establishment  of  a  Provisional  Maritime  Con- 
sultative Council.    Adopted  at  Washington,  October  30,  1946. 

Accord  relatif  &  la  creation  (Pun  Conseil  consultatif  provisoire  de  la 
navigation  maritime.    Adopte  &  Washington,  30  octobre  1946. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Agreement  was  adopted  at  the  second  session  of  the  United  Mari- 
time Consultative  Council,  established  by  an  arrangement  of  February  12,  1946.  U.S. 
Treaties  and  Other  International  Acts  Series ;  No.  1723.  The  first  meeting  of  the  Provisional 
Council  was  held  at  Paris,  May  16-19,  1947. 

ACCEPTANCES.  On  January  I,  1948,  this  Agreement  had  been  accepted  by  Australia, 
Belgium,  Brazil,  Canada,  Chile,  Denmark,  France,  Great  Britain,  Greece,  India,  Nether- 
lands, New  Zealand,  Norway,  Poland,  and  the  United  States  of  America. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  the  Agreement  is  also  published  in  n  U.N.  Treaty  Series, 
p.  107;  British  Treaty  Series,  No.  36  (1947),  Cmd.  7137. 

Entered  into  force  April  23,  1047. J 
Text  from  U.S.  Treaties  and  Other  International  Acts  Series ,  No.  1724. 


ARTICLE  i. — Scope  and  Purposes 

The  Provisional  Maritime  Con- 
sultative Council  shall  be  established 
as  a  temporary  organization  pending 
the  establishment  of  a  permanent 
inter-governmental  agency  in  the 
maritime  field. 

i.  to  provide  machinery  for  co- 
operation among  Governments  in 
the  field  of  Governmental  regulation 


and  practices  relating  to  technical 
matters  of  all  kinds  affecting  ship- 
ping engaged  in  international  trade, 
and  to  encourage  the  general  adop- 
tion of  the  highest  practicable  stand- 
ards in  matters  concerning  maritime 
safety  and  efficiency  of  navigation; 

ii.  to  encourage  the  removal  of  all 
forms  of  discriminatory  action  and 
unnecessary  restrictions  by  Govern- 


1  Registered  with  the  Secretariat  of  the  United  Nations,  No.  151,  November  26,  1947. 


134 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  634a 


ments  affecting  shipping  engaged  in 
international  trade  so  as  to  promote 
the  availability  of  shipping  services 
to  the  commerce  of  the  world  with- 
out discrimination ; 

iii.  to  provide  for  the  considera- 
tion by  the  Council  of  any  shipping 
problems  of  an  international  charac- 
ter involving  matters  of  general  prin- 
ciple that  may  be  referred  to  the 
Council  by  the  United  Nations. 
Matters  which  are  suitable  for  set- 
tlement through  the  normal  processes 
of  international  shipping  business 
are  not  within  the  scope  of  the 
Council. 

iv.  to  provide  for  the  exchange  of 
information  among  Governments  on 
matters  under  consideration  by  the 
Council. 

ARTICLE  2. — Functions 

The  functions  of  the  Provisional 
Maritime  Consultative  Council, 
which  shall  be  consultative  and  ad- 
visory, shall  be 

(a)  To  consider  and  make  recom- 
mendations on  any  matter  within  its 
scope  as  set  forth  in  Sections  (i)  and 
(ii)  of  Article  i. 

(ft)  To  consider  and  make  recom- 
mendations on  matters  within  its 
scope  upon  the  request  of  any  organ 
of  the  United  Nations  or  other  inter- 
governmental specialized  agency. 

(c)  To  advise  on  matters  relating 
to  the  draft  constitution  for  a  per- 
manent inter-governmental  mari- 
time organization. 

ARTICLE  3. — Membership 

Membership  in  the  Council  shall 
consist  of  those  governments  which 
notify  the  Government  of  the  United 
Kingdom  of  their  acceptance  of  this 
Agreement,  being  either  govern- 
ments members  of  the  UMCC  or 
governments  members  of  the  United 
Nations. 

ARTICLE  4. — Organization 

(i)  The  Council  shall  consist  of 
all  Member  Governments. 


(2)  The   Council    may   elect   an 
Executive  Committee  consisting  of 
twelve  member  governments  which 
shall  exercise  such  functions  as  may 
be  delegated  to  it  by  the  Council. 
The  Executive  Committee  shall  not 
be  established  by  the  Council  until 
at  least  twenty  governments  have 
accepted  this  agreement. 

(3)  The  Council  shall  at  each  ses- 
sion determine  the  host  Government 
and  the  time  for  its  next  meeting. 
Upon  the  request  of  not  less  than 
four  of  the  members  the  Chairman 
shall  summon   the  Council  for  an 
earlier  date.     The  Government  of 
shall  convene  the  first  meet- 
ing of  the  Council  at  any  time  after 
March  i,  1947. 

(4)  The    host    Government    ar- 
ranged for  each  session  shall  desig- 
nate a   Chairman   who   shall   hold 
office  until  the  host  Government  for 
the  next  following  session  has  been 
decided,  and  shall  provide  the  neces- 
sary secretariat  for  meetings  held 
within  its  territory. 

(5)  Decisions  of  the  Council  shall 
be  taken   by  a  majority  of  those 
present  and  voting.     Ten  Members 
shall    constitute    a    quorum.     The 
Council   shall   otherwise   determine 
its  own  rules  of  procedure. 

ARTICLE  5. — Entry  into  Force 

(1)  This  agreement  shall  remain 
open  for  acceptance  in  the  archives 
of  the  Government  of  the  United 
Kingdom  and  shall  enter  into  force 
when  twelve  Governments,  of  which 
five  shall  each  have  a  total  tonnage  of 
not  less  than  1,000,000  g.  t.  of  ship- 
ping have  accepted  it. 

(2)  As  soon  as  this  agreement  has 
come  into  force,  a  copy  of  the  agree- 
ment together  with  the  names  of  the 
Governments  who  have  accepted  it 
shall  be  sent  by  the  Government  of 
the  United  Kingdom  to  the  Secre- 
tary-General of  the  United  Nations 
for  registration  in  accordance  with 
Article  102  of  the  Charter  of  the 
United  Nations. 


March  14,  1947  CUSTOMS  UNION  135 

ARTICLE  6. — Termination  or  if  the  membership   falls  below 

This  agreement  shall  cease  to  have  twelve.    A  member  government  may 

effect  upon  the  entry  into  force  of  a  withdraw    at    any    time    upon    six 

constitution  for  a  permanent  inter-  months  notice  to  the  Government  of 

government   maritime  organization  the  United  Kingdom. 


No.  635 

CONVENTION  concerning  a  R6gime  of  Customs  Union.    Signed 
at  London,  September  5,  1944. 

CONVENTION  concernant  tin  regime  de  communaute  douanidre. 
Signee  a  Londres,  5  septembre  1944. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  After  the  signature  of  this  Convention,  the  signatories  found  it  neces- 
sary to  give  precision  to  and  to  interpret  its  provisions  by  a  protocol  signed  at  The  Hague 
on  March  14,  1947,  to  which  an  amended  text  was  annexed.  The  Customs  Union  thus  es- 
tablished does  not  displace  the  economic  union  between  Belgium  and  Luxemburg  under  the 
Brussels  convention  of  July  25,  1921,  and  the  amending  agreements  of  February  2,  1931, 
and  May  23,  1935.  9  League  of  Nations  Treaty  Series,  p.  224;  134  idem,  p.  394;  160  idem, 
p.  327.  The  three  states  also  concluded  a  monetary  agreement  at  London,  October  21, 
1943  (No.  627,  ante). 

RATIFICATIONS.  The  ratifications  of  this  Convention,  as  amended,  were  exchanged  at 
Brussels,  October  29,  1947. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  the  Convention  is  published  in  the  Netherlands  Staatsblad, 
1944,  No.  £77;  117  Moniteur  beige  (1947),  No.  326,  p.  10813;  Pasinomie,  1947,  p.  656. 

Anon.,  "One  Step  Toward  a  Better  Europe,"  4  News  from  Belgium  (1944),  pp.  301-3; 
E.  Hylkema,  BSntlux:  Le  chemin  vers  I'unitf  iconomique  (Paris,  1948),  206  pp.;  R.  Linnsen, 
"L'Union  douaniere  hollando-belgo-luxembourgeoise,"  I  Action  ftderaliste  europtcnne  (1946), 
No.  2,  pp.  29-34. 

Entered  into  force  January  i,  1948.' 

[Original  text  not  reproduced;  for  the  amended  text  of  1947,  see  annex  to  No.  6353,  post.] 


No.  635a 

Protocol  concerning  a  Regime  of  Customs  Union.    Signed  at  The 

Hague,  March  14,  1947. 

Protocole  concernant  un  regime  de  communaut£  douanidre.    Sign£ 
ft  La  Haye,  14  mars  1947. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.    This  Protocol  supplements  and  modifies  the  convention  of  September  5, 
1944  (No.  635,  ante).    It  was  accompanied  by  an  exchange  of  notes  with  respect  to  joint 
meetings  of  the  Presidents  of  the  Councils  established  by  that  convention.    Netherlands 
1  Entered  into  force  provisionally  in  May  1945  (Article  9). 


136 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No. 


Staatsblad,  1947,  No.  H282,  pp.  458-63.    The  tariff  annexed  to  the  convention  has  been 
modified  by  the  protocol  of  December  22,  1947.    Belgium,  Bulletin  usuel  dcsloiset  arrtte's, 

1948,  P.  557- 

RATIFICATIONS.  The  ratifications  of  this  Protocol  were  exchanged  at  Brussels,  Octo- 
ber 29,  1947- 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  the  Protocol  is  also  published  in  117  Moniteur  beige  (1947), 
No.  326,  p.  10813.  See  also  7  Belgium  (1947),  pp.  158,  386;  2  Netherlands  News  Letter 
(1947),  No.  2,  p.  18;  835  France,  Notes  documentaires  etttudes  (February  20,  1948),  80  pp. 

Entered  into  force  January  i,  1048 
Text  from  Netherlands  Staatsblad,  1947,  No.  Ha82. 


Le  Gouvernement  de  Sa  Majest6 
la  Reine  des  Pays-Bas,  d'une  part, 

Les  Gouvernements  de  Sa  Majest6 
le  Roi  des  Beiges  et  de  Son  Altesse 
Royale  la  Grande  Duchesse  de 
Luxembourg,  d'autre  part, 

reconnaissant  la  n6cessit6  de  pr6- 
ciser  et  d'interpr£ter  certaines  dis- 
positions de  la  Convention  qu'ils  ont 
signfe  £  Londres  le  5  septembre 
1944,  ainsi  que  de  computer  le  tarif 
annex£  a  cette  Convention  et  de  lui 
donner  une  forme  adapted  aux  cir- 
constances  actuelles,  ont  d6cid6  de 
conclure  £  cette  fin  un  Protocole  qui 
fait  partie  int6grante  de  la  Conven- 
tion. Dans  cet  esprit  et  a  cet  effet, 
ils  ont  arret6  les  dispositions  sui- 
vantes: 

I)  Le    texte    de    la    Convention 
sign£e  a  Londres  le  5  septembre  1944 
doit  6tre  pr6cis6  et  interprets  con- 
form£ment  au  texte  repris  a  1' annexe 

I  ci-jointe. 

II)  Le  tarif,  pr£c&te  des  disposi- 
tions pr&iminaires,  repris  a  1'annexe 

II  ci-jointe,  constitue  le  tarif  com- 
mun. 

III)  Le  second  alinea  des  articles  I 
et  2  de  la  Convention  entend  inter- 
dire — sauf  convention  speciale  entre 
les  Parties — la  perception,  £  1'im- 
portation,  de  droits  ou  taxes  autres 
que  ceux  express6ment  d6sign£s  £  la 
Convention  ou  existant  au  moment 
de  la  conclusion  de  la  Convention,  y 
compris  les  droits  et  taxes  qui  ont  et6 
suspendus  pendant  1'occupation  par 


1'ennemi  du  territoire  des  Parties 
Contractantes.  Toutefois,  les  dis- 
positions des  articles  I  et  2  ne  font 
pas  obstacle  £  1'etablissement  de  nou- 
velles  retributions  (redevances  pour 
prestations  r6ellement  fournies). 
Cependant,  ces  nouvelles  mesures 
feventuelles  n'entreront  en  vigueur 
qu'apr^s  consultation  pr6alable  du 
Conseil  Administratif  des  Douanes. 

IV)  II  est  entendu   qu'un  droit 
special,  ayant  le  caractere  d'un  droit 
d'accise,  pourra  6tre  pergu  aux  Pays- 
Bas   ii   1'importation   du    cafe,    du 
petrole,  de  lf essence  en  de  certains 
hydrocarbures    de    benzol.    Toute- 
fois,  les  regimes  sp^ciaux  dont  il 
s'agit  ne  resteront  en  vigueur  que 
jusqu'au  moment  oil  les  deux  Parties 
auront  adopt£  un  regime  commun  de 
droits  d'accise. 

V)  Les  deux  Parties  se  r6servent 
la  facult6  d'elargir  les  Conseils  sui- 
vant  les  n6cessit6s,  £tant  entendu 
que  les  deux  delegations  seront  tou- 
jours  en  nombre  £gal. 

VI)  II  est  institue  &  Bruxelles  un 
Secretariat  G^ndral  des  Conseils  de 
la  Convention,  dont  le  statut  est 
etabli  par  1'annexe  III  ci-jointe. 

EN  FOI  DE  QUOI,  les  Plenipoten- 
tiaires,  munis  des  pouvoirs  n6ces- 
saires  a  cet  effet,  ont  sign£  le  present 
Protocole. 

Fait  i  La  Have,  le  14  mars  1947, 
en  trois  exemplaires  en  n£erlandais  et 
en  frangais,  les  deux  textes  faisant 
6galement  foi. 


(W,g.)  W,  V.  BOETZELAER         LfiON  NEMRY         COLLAR! 


March  14,  1947 


CUSTOMS  UNION 


137 


ANNEXE  I 

TEXTE  DE  LA  CONVENTION  DOUANI^RE 
N&ERLANDO-BELGO-LUXEMBOURGEOISE, 

SIGN^E    A   LONDRES   LE   5    SEPTEMBRE 

1944,  pR^cisfe  ET  INTERPRET*  CON- 
FORM&MBNT  AU  PROTOCOLS  SIGN 6  A 
LA  HAVE,  LE  14  MARS  1947 

Le  Gouvernement  de  Sa  Majeste  la 
Reine  des  Pay-Bas,  d'une  part, 

Les  Gouvernements  de  Sa  Majeste  le  Roi 
des  Beiges  et  de  Son  Altesse  Royale  la 
Grande  Duchesse  de  Luxembourg,  d'autre 
part, 

desireux  de  cr£er  au  moment  de  la 
liberation  des  territoires  des  Pays-Bas  et 
de  1'Union  Economique  belgo-luxembour- 
geoise  les  conditions  les  plus  propices  a 
la  realisation  ulterieure  d'une  union 
economique  et  a  la  restauration  de  1'ac- 
tivit6  Economique,  ont  decide  de  pour- 
suivre  celles-ci  sous  un  regime  de  com- 
munaut£  douaniere  et  ont  convenu  a  cet 
effet,  des  articles  suivants: 

Article  i.  Les  Pays-Bas  et  1'Union 
Economique  belgo-luxembourgeoise  ap- 
pliqueront,  a  1'entree  des  marchandises, 
des  droits  de  douane  identiques  suivant  le 
tarif  ci-annexe  qui  fait  partie  integrante 
du  present  accord. 

En  dehors  des  droits  prevus  par  ce  tarif, 
ils  pourront  percevoir  a  1'importation  des 
droits  d'accise — y  compris  des  droits 
d'en  tree  Equivalents  aux  droits  d'accise — 
ainsi  que  toutes  autres  taxes,  suivant  le 
regime  en  vigueur  sur  leur  territpire  re- 
spectif;  ils  se  reservent  le  droit  d'en 
modifier  le  taux. 

Art.  2.  II  n'y  aura  aucune  perception 
de  droits  de  douane  a  1'entree  des  mar- 
chandises de  1 'Union  Economique  belgo- 
luxembourgeoise  dans  les  Pays-Bas  et 
r£ciproquement  a  1'entree  des  marchan- 
dises des  Pays-Bas  dans  1'Union  Econo- 
mique belgo-luxembourgeoise. 

Les  Pays-Bas  et  1'Union  Economique 
belgo-luxembourgeoise  pourront  perce- 
voir, a  1'importation,  des  droits  d'accise — 
y  compris  des  droits  d'entr6e  Equivalents 
aux  droits  d'accise — ainsi  que  toutes 
autres  taxes,  suivant  le  regime  en  vigueur 
sur  leur  territoire  respectif ;  ils  se  reservent 
le  droit  d'en  modifier  le  taux. 

Art  3.  II  sera  forme  un  Conseil  Ad- 
ministratif  des  Douanes  compose  de  trois 
delegues  des  Pays-Bas  et  de  trois  de!6- 
gu6s  de  rilnion  Economique  belgo-lux- 
embourgeoise. La  preaidence  du  Conseil 


Administratif  des  Douanes  sera  exercee  a 
tour  de  rdle  par  le  principal  delegu^  des 
Pays-Bas  et  le  principal  delegue  de 
TUnion  Economique  belgo-luxembour- 
geoise. 

Le  Conseil  Administratif  des  Douanes 
aura  a  proposer  les  mesures  propres  a 
assurer  1'unification  des  dispositions  legis- 
latives et  reglementaires  regissant  la  per- 
ception des  droits  d'en  tree  et  des  droits 
d'accise  dans  les  Pays-Bas  et  1'Union 
Economique  belgo-luxembourgeoise  et 
1'adaptation  de  celles-ci  aux  dispositions 
du  present  accord,  ceci  sans  prejudice  aux 
dispositions  preliminaires  du  tarif  ci- 
annexe. 

Art.  4.  Le  Conseil  Administratif  des 
Douanes  sera  assiste  d'une  Commission 
des  litiges  douaniers  composee  de  deux 
delegues  des  Pays-Bas  et  de  deux  dele- 
gues  de  1'Union  Economique  belgo-luxem- 
bourgeoise. 

La  Commission  des  litiges  douaniers, 
lorsqu'elle  en  est  saisie  par  les  Ministres 
competents,  statue  sur  les  differends 
dErivant  de  1'application  des  dispositions 
legales  et  reglementaires  resultant  du  pre- 
sent accord. 

La  Commission  communiquera  ses  de- 
cisions aux  Ministres  competents  qui, 
chacun  dans  les  limites  de  sa  competence, 
en  assureront  1'execution. 

Art  5.  II  sera  constitue  un  Conseil  de 
1' Union  Economique  compost  de  trois 
delegues  des  Pays-Bas  et  de  trois  delegues 
de  1'Union  Economique  belgo-luxembour- 
geoise. La  presidence  du  Conseil  de 
1'Union  Economique  sera  exercee  a  tour  de 
rdle  par  le  principal  delegu6  des  Pays-Bas 
et  le  principal  delegue  de  1'Union  Eco- 
nomique belgo-luxembourgeoise. 

Le  Conseil  de  1'Union  Economique 
aura  pour  mission: 

a)  de  donner  son  avis  aux  autorites 
competentes  des  Pays-Bas  et  de  1'Union 
Economique   belgo-luxembourgeoise   sur 
toutes  les  mesures  que  les  Pays-Bas  et 
1'Union    Economique    belgo-luxembour- 
geoise se  proposeraient  de  prendre  en  vue 
de  reglementer,  avec  ou  sans  droits  et 
taxes  accessoires,   les  importations,   les 
exportations  et  le  transit,  notamment  par 
I'lnstitution  de  restrictions  d'ordre  eco- 
nomique,  de  licences,  de  contingents  ou  de 
droits  sp6ciaux  de  licences  et  taxes  d 'ad- 
ministration; 

b)  de  coordonner  les  mesures  ci-dessus 
visees  en  vue  de  realiser  autant  que  possi- 
ble un  regime  commun  aux  Pays-Bas  et  a 


138 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No. 


1'Union    Economique    belgo-luxembour- 
geoise; 

c)  d'assurer  Tadrninistration  des  con- 
tingents d'importation,  d'exportation  et 
de  transit  qui  seraient  communs  aux  Pays- 
Bas  et  &  1  Union  Economique  belgo-lux- 
embourgeoise; 

d)  de  donner  son  avis  aux  autorites 
competentes  des  Pays-Has  et  de  1 'Union 
Economique   belgoluxembourgeoise   sur 
toutes  les  mesures  concernant  les  primes 
ou  subventions  &  la  production  que  les 
Parties  Contractantes  se  proposeraient  de 
prendre. 

Art  6.  II  sera  cpnstitue  un  Conseil  des 
Accords  Commerciaux  compost  de  trois 
delegues  des  Pays-Bas  et  de  trois  dele- 
gues  de  1'Union  Economique  belgo-luxem- 
bourgeoise.  La  presidence  du  Conseil 
des  Accords  Commerciaux  sera  exercee  & 
tour  de  r61e  par  le  principal  d61egu6  des 
Pays-Bas  et  le  principal  delegu6  de  1'Union 
Economique  belgoluxembourgeoise. 

Le  Conseil  des  Accords  Commerciaux 
assurera  autant  que  possible  la  coordina- 
tion des  dispositions  relatives  aux  rela- 
tions conventional! es  avec  les  Etats  tiers. 

Art  7.  Les  mesures  communes  visees 
aux  articles  3,  5  et  6  de  cet  accord  seront 
arre*tees  par  les  Ministres  competents 
siegeant  d'une  part  pour  les  Pays-Bas 
et  d'autre  part  pour  1'Union  Economique 
belgo-luxembourgeoise.  Elles  seront  sou- 
mises  par  eux  &  1'approbation  des  instances 
gouvernementales  ou  legislatives  comp£- 
tentes. 

Art.  8.  La  presente  Convention  sera 
ratifiee;  elle  entrera  en  vigueur  le  premier 
du  troisjeme  mois  suivant  1'echange  des 
ratifications. 

II  pourra  y  Itre  mis  fin  £  tout  moment 
moyennant  un  pr6avis  d'un  an. 

Elle  cessera  en  tout  cas  ses  effets  lors 
de  1'entree  en  vigueur  de  1'union  Econ- 
omique £  longue  echeance  que  les  Parties 
Contractantes  se  proposent  de  conclure. 

Art.  9.  En  attendant  1'echange  des 
ratifications,  la  Convention  sprtira  pro- 
visoirement  ses  effets  des  la  reinstallation 
des  Gouvernements  neerlandais  et  beige 
dans  leur  territoire;  chacun  de  ceux-ci 
aura  toutefois  la  facult6  d'y  mettre  fin  & 
tout  moment  moyennant  un  preavis  de 
six  mois. 

EN  FOI  DE  QUOI,  les  Pienipotentiaires, 
munis  des  pouvoirs  necessaires  £  cet  effet, 
ont  signe  la  presente  Convention  et  1'ont 
rev^tue  de  leurs  cachets. 


ANNEXE  II 
TARIF  DBS  DROITS 


[Text  omitted;  see  Netherlands  Slaatsblad, 
1947,  No.  H282,  pp.  19-453-1 


ANNEXE  III 


STATUT  DU  SECRETARIAT  GfeN^RAL  DES 

CONSEILS  DE  LA  CONVENTION  DOUA- 
NI^RE  N^ERLANDO-BBLGO-LUXEMBOUR- 
GEOISE 

1.  II  est  institu£  ^  Bruxelles,  un  Secr£- 
tariat  General  des  Conseils  de  la  Conven- 
tion   douaniere    neerlando-belgo-luxem- 
bourgeoise. 

2.  Le  Secretariat  General  releve,  en  ce 
qui  concerne  1'execution  de  ses  attribu- 
tions, des  Presidents  des  Conseils. 

3.  Le   Secretariat   General   assure   le 
secretariat  des  trois  Conseils  etablis  par 
la  Convention.     II  est  chargg  de  coordon- 
ner,  dans  le  domaine  administratif,  1'ac- 
tivite  de  ces  Conseils,  d'etablir,  le  cas 
ech^ant,  les  liaisons  necessaires  entre  les 
administrations  int^ressees  et,  d'une  ma- 
niere  generale,  de  faire  toutes  propositions 
ou  suggestions  utiles  au  bon  fonctionne- 
ment   de   la   Convention.     De   plus,   il 
execute  les  directives  qui  lui  sont  donnees 
par  les  Presidents  des  Conseils. 

4.  La  direction  du  Secretariat  General 
est  confiee  ^  un  Secretaire  General,  de 
nationality  neerlandaise,  qui  est  aid6  dans 
Tex^cution  de  ses  fonctions  par  un  Secre- 
taire General  adjoint  de  nation  alite  beige 
et  un  Secretaire  de  nationality  luxem- 
bourgeoise. 

Le  Secretaire  General,  le  Secretaire 
General  adjoint  et  le  Secretaire  sont 
nommes  et  revoques,  sur  proposition  des 
Presidents  des  Conseils,  par  les  trois 
Gouvernements  interesses. 

5.  Les  Pays-Bas  et  1'Union  Economique 
belgo-luxembourgeoise  contribuent  chacun 
pour  la  moitie  aux  frais  du  Secretariat 
General. 

6.  Le  Secretariat  General  elabore  le 
projet  de  budget  annuel  et  le  soumet  4 

ition  des  Presidents  des  Conseils, 


qui  en  continent  Texecution  et  arrStent 
les  comptes.  Sur  la  proposition  des 
Presidents  des  Conseils,  le  Ministre  des 
Finances  de  Belgique  accorde  les  avances 
necessaires  au  bon  fonctionnement  du 
Secretariat  General. 
7.  Le  Secretaire  General  nomme  et 


Sept.  12,  1944                       ARMISTICE  WITH  RUMANIA  139 

revoque  les  membra  du  personnel  du  8.  Lea  archives  du  Secretariat  G6n6ral 

Secretariat    G£n&ral.    Ces    nominations  sont  inviolables. 

s'effectuent  conform&ment  &  un  cadre  et  9.  Le  Secretaire  General  jouit  en  Bel- 
£  des  bar&nes  determines  par  les  Presi-  gique  des  privileges  et  immunites  ana- 
dents  des  Conseils.  Les  membres  du  logues  &  ceux  accordes  £  un  chef  de  mis- 
personnel  doivent  6tre  de  nationality  sion  diplomatique  rSgulidrement  accr£dit& 
neerlandaise,  beige  ou  luxembourgeoise.  dans  ce  pays. 


No.  636 

ARMISTICE  Agreement  with  Rumania.    Signed  at  Moscow,  Sep- 
tember 12,  1944. 

ACCORD    concernant   Pannistice   avec   la   Roumanie.    Sign£   ft 
Moscou,  12  septembre  1944. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  is  one  of  the  instruments  which  ended  the  hostilities  in  World 
War  II.  For  other  armistice  instruments  of  the  period,  see  No.  625,  ante;  Nos.  637,  638, 
645.  651,  and  66 1,  post.  Rumania  entered  the  war  on  the  side  of  the  Axis  in  1941.  By  an 
agreement  between  Rumania  and  the  Soviet  Union  of  September  12,  1945,  restitutions 
under  the  Armistice  Agreement  were  reduced  by  one  third;  and  deliveries  of  goods,  from 
fifty  to  seventy-five  per  cent.  The  treaty  of  peace  with  Rumania,  signed  at  Paris,  Febru- 
ary 10,  1947,  came  into  force  on  September  15,  1947.  U.S.  Treaties  and  Other  International 
Acts  Series,  No.  1649.  A  treaty  of  friendship,  cooperation,  and  mutual  assistance  was 
signed  by  Rumania  and  the  Soviet  Union  at  Moscow,  February  18,  1948.  i  U.S.  Depart- 
ment of  State,  Documents  and  State  Papers  (1948),  p.  235. 

RATIFICATIONS.    This  Agreement  was  not  subject  to  ratification. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Agreement  is  also  published  in  Br.  ParL  Papers,  Misc. 
No.  1(1945),  Cmd.  6585;  Canada,  Treaty  Series,  1944,  No.  40;  2  Soviet  Foreign  Policy  during 
the  Patriotic  War:  Documents  and  Materials  (London,  1947),  p.  123;  39  Am.  Jour.  Int.  Law 
(Supp.,  1945),  pp.  88-93.  For  a  Spanish  translation,  see  4  Revista  peruana  de  derecho  inter- 
national (1944),  p.  284. 

Anon.,  "  Armisticio  concertado  por  Rumania  y  las  tres  potencias  de  las  Naciones  Unidas," 
7  Revista  argentina  de  derecho  internacional  (2d  ser.,  1944),  pp.  323-24;  C.  M.  C.,  "Rumania 
and  the  War,"  21  Bulletin  of  International  News  (1944),  pp.  3-1 1,  43~54;  M.  W.  Graham, 

"Armistices — 1944  Style,"  39  Am.  Jour.  Int.  Law  (1945),  pp.  286-95;  »  "The 

Legal  Status  of  the  Bukovina  and  Bessarabia,"  38  idem  (1944),  pp.  667-73;  V.  V.  Tilea, 
"The  Roumanian  Armistice,"  166  Contemporary  Review  (1944),  pp.  205-9;  F.  A.  Voigt, 
"The  End  of  Rumanian  Independence,"  138  Nineteenth  Century  (1945),  pp.  84-91. 

Entered  into  force  September  12, 1944. 

Text  from  U.S.  Executive  Agreement  Series,  No.  490. 

The  Government  and  High  Com-  accept  the  armistice  terms  presented 
mand  of  Rumania,  recognizing  the  by  the  Governments  of  the  above- 
fact  of  the  defeat  of  Rumania  in  the  mentioned  three  Allied  Powers,  act- 
war  against  the  Union  of  Soviet  So-  ing  in  the  interests  of  all  the  United 
cialist  Republics,  the  United  States  Nations. 

of  America,  and  the  United  King-  On  the  basis  of  the  foregoing  the 

dom,  and  the  other  United  Nations,  representative  of  the  Allied  (Soviet) 


140 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  636 


High  Command,  Marshal  of  the 
Soviet  Union,  R.  Ya.  Malinovski, 
duly  authorized  thereto  by  the  Gov- 
ernments of  the  United  States  of 
America,  the  Soviet  Union,  and  the 
United  Kingdom,  acting  in  the  inter- 
ests of  all  the  United  Nations,  on  the 
one  hand,  and  the  representatives  of 
the  Government  and  High  Com- 
mand of  Rumania,  Minister  of  State 
and  Minister  of  Justice  L.  Patras- 
canu,  Deputy  Minister  of  Internal 
Affairs,  Adjutant  of  His  Majesty  the 
King  of  Rumania,  General  D.  Da- 
maceanu,  Prince  Stirbey,  and  Mr. 
G.  Popp,  on  the  other  hand,  holding 
proper  full-powers,  have  signed  the 
following  conditions: 

1.  As  from  August  24,  1944,  at  4 
a.  m.,  Rumania  has  entirely  discon- 
tinued  military  operations  against 
the  Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Repub- 
lics on  all  theatres  of  war,  has  with- 
drawn  from    the   war   against   the 
United  Nations,  has  broken  off  rela- 
tions with  Germany  and  her  satel- 
lites, has  entered  the  war  and  will 
wage  war  on  the  side  of  the  Allied 
Powers  against  Germany  and  Hun- 
gary for  the  purpose  of  restoring 
Rumanian  independence  and  sover- 
eignty, for  which  purpose  she  pro- 
vides not  less  than  12  infantry  divi- 
sions with  Corps  Troops. 

Military  operations  on  the  part  of 
Rumanian  armed  forces,  including 
Naval  and  Air  Forces,  against  Ger- 
many and  Hungary  will  be  con- 
ducted under  the  general  leadership 
of  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High  Command. 

2.  The    Government    and    High 
Command  of  Rumania  undertake  to 
take  steps  for  the  disarming  and  in- 
terning of  the  armed  forces  of  Ger- 
many and  Hungary  on  Rumanian 
territory  and  also  for  the  interning  of 
the  citizens  of  both  states  mentioned 
who  reside  there.     (See  Annex  to 
Article  2.) 

3.  The    Government    and    High 
Command  of  Rumania  will  ensure  to 
the  Soviet  and  other  Allied  forces 
facilities  for  free  movement  on  Ru- 


manian territory  in  any  direction  if 
required  by  the  military  situation, 
the  Rumanian  Government  and 
High  Command  of  Rumania  giving 
such  movement  every  possible  as- 
sistance with  their  own  means  of 
communications  and  at  their  own  ex- 
pense on  land,  on  water  and  in  the 
air.  (See  Annex  to  Article  3.) 

4.  The  State  frontier  between  the 
Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics 
and   Rumania,   established   by  the 
Soviet-Rumanian  Agreement  of  28th 
June,  1940,  is  restored. 

5.  The    Government    and    High 
Command  of  Rumania  will  immedi- 
ately hand  over  all  Soviet  and  Allied 
prisoners  of  war  in  their  hands,  as 
well  as  interned  citizens  and  citizens 
forcibly  removed  to  Rumania,  to  the 
Allied  (Soviet)  High  Command  for 
the  return  of  these  persons  to  their 
own  country. 

From  the  moment  of  the  signing  of 
the  present  terms  and  until  repatria- 
tion the  Rumanian  Government  and 
High  Command  undertake  to  pro- 
vide at  their  own  expense  all  Soviet 
and  Allied  prisoners  of  war,  as  well  as 
forcibly  removed  and  interned  citi- 
zens, and  displaced  persons  and 
refugees,  with  adequate  food,  cloth- 
ing and  medical  service,  in  accord- 
ance with  hygienic  requirements,  as 
well  as  with  means  of  transport  for 
the  return  of  all  these  persons  to 
their  own  country. 

6.  The    Rumanian    Government 
will  immediately  set  free,  irrespec- 
tive of  citizenship  and  nationality, 
all  persons  held  in  confinement  on 
account  of  their  activities  in  favor  of 
the  United  Nations  or  because  of 
their  sympathies  with  the  cause  of 
the  United  Nations,  or  because  of 
their  racial  origin,  and  will  repeal  all 
discriminatory    legislation    and    re- 
strictions imposed  thereunder. 

7.  The    Rumanian    Government 
and  High  Command  undertake  to 
hand  over  as  trophies  into  the  hands 
of  the  Allied   (Soviet)   High  Com- 
mand all  war  material  of  Germany 


Sept.  12,  1944 


ARMISTICE  WITH  RUMANIA 


141 


and  her  satellites  located  on  Ru- 
manian territory,  including  vessels  of 
the  fleet  of  Germany  and  her  satel- 
lites located  in  Rumanian  waters. 

8.  The    Rumanian    Government 
and  High  Command  undertake  not 
to  permit  the  export  or  expropriation 
of  any  form  of  property  (including 
valuables  and  currency)  belonging  to 
Germany,  Hungary  or  to  their  na- 
tionals or  to  persons  resident  in  their 
territories  or  in  the  territories  occu- 
pied by  them  without  the  permission 
of  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High  Command. 
They  will  keep  this  property  in  such 
manner  as  may  be  prescribed  by  the 
Allied  (Soviet)  High  Command. 

9.  The    Rumanian    Government 
and  High  Command  undertake  to 
hand   over   to   the   Allied    (Soviet) 
High  Command  all  vessels  belonging 
or  having  belonged  to  the  United 
Nations  which  are  located  in  Ru- 
manian ports,  no  matter  at  whose 
disposal  these  vessels  may  be,  for  the 
use  of  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High  Com- 
mand during  the  period  of  the  war 
against  Germany  and  Hungary  in 
the  general  interests  of  the  Allies, 
these  vessels  subsequently  to  be  re- 
turned to  their  owners. 

The  Rumanian  Government  bear 
the  full  material  responsibility  for  any 
damage  or  destruction  of  the  afore- 
mentioned property  until  the  moment 
of  the  transfer  of  this  property  to  the 
Allied  (Soviet)  High  Command. 

10.  The   Rumanian   Government 
must  make  regular  payments  in  Ru- 
manian  currency  required   by  the 
Allied  (Soviet)  High  Command  for 
the  fulfillment  of  its  functions  and 
will  in  case  of  need  ensure  the  use  on 
Rumanian  territory  of  industrial  and 
transportation  enterprises,  means  of 
communication,  power  stations,  en- 
terprises and  installations  of  public 
utility,  stores  of  fuel,  fuel  oil,  food 
and  other  materials,  services  in  ac- 
cordance with  instructions  issued  by 
the  Allied  (Soviet)  High  Command. 

Rumanian  merchant  vessels, 
whether  in  Rumanian  or  foreign 


waters,  shall  be  subject  to  the  opera- 
tional control  of  the  Allied  (Soviet) 
High  Command  for  use  in  the  gen- 
eral interest  of  the  Allies.  (See 
Annex  to  Article  10.) 

n.  Losses  caused  to  the  Soviet 
Union  by  military  operations  and  by 
the  occupation  by  Rumania  of 
Soviet  territory  will  be  made  good  by 
Rumania  to  the  Soviet  Union,  but, 
taking  into  consideration  that  Ru- 
mania has  not  only  withdrawn  from 
the  war,  but  has  declared  war  and  in 
fact  is  waging  war  against  Germany 
and  Hungary,  the  Parties  agree  that 
compensation  for  the  indicated  losses 
will  be  made  by  Rumania  not  in  full 
but  only  in  part,  namely  to  the 
amount  of  300  million  United  States 
dollars  payable  over  six  years  in 
commodities  (oil-products,  grain, 
timber  products,  seagoing  and  river 
craft,  sundry  machinery,  et  cetera). 

Compensation  will  be  paid  by  Ru- 
mania for  losses  caused  to  the 
property  of  other  Allied  States  and 
their  nationals  in  Rumania  during 
the  war,  the  amount  of  compensa- 
tion to  be  fixed  at  a  later  date.  (See 
Annex  to  Article  11.) 

12.  The   Rumanian   Government 
undertakes  within   the  periods  in- 
dicated by  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High 
Command  to  return  to  the  Soviet 
Union  in  complete  good  order  all 
valuables    and    materials    removed 
from  its  territory  during  the  war, 
belonging  to  State,  public  and  co- 
operative organizations,  enterprises, 
institutions   or   individual   citizens, 
such  as:  factory  and  works  equip- 
ment, locomotives,  railway  trucks, 
tractors,    motor    vehicles,    historic 
monuments,  museum  valuables  and 
any  other  property. 

13.  The   Rumanian   Government 
undertakes  to  restore  all  legal  rights 
and  interests  of  the  United  Nations 
and   their  nationals  on   Rumanian 
territory  as  they  existed  before  the 
war  and  to  return  their  property  in 
complete  good  order. 

14.  The   Rumanian  Government 


142 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  636 


and  High  Command  undertake  to  col- 
laborate with  the  All  led  (Soviet)  High 
Command  in  the  apprehension  and 
trial  of  persons  accused  of  war  crimes. 

15.  The   Rumanian   Government 
undertakes  immediately  to  dissolve 
all    pro-Hitler  organizations    (of   a 
Fascist  type)  situated  in  Rumanian 
territory,  whether  political,  military 
or  para-military,  as  well  as  other  or- 
ganizations conducting  propaganda 
hostile  to  the  United   Nations,   in 
particular  to  the  Soviet  Union,  and 
will  not  in  future  permit  the  existence 
of  organizations  of  that  nature. 

1 6.  The  printing,  importation  and 
distribution  in  Rumania  of  periodi- 
cal and  non-periodical  literature,  the 
presentation  of  theatrical  perform- 
ances and  films,  the  work  of  wireless 
stations,   post,   telegraph  and  tele- 
phone shall  be  carried  out  in  agree- 
ment with  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High 
Command.     (See  Annex  to  Article 
16.) 

17.  Rumanian    civil    administra- 
tion is  restored  in  the  whole  area  of 
Rumania  separated  by  not  less  than 
50-100  kilometres  (depending  upon 
conditions  of  terrain)  from  the  front 
line,  Rumanian  administrative  bod- 
ies undertaking  to  carry  out,  in  the 
interests  of  the  reestablishment  of 


peace  and  security,  instructions  and 
orders  of  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High 
Command  issued  by  them  for  the 
purpose  of  securing  the  execution  of 
these  armistice  terms. 

1 8.  An   Allied   Control   Commis- 
sion will  be  established  which  will  un- 
dertake until  the  conclusion  of  peace 
the  regulation  of  and  control  over  the 
execution  of  the  present  terms  under 
the  general  direction  and  orders  of  the 
Allied  (Soviet)  High  Command,  act- 
ing on  behalf  of  the  Allied  Powers. 
(See  Annex  to  Article  18.) 

19.  The  Allied  Governments  re- 
gard   the    decision    of    the    Vienna 
Award    regarding   Transylvania   as 
null  and  void  and  are  agreed  that 
Transylvania   (or  the  greater  part 
thereof)  should  be  returned  to  Ru- 
mania,  subject  to  confirmation   at 
the  peace  settlement,  and  the  Soviet 
Government  agrees  that  Soviet  forces 
shall  take  part  for  this  purpose  in  joint 
military  operations  with    Rumania 
against  Germany  and  Hungary. 

20.  The  present  terms  come  into 
force  at  the  moment  of  their  signing. 

DONE  in  Moscow,  in  four  copies, 
each  in  the  Russian,  English  and 
Rumanian  languages,  the  Russian 
and  English  texts  being  authentic. 

September  12,  1944. 


[Signed:]  By  authority  of  the  Governments  of  the  United  States  of 
America,  the  Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics  and  the  United  Kingdom, 
MALINOVSKI;  by  authority  of  the  Government  and  High  Command  of 
Rumania,  LUCRETIU  PATRAJCANU,  GL.  ADJ.  DAMACEANU,  B.  STIRBEY,  GH. 
POPP. 


ANNEX 

To  THE  ARMISTICE  AGREEMENT  BETWEEN 
THE  GOVERNMENTS  OF  THE  UNITED 
STATES  OF  AMERICA,  THE  SOVIET 
UNION,  AND  THE  UNITED  KINGDOM  ON 
THE  ONE  HAND  AND  THE  GOVERNMENT 
OF  RUMANIA  ON  THE  OTHER  HAND 

A. — Annex  to  Article  2 

The  measures  provided  for  in  Article  2  of 
the  Agreement  regarding  the  internment 
of  citizens  of  Germany  and  Hungary  now 


in  Rumanian  territory  do  not  extend  to 
citizens  of  those  countries  of  Jewish  origin. 

B. — Annex  to  Article  j 

Under  cooperation  of  the  Rumanian 
Government  and  High  Command  of  Ru- 
mania, mentioned  in  Article  3  of  the 
Agreement,  is  understood  the  placing  at 
the  disposal  of  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High 
Command  for  use  at  its  discretion  during 
the  Armistice  all  Rumanian  military,  air 
and  naval  constructions  and  installations, 
ports,  harbors,  barracks,  warehouses,  air- 


Sept.  12,  1944 


ARMISTICE  WITH  RUMANIA 


143 


fields,  means  of  communication,  meteoro- 
logical stations  which  might  be  required 
for  military  needs  in  complete  good  order 
and  with  the  personnel  required  for  their 
maintenance. 

C. — Annex  to  Article  10 

The  Rumanian  Government  will  with- 
draw and  redeem  within  such  time  limits 
and  on  such  terms  as  the  Allied  (Soviet) 
High  Command  may  specify,  all  holdings 
in  Rumanian  territory  of  currencies  issued 
by  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High  Command, 
and  will  hand  over  currency  so  withdrawn 
free  of  cost  to  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High 
Command. 

D. — Annex  to  Article  II 

The  basis  for  settlements  of  payment  of 
compensation  provided  for  in  Article  II 
of  the  present  Agreement  will  be  the 
American  dollar  at  its  gold  parity  on  the 
day  of  signing  of  the  Agreement,  i.e.  35 
dollars  for  i  ounce  of  gold. 

E. — Annex  to  Article  16 

The  Rumanian  Government  under- 
takes that  wireless  communication,  tele- 


graphic and  postal  correspondence,  corre- 
spondence in  cypher  and  courier  corre- 
spondence, as  well  as  telephonic  commu- 
nication with  foreign  countries  of  Embas- 
sies, Legations  and  Consulates  situated  in 
Rumania,  will  be  conducted  in  the  manner 
laid  down  by  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High 
Command. 

F. — Annex  to  Article  18 

Control  over  the  exact  execution  of  the 
Armistice  terms  is  entrusted  to  the  Allied 
Control  Commission  to  be  established  in 
conformity  with  Article  18  of  the  Armi- 
stice Agreement. 

The  Rumanian  Government  and  their 
organs  shall  fulfill  all  instructions  of  the 
Allied  Control  Commission  arising  out  of 
the  Armistice  Agreement. 

The  Allied  Control  Commission  will  set 
up  special  organs  or  sections  entrusting 
them  respectively  with  the  execution  of 
various  functions.  In  addition,  the  Al- 
lied Control  Commission  may  have  its 
officers  in  various  parts  of  Rumania. 

The  Allied  Control  Commission  will 
have  its  seat  in  the  city  of  Bucharest. 

Moscow:  September  12,  1944. 


No.  636a 

Protocol  to  the  Armistice  Agreement  with  Rumania.    Signed  at 
Moscow,  September  12,  1944. 

Protocole   &  P Accord  concernant  1'armistice  avec  la  Roumanie. 
Signe  &  Moscou,  12  septembre  1944. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.    The  text  of  this  Protocol  is  also  published  in  Br.  ParL  Papers,  Misc. 
No.  i(i945),  Cmd.  6585,  p.  6. 

Entered  into  force  September  12,  1944. 

Text  from  U.S.  Executive  Agreement  Series,  No.  490,  p.  15. 


On  the  occasion  of  the  signing  of 
an  armistice  with  the  Government  of 
Roumania,  the  Allied  Governments 
signatory  thereto  are  agreed ; 

I.  Paragraph  I  of  Article  5  of  the 
Armistice  Agreement  defines  the  ob- 
ligations undertaken  by  the  Rou- 
manian Government  in  regard  to  the 
surrender  to  the  Allied  authorities  of 


Allied  prisoners  of  war  and  Allied 
citizens  interned  in  or  forcibly  re- 
moved to  Roumania.  Each  Allied 
Government  shall  decide  which  of 
its  nationals  shall  or  shall  not  be 
repatriated. 

2,  That  the  term  "war  material" 
used  in  Article  7  shall  be  deemed  to 
include  all  material  or  equipment 


144  INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION  No.  637 

belonging  to,  used  by,  or  intended  for  ers  will  be  matters  for  discussion  and 

use  by,  enemy  military  or  para-mili-  settlement  between  the  Allied  Gov- 

tary  formations  or  members  thereof,  ernments  concerned  and  the  Gov- 

3.  That   the   use   by   the  Allied  ernment  of  the  Soviet  Union. 
(Soviet)  High  Command  of  Allied         DONE  in  Moscow  in  three  copies, 

vessels  handed  back  by  the  Govern-  each  in  the  English  and  Russian  lan- 

ment  of  Roumania  in  accordance  guages,  both  English  and  Russian 

with  Article  9  of  the  armistice  and  texts  being  authentic, 
the  date  of  their  return  to  their  own-         i2th  September,  1944. 

[Signed :]  By  authority  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States  of  Amer- 
ica, W.  A.  HARRIMAN;  by  authority  of  the  Government  of  the  Union  of 
Soviet  Socialist  Republics,  A.  VYSHINSKY;  by  authority  of  the  Government 
of  the  United  Kingdom,  ARCHIBALD  CLARK  KERR. 


No.  637 

ARMISTICE  Agreement  with  Finland.    Signed  at  Moscow,  Sep- 
tember 19,  1944. 

ACCORD  concernant  1'armistice  avec  la  Finlande.    Signe  &  Moscou, 

19  septembre  1944. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  is  one  of  the  series  of  instruments  which  ended  the  hostilities  in 
World  War  II.  For  other  armistice  instruments  of  the  period,  see  Nos.  625,  636,  ante; 
Nos.  638,  645,  651,  and  661,  post.  At  the  time  of  the  armistice,  Finland  was  at  war  with 
Australia,  Canada,  Czechoslovakia,  Great  Britain,  India,  New  Zealand,  South  Africa,  and 
the  Soviet  Union.  For  the  text  of  the  treaty  of  peace  between  Finland  and  the  Soviet 
Union  signed  at  Moscow,  March  12,  1940,  the  effect  of  which  is  restored  by  Article  6  of 
this  Agreement,  see  2  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1940),  p.  453;  The  Finnish  Blue 
Book  (Philadelphia,  1940),  pp.  115-20.  For  the  text  of  the  Aaland  Islands  agreement  of 
October  1 1, 1940,  the  effect  of  which  was  restored  by  Article  9  of  this  Agreement,  see  Finland 
Reveals  Her  Secret  Documents  on  Soviet  Policy,  March  1940- June  1941  (New  York,  1941), 
p.  65;  Finlands  Forfattningssamlings,  Fdrdragsserie,  1940,  No.  24.  The  agreement  concern- 
ing reparations  provided  for  in  Annex  H  was  concluded  by  Finland  and  the  Soviet  Union 
on  December  17,  1944.  2  Soviet  Foreign  Policy  during  the  Patriotic  War:  Documents  and 
Materials  (London,  1947),  p.  192.  The  treaty  of  peace  with  Finland,  signed  at  Paris, 
February  10,  1947,  came  into  force  on  September  15,  1947.  British  Treaty  Series,  No.  53 
(1948),  Cmd.  7484.  A  treaty  of  friendship,  cooperation,  and  mutual  assistance  between 
Finland  and  the  Soviet  Union  was  signed  at  Moscow,  April  6,  1948.  I  U.S.  Department 
of  State,  Documents  and  State  Papers  (1948),  p.  237. 

RATIFICATIONS.    This  Agreement  was  not  subject  to  ratification. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Agreement  is  also  published  in  12  U.S.  Department  of 
State  Bulletin  (1945),  pp.  261-67;  Finlands  Fdrfattningssamlings,  Fdrdragsserie,  Overenskom- 
melser  med  Fr&mmande  Makter,  1944,  No.  4,  pp.  8-22;  2  Soviet  Foreign  Policy  during  the 
Patriotic  War:  Documents  and  Materials  (London,  1947),  p.  128;  Canada,  Treaty  Series, 
1944,  No.  38;  39  Am.  Jour.  Int.  Law  (Supp.,  1945),  p.  85;  15  Acta  Scandinavica  Juris  Gentium 
(1944),  p.  81. 

Anon.,  "  Armisticio  concertado  por  Finlandia  y  las  tres  potencias  de  las  Naciones  Unidas," 
7  Revista  argentine  de  derecho  internacional  (2d  set.,  1944),  pp.  325-26;  £.  Dancy,  "Finland 


Sept.  19,  1944 


ARMISTICE  WITH  FINLAND 


145 


Takes  Stock,"  24  Foreign  A/airs  (1946),  pp.  513-25;  M.  W.  Graham,  "Armistices— 1944 
Style,"  39  Am.  Jour.  Int.  Law  (1945),  pp.  286-95;  J.  H.  Jackson,  "Russian  Control  in 
Finland,"  170  Contemporary  Review  (1946),  pp.  69-72;  D.  E.  P.,  "Finland  since  the  Moscow 
Treaty,"  21  Bulletin  of  International  News  (1944),  PP»  507-12;  543-49;  J.  H.  Wuorinen, 
ed.t  Finland  and  World  War  II,  1939-1944  (New  York,  1948),  228  pp. 

Entered  into  force  September  19, 1944. 
Text  from  Br.  Par/.  Papers,  Misc.  No.  2  (1945),  Cmd.  6586. 


Whereas  the  Finnish  Government 
has  accepted  the  preliminary  condi- 
tion of  the  Soviet  Government  re- 
garding a  break  with  Germany  and 
the  removal  of  German  troops  from 
Finland,  and  whereas  the  conclusion 
of  a  future  treaty  of  peace  will  be 
facilitated  by  the  inclusion  in  an 
Armistice  Agreement  of  certain  con- 
ditions of  this  peace  treaty,  His  Ma- 
jesty's Government  in  the  United 
Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and 
Northern  Ireland  and  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  Union  of  Soviet  Socialist 
Republics,  acting  on  behalf  of  all  the 
United  Nations  at  war  with  Finland, 
on  the  one  hand,  and  the  Govern- 
ment of  Finland,  on  the  other  hand, 
have  decided  to  conclude  the  present 
agreement  for  an  armistice,  the  exe- 
cution of  which  will  be  controlled  by 
the  Soviet  High  Command  similarly 
acting  on  behalf  of  the  United  Na- 
tions at  war  with  Finland,  herein- 
after named  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High 
Command. 

On  the  basis  of  the  foregoing  the 
representative  of  the  Allied  (Soviet) 
High  Command,  Colonel-General 
A.  A.  Zhdanov,  and  the  represen- 
tatives of  the  Government  of  Fin- 
land, Mr.  Carl  Enckell,  Minister 
for  Foreign  Affairs,  General  Rudolf 
Walden,  Minister  of  Defence,  Gen- 
eral Erik  Heinrichs,  Chief  of  General 
Staff,  and  Lieutenant-General  Oscar 
Enckell,  duly  authorised  thereto, 
have  signed  the  following  conditions: 

Article  i.  In  connexion  with  the 
cessation  of  military  activites  on  the 
part  of  Finland  on  the  4th  Septem- 
ber, 1944,  and  on  the  part  of  the 
Soviet  Union  on  the  5th  September, 


1944,  Finland  undertakes  to  with- 
draw her  troops  behind  the  line  of 
the  Soviet-Finnish  frontier  of  1940 
in  accordance  with  the  procedure 
laid  down  in  the  Annex  attached  to 
the  present  Agreement.  (See  Annex 
to  Article  I.) 

Art.  2,  Finland  undertakes  to  dis- 
arm the  German  land,  naval  and  air 
armed  forces  which  have  remained  in 
Finland  since  the  isth  September, 
1944,  and  to  hand  over  their  person- 
nel to  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High  Com- 
mand as  prisoners  of  war,  in  which 
task  the  Soviet  Government  will  as- 
sist the  Finnish  army. 

The  Finnish  Government  also  ac- 
cepts the  obligation  to  intern  Ger- 
man and  Hungarian  nationals  in 
Finnish  territory.  (See  Annex  to 
Article  2.) 

Art.  3.  Finland  undertakes  to 
make  available  at  the  request  of  the 
Allied  (Soviet)  High  Command  the 
aerodromes  on  the  southern  and 
south-western  coast  of  Finland  with 
all  equipment  to  serve  as  bases  for 
Soviet  aircraft  during  the  period 
necessary  for  air  operations  against 
German  forces  in  Estonia  and  against 
the  German  navy  in  the  northern 
part  of  the  Baltic  Sea.  (See  Annex 
to  Article  3.) 

Art.  4.  Finland  undertakes  to 
place  her  army  on  a  peace  footing 
within  two  and  a  half  months  from 
the  day  of  signing  of  the  present 
Agreement.  (See  Annex  to  Article  4.) 

Art.  5.  Finland,  having  broken 
off  all  relations  with  Germany,  also 
undertakes  to  break  off  all  relations 
with  Germany's  satellite  States. 
(See  Annex  to  Article  5.) 


I46 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  637 


Art.  6.  The  effect  of  the  Peace 
Treaty  between  the  Soviet  Union 
and  Finland,  concluded  in  Moscow 
on  the  I2th  March,  1940,  is  restored 
subject  to  the  changes  which  follow 
from  the  present  Agreement. 

Art.  7.  Finland  returns  to  the 
Soviet  Union  the  oblast  of  Petsamo 
(Pechenga),  voluntarily  ceded  to 
Finland  by  the  Soviet  State  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  Peace  Treaties  of 
the  I4th  October,  1920,  and  the  I2th 
March,  1940,  within  the  boundary 
indicated  in  the  Annex  and  on  the 
map1  attached  to  the  present  Agree- 
ment. (See  Annex  to  Article  7  and 
map  to  scale  1 1500,000. ) 

Art.  8.  The  Soviet  Union  re- 
nounces its  rights  to  the  lease  of  the 
Peninsula  of  Hang6,  accorded  to  it 
by  the  Soviet-Finnish  Peace  Treaty 
of  the  I2th  March,  1940,  and  Fin- 
land for  her  part  undertakes  to  make 
available  to  the  Soviet  Union  on 
lease  territory  and  waters  for  the 
establishment  of  a  Soviet  naval  base 
in  the  area  of  Porkkala-Udd. 

The  boundaries  of  the  land  and 
water  area  of  the  base  at  Porkkala- 
Udd  are  defined  in  the  Annex  to  the 
present  article  and  indicated  on  the 
map.1  (See  Annex  to  Article  8  and 
map  to  scale  1:100,000.) 

Art.  9.  The  effect  of  the  Agree- 
ment concerning  the  Aaland  Islands, 
concluded  between  the  Soviet  Union 
and  Finland  on  the  nth  October, 
1940,  is  completely  restored. 

Art.  10.  Finland  undertakes  im- 
mediately to  transfer  to  the  Allied 
(Soviet)  High  Command  to  be  re- 
turned to  their  homeland  all  Soviet 
and  Allied  prisoners  of  war  now  in 
her  power  and  also  Soviet  and  Allied 
nationals  who  have  been  interned  in 
or  deported  by  force  to  Finland. 

From  the  moment  of  the  signing 
of  the  present  Agreement  and  up  to 
the  time  of  repatriation  Finland  un- 
dertakes to  provide  at  her  cost  for 
all  Soviet  and  Allied  prisoners  of  war 


and  also  nationals  who  have  been 
deported  by  force  or  interned  ade- 
quate food,  clothing  and  medical 
service  in  accordance  with  hygienic 
requirements,  and  also  with  means  of 
transport  for  their  return  to  their 
homeland. 

At  the  same  time  Finnish  prisoners 
of  war  and  interned  persons  now 
located  on  the  territory  of  Allied 
States  will  be  transferred  to  Fin- 
land. 

Art.  xx.  Losses  caused  by  Fin- 
land to  the  Soviet  Union  by  military 
operations  and  the  occupation  of 
Soviet  territory  will  be  indemnified 
by  Finland  to  the  Soviet  Union  to 
the  amount  of  three  hundred  million 
dollars  payable  over  six  years  in  com- 
modities (timber  products,  paper, 
cellulose,  seagoing  and  river  craft, 
sundry  machinery). 

Provision  will  also  be  made  for  the 
indemnification  in  the  future  by 
Finland  of  the  losses  caused  during 
the  war  to  the  property  of  the  other 
Allied  States  and  their  nationals  in 
Finland,  the  amount  of  the  compen- 
sation to  be  fixed  separately.  (See 
Annex  to  Article  n.) 

Art.  12.  Finland  undertakes  to 
restore  all  legal  rights  and  interests 
of  the  United  Nations  and  their  na- 
tionals located  on  Finnish  territory 
as  they  existed  before  the  war  and  to 
return  their  property  in  complete 
good  order. 

Art.  13.  Finland  undertakes  to 
collaborate  with  the  Allied  Powers  in 
the  apprehension  of  persons  accused 
of  war  crimes  and  in  their  trial. 

Art.  14.  Finland  undertakes 
within  the  periods  fixed  by  the  Allied 
(Soviet)  High  Command  to  return  to 
the  Soviet  Union  in  complete  good 
order  all  valuables  and  materials  re- 
moved from  Soviet  territory  to  Fin- 
land during  the  war  belonging  to 
State,  public  and  co-operative  or- 
ganisations, factories,  institutions  or 
individual  citizens,  such  as:  equip- 


1  Not  reproduced, 


Sept.  19,  1944 


ARMISTICE  WITH  FINLAND 


ment  for  factories  and  works,  loco- 
motives, railway  carriages,  ships, 
tractors,  motor  vehicles,  historical 
monuments,  valuables  from  mu- 
seums and  all  other  property. 

Art.  15.  Finland  undertakes  to 
transfer  as  booty  to  the  disposition 
of  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High  Com- 
mand all  war  material  of  Germany 
and  her  satellites  located  on  Finnish 
territory,  including  naval  and  other 
ships  belonging  to  these  countries  in 
Finnish  waters. 

Art.  16.  Finland  undertakes  not 
to  permit  the  export  or  expropriation 
of  any  form  of  property  (including 
valuables  and  currency)  belonging  to 
Germany  or  Hungary  or  to  their  na- 
tionals or  to  persons  resident  in  their 
territories  or  in  the  territories  occu- 
pied by  them  without  the  permission 
of  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High  Com- 
mand. 

Art.  17.  Finnish  merchant  ships 
other  than  those  already  under  Al- 
lied control  shall  be  placed  under  the 
control  of  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High 
Command  for  their  use  in  the  general 
interests  of  the  Allies. 

Art.  1 8.  Finland  undertakes  to 
transfer  to  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High 
Command  all  ships  in  Finnish  ports 
belonging  to  the  United  Nations,  no 
matter  at  whose  disposal  these  ves- 
sels may  be,  for  the  use  of  the  Allied 
(Soviet)  High  Command  for  the 
duration  of  the  war  against  Germany 
in  the  general  interests  of  the  Allies, 
these  vessels  subsequently  to  be  re- 
turned to  their  owners. 

Art.  19.  Finland  will  make  avail- 
able such  materials  and  products  as 
may  be  required  by  the  United  Na- 
tions for  purposes  connected  with 
the  war. 

Art.  20.  Finland  undertakes  im- 
mediately to  release  all  persons,  ir- 
respective of  citizenship  or  national- 


ity, held  in  prison  on  account  of  their 
activities  in  favour  of  the  United 
Nations  or  because  of  their  sym- 
pathies with  the  cause  of  the  United 
Nations,  or  in  view  of  their  racial 
origin,  and  will  also  remove  all  dis- 
criminatory legislation  and  disabili- 
ties arising  therefrom. 

Art.  21.  Finland  undertakes  im- 
mediately to  dissolve  all  pro-Hitler 
organisations  (of  a  Fascist  type)  situ- 
ated on  Finnish  territory,  whether 
political,  military  or  para-military, 
as  well  as  other  organisations  con- 
ducting propaganda  hostile  to  the 
United  Nations,  in  particular  to  the 
Soviet  Union,  and  will  not  in  future 
permit  the  existence  of  organisations 
of  that  nature. 

Art.  22.  An  Allied  Control  Com- 
mission will  be  established  which 
until  the  conclusion  of  peace  with 
Finland  will  undertake  the  regula- 
tion and  control  of  the  execution  of 
the  present  Agreement  under  the 
general  direction  and  instructions 
of  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High  Com- 
mand, acting  on  behalf  of  the  Allied 
Powers.  (See  Annex  to  Article 
22.) 

Art.  23.  The  present  Agreement 
comes  into  force  as  from  the  moment 
of  signature. 

DONE  in  Moscow  the  nineteenth 
day  of  September,  1944,  in  one  copy 
which  will  be  entrusted  to  the  safe- 
keeping of  the  Government  of  the 
Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics, 
in  the  Russian,  English  and  Finnish 
languages,  the  Russian  and  English 
texts  being  authentic. 

Certified  copies  of  the  present 
Agreement,  with  Annexes  and  maps, 
will  be  transmitted  by  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  Union  of  Soviet  Socialist 
Republics  to  each  of  the  other  Gov- 
ernments on  whose  behalf  the  pres- 
ent Agreement  is  being  signed. 


[Signed:]  For  the  Governments  of  the  Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics 
and  the  United  Kingdom:  A.  ZHDANOV;  for  the  Government  of 
C.  ENCKELL,  R.  WALDEN,  E.  HEINRICHS,  O.  ENCKELL. 


148 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  637 


ANNEXES 

To  THE  ARMISTICE  AGREEMENT  BETWEEN 
THE  UNION  OF  SOVIET  SOCIALIST  RE- 
PUBLICS AND  THE  UNITED  KINGDOM 
OF  GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  NORTHERN 
IRELAND  ON  THE  ONE  HAND  AND  FIN- 
LAND, ON  THE  OTHER,  SIGNED  IN  MOS- 
COW  ON  THE  I9TH  SEPTEMBER,  1944 

A.— Annex  to  Article  i 

The  procedure  for  the  withdrawal  of 
Finnish  troops  behind  the  line  of  the  State 
frontier  between  the  U.S.S.R.  and  Fin- 
land laid  down  in  the  Peace  Treaty  of  the 
1 2th  March,  1940,  subject  to  the  modifica- 
tions arising  from  the  Armistice  Agree- 
ment signed  on  the  iQth  September,  1944, 
on  all  sectors  occupied  by  Finnish  troops, 
shall  be  as  follows: 

1.  In  the  course  of  the  first  day  as  from 
the  moment  of  signing  of  the  Armistice 
Agreement  Finnish  troops  shall  be  with- 
drawn to  such  a  distance  that  there  shall 
be  a  gap  of  not  less  than  one  kilometre  be- 
tween the  forward  units  of  the  Red  Army 
and  the  Finnish  troops. 

2.  Within  forty-eight  hours  (two  days), 
counted  as  from  the  same  moment,  the 
Finnish    troops    shall    make    passages 
through  their  mines,  barbed  wire,  and 
other  defences  to  a  width  of  not  less  than 
thirty  metres  in  order  thereby  to  make 
possible  the  free  movement  of  battalion 
columns  with  their  transport,  and  shall 
also   enclose   the  remaining  mine-fields 
within  clearly  visible  marks. 

The  above-mentioned  passages  in  the 
defences  and  the  enclosure  of  mine-fields 
shall  be  made  throughout  the  whole  terri- 
tory from  which  Finnish  troops  are  with- 
drawn. 

The  clearance  of  passages  by  Finnish 
troops  shall  be  made  on  all  roads  or  paths 
which  may  serve  for  movement  both  in 
the  neutral  belt  of  one  kilometre  and  also 
throughout  the  whole  depth  of  the  de- 
fences. 

Towards  the  end  of  the  second  day  the 
Command  of  the  Finnish  troops  shall 
hand  over  to  the  appropriate  Red  Army 
Command  exact  plans  of  all  types  of  de- 
fences with  an  indication  on  these  plans 
of  the  passages  made  and  to  be  made  by 
the  Finnish  troops  and  also  of  the  enclo- 
sures of  all  mine-fields. 

3.  The  Finnish  Command  shall  hand 
over  within  a  period  of  five  days  to  the 
Command  of  the  Red  Army  and  Navy 


the  charts,  forms  and  descriptive  maps  at 
its  disposal  with  legends  for  all  mine-fields 
and  other  defences  on  land,  in  rivers,  and 
lakes  and  in  the  Baltic  and  Barents  Seas 
together  with  data  about  the  courses  and 
channels  to  be  recommended  and  the  rules 
for  navigation  along  them. 

4.  The   complete   removal   of   mines, 
barbed  wire  and  other  defences  through- 
out the  territory  from  the  line  occupied 
by  the  advanced  Finnish  units  to  the  line 
of  the  State  frontier,  and  also  the  sweep- 
ing and  removal  of  all  defences  from  the 
channels  on  the  approaches  to  Soviet  ter- 
ritories, shall  be  made  by  the  Finnish 
land  and  naval  forces  in  the  shortest  possi- 
ble time  and  in  not  more  than  forty  days 
from  the  moment  of  the  signing  of  the 
Armistice  Agreement. 

5.  The  withdrawal  of  Finnish  troops 
behind  the  State  frontier  and  the  advance 
of  the  troops  of  the  Red  Army  up  to  it 
shall  begin  as  from  9.0  a.m.  on  the  2ist 
September,   1944,  simultaneously  along 
the  whole  length  of  the  front. 

The  withdrawal  of  Finnish  troops  shall 
be  carried  out  in  daily  marches  of  not 
less  than  15  kilometres  a  day  and  the  ad- 
vance of  the  troops  of  the  Red  Army  shall 
take  place  in  such  a  manner  that  there 
shall  be  a  distance  of  15  kilometres  be- 
tween the  rear  units  of  the  Finnish  troops 
and  the  advanced  units  of  the  Red  Army. 

6.  In    accordance   with    paragraph    5 
the  following  limits  are  set  for  the  with- 
drawal of  Finnish  troops  on  individual 
sectors  behind  the  line  of  the  State  frontier: 


On  the  sector  Vuokinsalmi,  Riahimjaki, 

the  1st  October. 
On  the  sector  Riahimjaki,  River  Koita- 

Joki,  the  3rd  October. 
On  the  sector  River  Koita-Joki,  Korpi- 

selka,  the  24th  September. 
On  the  sector  Korpiselka,  Lake  Puha- 

Jarvi,  the  28th  September. 
On   the  sector   Puha-Jarvi,   Koitsan- 

lahti,  the  26th  September. 
On   the  sector  Koitsanlahti,   Station 

Enso,  the  28th  September. 
On  the  sector  Station  Enso,  Virolahti, 

the  24th  September. 

The  retreating  Finnish  troops  shall 
take  with  them  only  such  reserves  of  mu- 
nitions, food,  fodder  and  fuel  and  lubri- 
cants as  they  can  carry  and  transport 
with  them.  All  other  stores  shall  be  left 
on  the  spot  and  shall  be  handed  over  to 
the  Command  of  the  Red  Army. 


Sept.  19,  1944 


ARMISTICE  WITH  FINLAND 


149 


7.  The    Finnish    Military    Command 
shall  hand  over  on  the  territories  which 
are  being  returned  or  ceded  to  the  Soviet 
Union  in  complete  good  order  and  repair 
all  inhabited  points,  means  of  communi- 
cation, defence  and  economic  structures 
including:  bridges,  dams,  aerodromes,  bar- 
racks, warehouses,  railway  junctions,  sta- 
tion   buildings,    industrial    enterprises, 
hydrotechnical     buildings,     ports     and 
wharves,  telegraph  offices,  telephone  ex- 
changes, electric  power  stations,  lines  of 
communication  and  electric  power  lines. 

The  Finnish  Military  Command  shall 
give  instructions  for  the  timely  de-mining 
of  all  the  installations  enumerated  above 
which  are  to  be  handed  over, 

8.  When  the  Finnish  troops  are  being 
withdrawn  behind  the  line  of  the  State 
frontier  the  Government  of  Finland  shall 
guarantee  the  personal  inviolability  and 
the  preservation  of  the  dwelling  places  of 
the  population  of  the  territory  to  be  aban- 
doned by  the  Finnish  troops  together  with 
the  preservation  of  all  the  property  be- 
longing to  this  population  and  of  the  prop- 
erty of  public,  co-operative,  cultural-social 
services  and  other  organisations. 

9.  All  questions  which  may  arise  in 
connexion  with  the  transfer  by  the  Finn- 
ish authorities  of  the  installations  enumer- 
ated in  paragraph  7  of  this  Annex  shall 
be  settled  on  the  spot  by  representatives 
of  both  sides,  for  which  purpose  special 
representatives  for  the  period  of  the  with- 
drawal of  the  troops  shall  be  appointed 
by  the  Command  to  each  basic  route  for 
the  movements  of  the  troops  of  both 
armies. 

10.  The  advance  of  Soviet  troops  to  the 
line  of  the  State  frontier  on  the  sectors 
occupied  by  German  troops  shall  be  made 
in  accordance  with  the  instructions  of 
the  Command  of  the  Soviet  forces. 

B. — Annex  to  Article  2 

I.  The  Finnish  Military  Command 
shall  hand  over  to  the  Allied  (Soviet) 
High  Command  within  a  period  fixed  by 
the  latter  all  the  information  at  its  dis- 
posal regarding  the  German  armed  forces 
and  the  plans  of  the  German  Military 
Command  for  the  development  of  military 
operations  against  the  Union  of  Soviet 
Socialist  Republics  and  the  other  United 
Nations  and  also  the  charts  and  maps  and 
all  operational  documents  relating  to  the 
military  operations  of  the  German  armed 
forces. 


2.  The  Finnish  Government  shall  in- 
struct its  appropriate  authorities  regularly 
to  supply  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High  Com- 
mand with  meteorological  information. 

C, — Annex  to  Article  j 

x.  In  accordance  with  Article  3  of  the 
Agreement  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High  Com- 
mand will  indicate  to  the  Finnish  Military 
Command  which  aerodromes  must  be 
placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  Allied  (So- 
viet) High  Command  and  what  equip- 
ment must  remain  on  the  aerodromes  and 
equally  will  lay  down  the  manner  in 
which  these  aerodromes  are  to  be  used. 

The  Finnish  Government  shall  enable 
the  Soviet  Union  to  make  use  of  the  rail- 
ways, waterways,  roads  and  air  routes 
necessary  for  the  transport  of  personnel 
and  freight  despatched  from  the  Soviet 
Union  to  the  areas  where  the  above- 
mentioned  aerodromes  are  situated. 

2.  Henceforth  until  the  end  of  the  war 
against  Germany  Allied  naval  vessels  and 
merchant  ships  shall  have  the  right  to 
make  use  of  the  territorial  waters,  ports, 
wharves,  and  anchorages  of  Finland.  The 
Finnish  Government  shall  afford  the 
necessary  collaboration  as  regards  ma- 
terial and  technical  services. 

D. — Annex  to  Article  4 

1.  In  accordance  with  Article  4  of  the 
Agreement  the  Finnish  Military  Com- 
mand shall  immediately  make  available 
to  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High  Command  full 
information  regarding  the  composition, 
armament  and  location  of  all  the  land, 
sea  and  air  forces  of  Finland  and  shall 
come  to  an  agreement  with  the  Allied 
(Soviet)  High  Command  regarding  the 
manner  of  placing  the  Finnish  army  on  a 
peace  footing  within  the  period  fixed  by 
the  Agreement. 

2.  All  Finnish  naval  vessels,  merchant 
ships  and  aircraft  for  the  period  of  the  war 
against  Germany  must  be  returned  to 
their  bases,  ports  and  aerodromes  and 
must  not  leave  them  without  obtaining 
the  requisite  permission  to  do  so  from 
the  Allied  (Soviet)  High  Command. 

E. — Annex  to  Article  5 

i.  By  the  rupture,  referred  to  in  Article 
5  of  the  Agreement,  by  Finland  of  all 
relations  with  Germany  and  her  satellites 
is  meant  the  rupture  of  all  diplomatic, 
consular  and  other  relations  and  also  of 
postal,  telegraphic  and  telephone  com- 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  637 


munications  between  Finland  and  Ger- 
many and  Hungary. 

2.  The  Finnish  Government  under- 
takes in  future  until  such  time  as  the 
withdrawal  of  German  troops  from  Fin- 
land is  completed  to  discontinue  postal 
diplomatic  communications  and  also  any 
radio-telegraphic  or  telegraphic  cypher 
correspondence  and  telephone  communi- 
cations with  foreign  countries  by  diplo- 
matic missions  and  consulates  located  in 
Finland. 

F. — Annex  to  Article  7 

The  line  of  the  State  frontier  between 
the  Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics 
and  Finland,  in  connexion  with  the  return 
by  Finland  to  the  Soviet  Union  of  the 
Oblast  of  Petsamo  (Pechenga),  shall  pro- 
ceed as  follows: 

From  the  boundary  post  No.  859/90 
(Koryatunturi),  near  the  Lake  Yauri- 
Yarvi,  the  line  of  the  State  frontier  shall 
be  fixed  in  a  North-westerly  direction 
along  the  former  Russian-Finnish  bound- 
ary by  boundary  posts  Nos.  91,  92  and  93 
to  the  boundary  post  No.  94,  where  for- 
merly the  frontiers  of  Russia,  Norway 
and  Finland  met. 

Thence  the  line  of  the  frontier  shall  run 
in  a  general  North-easterly  direction 
along  the  former  Russian-Norwegian 
State  frontier  to  Varanger-Fjord  (see  the 
attached  Russian  map,1  scale  1:500,000). 

The  line  of  the  frontier,  fixed  from  the 
boundary  post  No.  859/90  (Korva- 
tunturi)  to  the  boundary  post  No.  94, 
will  be  demarcated  on  the  spot  by  a 
Soviet-Finnish  Mixed  Commission. 

The  Commission  will  establish  bound- 
ary signs,  will  make  a  detailed  description 
of  this  line  and  will  enter  it  on  a  map  of 
the  scale  of  1 125,000. 

The  Commission  will  begin  its  work  on 
a  date  to  be  specified  by  the  Soviet  Mili- 
tary Command. 

The  description  of  the  boundary  line 
and  the  map  of  this  line  made  by  the 
above-mentioned  Commission  shall  be 
confirmed  by  both  Governments. 

G. — Annex  to  Article  8 

I.  The  boundary  line  of  the  area  of 
Porkkala-Udd  leased  by  the  Union  of 
Soviet  Socialist  Republics  from  Finland 
shall  begin  at  a  point  of  which  the  map 
references  are:  latitude  59°  50'  North; 
longitude  24°  of  East.  Thence  the 


boundary  line  shall  proceed  North  along 
the  meridian  24°  of  to  a  point  of  which 
the  map  references  are:  latitude  60°  o6; 
12"  North;  longitude  24°  07'  East. 
Thence  the  boundary  line  shall  proceed 
along  the  line  indicated  in  the  map  in  a 
Northerly  direction  to  a  point  of  which 
the  map  references  are:  latitude  60°  08'  6" 
North;  longitude  24°  07'  36"  East. 

Thence  the  boundary  line  shall  pro- 
ceed along  the  line  indicated  on  the  map 
in  a  general  North-Easterly  by  Easterly 
direction  to  a  point  of  which  the  map  ref- 
erences are:  latitude  60°  10'  24"  North; 
longitude  24°  34'  6"  East.  Thence  along 
the  line  indicated  on  the  map  along  the 
bay  of  Espon-Lahti,  and  further  East  of 
the  islands  of  Smuholmarne,  Bjorken, 
Medvaste,  Heg-holm  and  Stur-Hamn- 
holm  to  a  point  of  which  the  map  refer- 
ences are:  latitude  60°  02'  54"  North; 
longitude  24°  37'  42"  East,  and  thence 
the  boundary  line  shall  proceed  South 
along  the  meridian  24°  37'  42"  to  the 
outer  boundaries  of  Finnish  territorial 
waters.  (See  the  map,  scale  1:100,000, 
attached  to  the  present  Agreement.) 

The  boundary  line  of  the  leased  area  of 
Porkkala-Udd  will  be  demarcated  on  the 
spot  by  a  Soviet-Finnish  Mixed  Commis- 
sion. The  Commission  shall  establish 
boundary  marks  and  shall  draw  up  a  de- 
tailed description  of  this  line  and  shall 
enter  it  upon  a  topographical  map,  scale 
1 120,000,  and  a  naval  map,  scale  1 150,000. 

The  Commission  shall  begin  its  work 
on  a  date  to  be  specified  by  the  Soviet 
Naval  Command. 

The  description  of  the  boundary  line 
of  the  leased  area  and  the  map  of  that  line 
prepared  by  the  above-mentioned  com- 
mission shall  be  confirmed  by  both  Gov- 
ernments. 

2.  In  accordance  with  Article  8  of  the 
Agreement  the  territory  and  waters  in  the 
area  of  Porkkala-Udd  shall  be  transferred 
by  Finland  to  the  Soviet  Union  within 
ten  days  from  the  moment  of  signature 
of  the  Armistice  Agreement  for  the  or- 
ganisation  of  a  Soviet  naval   base  on 
lease,  to  be  used  and  controlled  for  a 
period  of  fifty  years,  the  Soviet  Union 
making  an  annual  payment  of  five  mil- 
lion Finnish  marks. 

3.  The  Finnish  Government  undertakes 
to  enable  the  Soviet  Union  to  make  use 
of  the  railways,  waterways,  roads  and  air 
routes  necessary   for  the  transport  of 


1  Not  reproduced. 


Sept.  19,  1944 


ARMISTICE  WITH  FINLAND 


personnel  and  freight  despatched  from 
the  Soviet  Union  to  the  naval  base  at 
Porkkala-Udd. 

The  Finnish  Government  shall  grant  to 
the  Soviet  Union  the  right  of  unimpeded 
use  of  all  forms  of  communication  be- 
tween the  U.S.S.R.  and  the  territory 
leased  in  the  area  of  Porkkala-Udd. 

H. — Annex  to  Article  n 

I.  The  precise  nomenclature  and  varie- 
ties of  commodities  to  be  delivered  by 
Finland  to  the  Soviet  Union  in  accordance 
with  Article  1 1  of  the  Agreement  and  also 
the  more  precise  periods  for  making  these 
deliveries  each  year  shall  be  defined  in  a 
special  agreement  between  the  two  Gov- 
ernments. 

As  the  basis  for  accounts  regarding  the 
payment  of  the  indemnity  foreseen  in 
Article  1 1  of  the  Agreement  the  American 
dollar  is  to  be  used  at  its  gold  parity  on 
the  day  of  signature  of  the  Agreement, 
i.e.,  thirty-five  dollars  to  one  ounce  of  gold. 

I. — Annex  to  Article  22 

1.  The  Allied  Control  Commission  is 
an   organ   of   the   Allied    (Soviet)    High 
Command,  to  which  it  is  directly  sub- 
ordinated.   The  Control  Commission  will 
be  the  liaison   link  between   the  Allied 
(Soviet)  High  Command  and  the  Finnish 
Government,  through  which  Government 
the  Commission  will  carry  on  all  its  rela- 
tions with  the  Finnish  authorities. 

2.  The  chief  task  of  the  Control  Com- 
mission is  to  see  to  the  punctual  and  ac- 
curate fulfilment  by  the  Finnish  Govern- 
ment of  Articles  2,  3,  4,  10,  12,  13,  14,  15, 


16,  17,  18,  20  and  21  of  the  Armistice 
Agreement. 

3.  The  Control  Commission  shall  have 
the  right  to  receive  from  the  Finnish  au- 
thorities all  the  information  which  it  re- 
quires for  the  fulfilment  of  the  above- 
mentioned  task. 

4.  In  the  event  of  the  discovery  of  any 
violation  of  the  above-mentioned  Articles 
of  the  ^Armistice  Agreement  the  Control 
Commission  shall  make  appropriate  rep- 
resentations to  the  Finnish  authorities  in 
order  that  proper  steps  may  be  taken. 

5.  The  Control  Commission  may  estab- 
lish special  organs  or  sections,  entrusting 
them  respectively  with  the  execution  of 
various  tasks. 

Moreover,  the  Control  Commission 
may  through  its  officers  make  the  neces- 
sary investigations  and  the  collection  of 
the  information  which  it  requires. 

6.  The  Control  Commission  shall  be 
established  in  Helsingfors. 

7.  The  members  of  the  Control  Com- 
mission and  equally  its  officers  shall  have 
the  right  to  visit  without  let  or  hindrance 
any  institution,  enterprise  or  port  and 
to  receive  there  all  the  information  neces- 
sary for  their  functions. 

8.  The  Control  Commission  shall  enjoy 
all  diplomatic   privileges,   including  in- 
violability of  person,  property  and  ar- 
chives, and  it  shall  have  the  right  of 
communication  by  means  of  cypher  and 
diplomatic  courier. 

9.  The  Control  Commission  shall  have 
at  its  disposal  a  number  of  aircraft  for  the 
use  of  which  the  Finnish  authorities  shall 
grant  all  the  necessary  facilities. 


No.  637a 

Protocol  to  the  Armistice  Agreement  with  Finland. 
Moscow,  September  19,  1944. 


Protocole  &  P Accord  concernant  P armistice  avec  la  Finlande. 
&  Moscou,  19  septembre  1944. 

Entered  into  force  September  19, 1944. 

Text  from  Br.  Parl,  Papers,  Misc.  No.  2  (1945),  Cmd.  6586,  p.  10. 


Signed  at 
SignS 


On  the  occasion  of  the  signing  of  the 
Armistice  Agreement  with  the  Govern- 
ment of  Finland,  the  Allied  Governments 
signatory  thereto  are  agreed  that — 


I.  Paragraph  i  of  Article  10  of  the 
Armistice  Agreement  defines  the  obliga- 
tions undertaken  by  the  Finnish  Govern- 
ment in  regard  to  surrender  to  the  Allied 


152 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  637b 


authorities  of  Allied  prisoners  of  war  and 
Allied  nationals  interned  in  or  forcibly 
removed  to  Finland.  Each  Allied  Gov- 
ernment shall  decide  which  of  its  nationals 
shall  or  shall  not  be  repatriated. 

2.  The  term  "war  material"  used  in 
Article  15  shall  be  deemed  to  include  all 
material  or  equipment  belonging  to,  used 
by  or  intended  for  use  by,  enemy  military 
or  para-military  formations  or  members 
thereof. 

3.  The  use  by  Allied  (Soviet)  High 


Command  of  Allied  vessels  handed  back 
by  the  Government  of  Finland  in  accord- 
ance with  Article  1 8  of  the  Armistice 
Agreement,  and  date  of  their  return  ^  to 
their  owners  will  be  matter  for  discussion 
and  settlement  between  the  Government 
of  the  Soviet  Union  and  Allied  Govern- 
ments concerned. 

DONE  in  Moscow  on  the  I9th  Septem- 
ber in  two  copies,  each  in  the  English 
and  Russian  languages,  both  English 
and  Russian  texts  being  authentic. 


[Signed:]  For  Government  of  United  Kingdom:  ARCHIBALD  CLARK  KERR;  for 
Government  of  the  Soviet  Union:  DEKANOZOV. 


No.  637b 

Protocol  to  the  Armistice  Agreement  with   Finland.    Signed   at 
Moscow,  October  8,  1944. 

Protocole  a  P Accord  concernant  1'armistice  avec  la  Finlande.    Signe 
&  Moscou,  8  octobre  1944. 


EDITOR'S  NOTE.  An  alteration  of  the  period  of  payment  provided  for  in  this  Protocol 
was  effected  by  a  supplementary  protocol  signed  by  Canada  and  the  Soviet  Union  at  Ottawa, 
September  29,  1947;  the  British  Government  accepted  this  change  on  November  19,  1947. 
Canada,  Treaty  Series,  1947,  No.  24.  On  previous  negotiations  between  Finland  and  the 
Soviet  Union  with  respect  to  the  Petsamo  mines,  see  Finland  Reveals  Her  Secret  Documents 
on  Soviet  Policy,  March  1940 — June  1941  (New  York,  1941),  pp.  23-28,  50-97. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Protocol  is  also  published  in  Canada,  Treaty  Series, 
1944,  No.  29;  12  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1945),  p.  267;  2  Soviet  Foreign  Policy 
during  the  Patriotic  War:  Documents  and  Materials  (London,  1947),  p.  161. 

Entered  into  force  October  8, 1944. 

Text  from  Br.  Parl.  Papers,  Misc.  No.  2  (1945),  Cmd.  6586,  p.  II. 


On  the  occasion  of  the  signing  of  the 
Armistice  Agreement  with  the  Govern- 
ment of  Finland,  the  Government  of  the 
United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and 
Northern  Ireland,  the  Government  of 
Canada  and  the  Government  of  the  Union 
of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics  are  agreed 
that— 

In  connexion  with  the  return  by  Fin- 
land to  the  Soviet  Union  of  the  former 
Soviet  territory  of  the  Oblast  of  Petsamo 
(Pechenga)  and  the  consequent  transfer 
to  ownership  of  the  Soviet  Union  of  nickel 
mines  (including  all  property  and  installa- 


tions appertaining  thereto)  operated  in 
the  said  territory  for  the  benefit  of  the 
Mond  Nickel  Company  and  the  Interna- 
tional Nickel  Company  of  Canada,  the 
Soviet  Government  will  pay  to  the  Gov- 
ernment of  Canada  during  the  course  of 
six  years  from  the  date  of  the  signing  of 
the  present  Protocol,  in  equal  instalments, 
the  sum  of  20  million  United  States  dollars 
as  full  and  final  compensation  of  the 
above-mentioned  companies.  For  the 
purpose  of  this  payment  United  States 
dollars  will  be  reckoned  at  the  value  of 
35  dollars  to  one  ounce  of  gold. 


Oct.  28,  1944  ARMISTICE  WITH  BULGARIA  153 

DONE  in  Moscow  on  the  8th  October,  and  Russian  languages,  both  the  English 
1944,  *n  three  copies,  each  in  the  English  and  Russian  texts  being  authentic. 

[Signed:]  For  the  Government  of  the  United  Kingdom:  ARCHIBALD  CLARK  KERR; 
for  the  Government  of  Canada:  L.  D.  WILGRESS;  for  the  Government  of  the  Union 
of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics:  V.  G.  DEKANOZOV. 


No.  638 

ARMISTICE  Agreement  with  Bulgaria.    Signed  at  Moscow,  October 

28,  1944. 

ACCORD  concernant  Parmistice  avec  la  Bulgarie.    Signe  &  Moscou, 

28  octobre  1944. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  is  one  of  the  series  of  instruments  which  ended  the  hostilities  in 
World  War  II.  For  other  armistice  agreements  of  the  period,  see  Nos.  625,  636,  and  637, 
ante;  Nos.  645,  651,  and  661,  post.  At  the  time  of  the  armistice,  Bulgaria  was  at  war  with 
Australia,  Bolivia,  Czechoslovakia,  Great  Britain,  Greece,  Haiti,  India,  Luxemburg,  New 
Zealand,  Nicaragua,  South  Africa,  the  Soviet  Union,  the  United  States  of  America,  and 
Yugoslavia.  The  treaty  of  peace  with  Bulgaria,  signed  at  Paris,  February  10,  1947,  came 
into  force  on  September  15,  1947.  U.S.  Treaties  and  Other  International  Acts  Series,  No. 
1650.  A  treaty  of  friendship,  cooperation,  and  mutual  assistance  between  Bulgaria  and 
the  Soviet  Union  was  signed  at  Moscow,  March  18,  1948.  I  U.S.  Department  of  State, 
Documents  and  State  Papers  (1948),  p.  236. 

RATIFICATIONS.    This  Agreement  was  not  subject  to  ratification. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Agreement  was  published  also  in  Br.  Part.  Papers, 
Misc.  No.  3  (1945),  Cmd.  6587;  2  Soviet  Foreign  Policy  during  the  Patriotic  War:  Documents 
and  Materials  (London,  1947),  p.  169;  Canada,  Treaty  Series,  1944,  No.  39;  39  Am.  Jour. 
Int.  Law  (Supp.,  1945),  p.  93. 

A.  J.  Fischer,  "Bulgaria  and  the  Powers,"  169  Contemporary  Review  (1946),  pp.  344-48; 
M.  W.  Graham,  "Armistices — 1944  Style,"  39  Am.  Jour.  Int.  Law  (1945),  pp.  286-95; 
V.  Kolarov,  "Les  revendications  de  la  Bulgarie,"  2  Cahiers  du  Monde  nouveau  (1946), 
No.  6,  pp.  61-69. 

Entered  into  force  October  28, 1944. 
Text  from  U.S.  Executive  Agreement  Series,  No.  437. 

The  Government  of  Bulgaria  ao  representative  of  the  Soviet  High 
cepts  the  armistice  terms  presented  Command,  Marshal  of  the  Soviet 
by  the  Governments  of  the  United  Union  F.  I.  Tolbukhin,  duly  author- 
States  of  America,  the  Union  of  ized  thereto  by  the  Governments 
Soviet  Socialist  Republics  and  the  of  the  United  States  of  America,  the 
United  Kingdom,  acting  on  behalf  Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics 
of  all  the  United  Nations  at  war  with  and  the  United  Kingdom,  acting  on 
Bulgaria.  behalf  of  all  the  United  Nations  at 

Accordingly,  the  representative  of  war  with  Bulgaria,  on  the  one  hand, 

the  Supreme  Allied  Commander  in  and  representatives  of  the  Govern- 

the  Mediterranean,  Lieutenant-Gen-  ment  of  Bulgaria,  Mr.  P.  Stainov, 

eral  Sir  James  Gammell,  and  the  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs,  Mr.  D. 


154 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  638 


Terpeshev,  Minister  without  Port- 
folio, Mr.  N.  Petkov,  Minister  with- 
out Portfolio,  and  Mr.  P.  Stoyanov, 
Minister  of  Finance,  furnished  with 
due  powers,  on  the  other  hand,  have 
signed  the  following  terms: 

1.  (a)  Bulgaria,  having  ceased  hos- 
tilities with  the  U.S.S.R.  on  Sep- 
tember 9,  and  severed  relations  with 
Germany  on  September  6  and  with 
Hungary    on    September    26,    has 
ceased  hostilities  against  all  the  other 
United  Nations. 

(ft)  The  Government  of  Bulgaria 
undertakes  to  disarm  the  German 
armed  forces  in  Bulgaria  and  to  hand 
them  over  as  prisoners  of  war. 

The  Government  of  Bulgaria  also 
undertakes  to  intern  nationals  of 
Germany  and  her  satellites. 

(c)  The  Government  of  Bulgaria 
undertakes  to  maintain  and  make 
available    such    land,    sea    and    air 
forces  as  may  be  specified  for  service 
under  the  general  direction  of  the  Al- 
lied (Soviet)  High  Command.     Such 
forces  must  not  be  used  on  Allied 
territory  except  with  the  prior  con- 
sent of  the  Allied  Government  con- 
cerned. 

(d)  On  the  conclusion  of  hostili- 
ties against  Germany,  the  Bulgarian 
armed  forces  must  be  demobilized 
and  put  on  a  peace  footing  under  the 
supervision   of   the   Allied    Control 
Commission. 

2.  Bulgarian  armed  forces  and  of- 
ficials must  be  withdrawn  within  the 
specified  time  limit  from  the  terri- 
tory of  Greece  and  Yugoslavia  in 
accordance  with   the  pre-condition 
accepted  by  the  Government  of  Bul- 
garia on  October  ii;  the  Bulgarian 
authorities  must  immediately  take 
steps  to  withdraw  from  Greek  and 
Yugoslav  territory  Bulgarians  who 
were  citizens  of  Bulgaria  on  January 
I,  1941,  and  to  repeal  all  legislative 
and  administrative  provisions  relat- 
ing to  the  annexation  or  incorpora- 
tion in  Bulgaria  of  Greek  or  Yugo- 
slav territory. 

3.  The  Government  of  Bulgaria 


will  afford  to  Soviet  and  other  Allied 
forces  freedom  of  movement  over 
Bulgarian  territory  in  any  direction, 
if  in  the  opinion  of  the  Allied  (Soviet) 
High  Command  the  military  situa- 
tion so  requires,  the  Government  of 
Bulgaria  giving  to  such  movements 
every  assistance  with  its  own  means 
of  communication,  and  at  its  own 
expense,  by  land,  water  and  in  the 
air. 

4.  The  Government  of  Bulgaria 
will  immediately  release  all  Allied 
prisoners    of    war    and    internees. 
Pending  further  instructions  the  Gov- 
ernment of  Bulgaria  will  at  its  own 
expense  provide  all  Allied  prisoners 
of  war  and  internees,  displaced  per- 
sons and  refugees,  including  nation- 
als of  Greece  and  Yugoslavia,  with 
adequate    food,    clothing,    medical 
services  and  sanitary  and  hygienic 
requirements,  and  also  with  means  of 
transportation  for  the  return  of  any 
such  persons  to  their  own  country. 

5.  The  Government  of  Bulgaria 
will  immediately  release,  regardless 
of  citizenship  or  nationality,  all  per- 
sons held  in  detention  in  Bulgaria 
in  connection  with  their  activities  in 
favor  of  the  United  Nations,  or  be- 
cause of  their  sympathies  with  the 
United  Nations*  cause  or  for  racial 
or  religious  reasons,  and  will  repeal 
all  discriminatory  legislation  and  dis- 
abilities arising  therefrom. 

6.  The  Government  of  Bulgaria 
will  cooperate  in  the  apprehension  and 
trial  of  persons  accused  of  war  crimes. 

7.  The  Government  of  Bulgaria 
undertakes  to  dissolve  immediately 
all  pro-Hitler  or  other  Fascist  po- 
litical,  military,   para-military  and 
other    organizations    on    Bulgarian 
territory  conducting  propaganda  hos- 
tile  to   the    United    Nations,    and 
not  to  tolerate  the  existence  of  such 
organizations  in  future. 

8.  The  publication,   introduction 
and  distribution  in  Bulgaria  of  peri- 
odical or  non-periodical  literature, 
the  presentation  of  theatrical  per- 
formances or  films,  the  operation  of 


Oct.  28,  1944 


ARMISTICE  WITH  BULGARIA 


155 


wireless  stations,  post,  telegraph  and 
telephone  services  will  take  place  in 
agreement  with  the  Allied  (Soviet) 
High  Command. 

9.  The  Government  of  Bulgaria 
will  restore  all  property  of  the  United 
Nations  and  their  nationals,  includ- 
ing Greek  and  Yugoslav  property, 
and  will  make  such  reparation  for 
loss  and  damage  caused  by  the  war 
to   the   United    Nations,    including 
Greece  and  Yugoslavia,  as  may  be 
determined  later. 

10.  The  Government  of  Bulgaria 
will  restore  all  rights  and  interests 
of  the  United  Nations  and  their  na- 
tionals in  Bulgaria. 

11.  The  Government  of  Bulgaria 
undertakes  to  return  to  the  Soviet 
Union,  to  Greece  and  Yugoslavia, 
and  to  the  other  United  Nations  by 
the   dates   specified    by   the   Allied 
Control  Commission  and  in  a  good 
state  of  preservation,  all  valuables 
and  materials  removed  during  the 
war  by  Germany  or  Bulgaria  from 
United   Nations'   territory  and   be- 
longing to  state,  public  or  coopera- 
tive organizations,  enterprises,  insti- 
tutions or  individual  citizens  such  as 
factory  and  works  equipment,  loco- 
motives, rolling  stock,  tractors,  mo- 
tor   vehicles,    historic    monuments, 
museum    treasures   and    any   other 
property. 

12.  The  Government  of  Bulgaria 
undertakes  to  hand  over  as  booty  to 
the  Allied  (Soviet)  High  Command 
all  war  material  of  Germany  and  her 
satellites  located  on  Bulgarian  terri- 
tory, including  vessels  of  the  fleets  of 
Germany  and  her  satellites  located  in 
Bulgarian  waters. 

13.  The  Government  of  Bulgaria 
undertakes  not  to  permit  the  removal 
or   expropriation    of   any   form    of 
property   (including  valuables  and 
currency),  belonging  to  Germany  or 
Hungary  or  to  their  nationals  or  to 
persons  resident  in  their  territories  or 
in    territories    occupied    by    them, 
without  the  permission  of  the  Allied 
Control  Commission.    The  Govern- 


ment of  Bulgaria  will  safeguard  such 
property  in  the  manner  specified  by 
the  Allied  Control  Commission. 

14.  The  Government  of  Bulgaria 
undertakes  to  hand  over  to  the  Al- 
lied   (Soviet)    High    Command    all 
vessels  belonging  to  the  United  Na- 
tions which  are  in  Bulgarian  ports, 
no  matter  at  whose  disposal  these 
vessels  may  be,  for  the  use  of  the 
Allied  (Soviet)  High  Command  dur- 
ing  the  war  against  Germany  or 
Hungary  in  the  common  interest  of 
the  Allies,  the  vessels  to  be  returned 
subsequently  to  their  owners. 

The  Government  of  Bulgaria  will 
bear  full  material  responsibility  for 
any  damage  to  or  destruction  of  the 
aforesaid  property  up  to  the  moment 
of  its  transfer  to  the  Allied  (Soviet) 
High  Command. 

15.  The  Government  of  Bulgaria 
must  make  regular  payments  in  Bul- 
garian  currency  and   must  supply 
goods  (fuel,  foodstuffs,  et  cetera),  fa- 
cilities and  services  as  may  be  re- 
quired by  the  Allied  (Soviet)  High 
Command  for  the  discharge  of  its 
functions. 

1 6.  Bulgarian    merchant    vessels, 
whether  in  Bulgarian  or  foreign  wat- 
ers, shall  be  subject  to  the  opera- 
tional control  of  the  Allied  (Soviet) 
High  Command  for  use  in  the  general 
interest  of  the  Allies. 

17.  The  Government  of  Bulgaria 
will  arrange  in  case  of  need  for  the 
utilization  in  Bulgarian  territory  of 
industrial  and  transport  enterprises, 
means  of  communication,  power  sta- 
tions, public  utility  enterprises  and 
installations,  stocks  of  fuel  and  other 
materials    in    accordance   with    the 
instructions  issued  during  the  armi- 
stice  by  the  Allied   (Soviet)   High 
Command. 

1 8.  For  the  whole  period  of  the 
armistice  there  will  be  established  in 
Bulgaria  an  Allied  Control  Commis- 
sion which  will  regulate  and  super- 
vise the  execution  of  the  armistice 
terms  under  the  chairmanship  of  the 
representative  of  the  Allied  (Soviet) 


156 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  6s8a 


High  Command,  and  with  the  par- 
ticipation of  representatives  of  the 
United  States  and  the  United  King- 
dom. 

During  the  period  between  the 
coming  into  force  of  the  armistice 
and  the  conclusion  of  hostilities 
against  Germany  the  Allied  Control 
Commission  will  be  under  the  gen- 


eral direction  of  the  Allied  (Soviet) 
High  Command. 

19.  The  present  terms  will  come 
into  force  on  their  signing. 

DONE  at  Moscow  in  quadrupli- 
cate, in  the  Russian,  English  and 
Bulgarian  languages,  the  Russian 
and  English  texts  being  authentic. 

October  28,  1944. 


[Signed :]  For  the  Governments  of  the  United  States  of  America,  the  Union 
of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics,  and  the  United  Kingdom:  Representative  of  the 
Supreme  Allied  Commander  in  the  Mediterranean,  J.  A.  H.  GAMMELL,  Lt. 
Gen.;  Representative  of  the  Soviet  High  Command,  F.  I.  TOLBUKHIN;  for  the 
Government  of  Bulgaria:  P.  STAINOV,  D.  TERPESHEV,  N.  PETKOV,  P. 
STOYANOV. 


No.  638a 


Protocol  to  the  Armistice  Agreement  with  Bulgaria.    Signed  at 
Moscow,  October  28,  1944. 

Protocole  &  1' Accord  concernant  Parmistice  avec  la  Bulgarie.    Signe 
&  Moscou,  28  octobre  1944. 

Entered  into  force  October  28, 1944. 

Text  from  U.S.  Executive  Agreement  Series,  No.  437,  p.  17. 


At  the  time  of  the  signing  of  the 
Armistice  Agreement  with  the  Gov- 
ernment of  Bulgaria,  the  Allied 
Governments  signatory  thereto  have 
agreed  to  the  following: 

I.  In  connexion  with  Article  9  it  is 
understood  that  the  Government  of 
Bulgaria  will  immediately  make 
available  certain  foodstuffs  for  the 
relief  of  the  population  of  Greek  and 
Yugoslav  territories  which  have  suf- 
fered as  a  result  of  Bulgarian  ag- 
gression. The  quantities  of  each 
product  to  be  delivered  will  be 
determined  by  agreement  between 
the  three  governments  and  will  be 
considered  as  part  of  the  repara- 
tion by  Bulgaria  for  loss  and  dam- 
age sustained  by  Greece  and  Yugo- 
slavia. 


2.  The  term  "war  material"  used 
in  Article  12  shall  be  deemed  to  in- 
clude all  material  or  equipment  be- 
longing to,  used  by,  or  intended  for 
use  by  enemy  military  or  para-mili- 
tary formations  or  members  thereof. 

3.  The  use  by  the  Allied  (Soviet) 
High   Command   of  Allied   vessels 
handed  over  by  the  Government  of 
Bulgaria  in  accordance  with  Article 
14  of  the  armistice  and  the  date  of 
their  return  to  their  owners  will  be 
the  subject  of  discussion  and  settle- 
ment  between   the   Allied   govern- 
ments concerned  and  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  Soviet  Union. 

4.  It  is  understood  that  in  the 
application  of  Article  15  the  Allied 
(Soviet)  High  Command  will  also 
arrange  for  provision  of  Bulgarian 


Dec.  7,  1944  INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION  157 

currency,  supplies,  services,  et  cetera,  DONE  at  Moscow  in  triplicate,  in 

to  meet  the  needs  of  the  representa-  the  Russian  and  English  languages, 

tives   of   the   governments   of   the  both  the  Russian  and  English  texts 

United  States  and  United  Kingdom  being  authentic, 

in  Bulgaria.  28  October,  1944. 

[Signed:]  For  the  Government  of  the  United  States  of  America,  GEORGE 
F.  KENNAN;  for  the  Government  of  the  Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics, 
A.  Y.  VYSHINSKI  ;  for  the  Government  of  the  United  Kingdom,  ARCHIBALD 
CLARK  KERR. 


No.  639 

INTERIM  AGREEMENT  on  International  Civil  Aviation.    Opened 
for  signature  at  Chicago,  December  7,  1944. 

ACCORD    PROVISIONNEL    sur    aviation    civile    Internationale. 
Ouvert  a  la  signature  &  Chicago,  7  decembre  1944. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Agreement  was  formulated  at  the  International  Civil  Aviation 
Conference  held  at  Chicago,  November  I -December  7,  1944.  A  convention  on  international 
civil  aviation  and  two  agreements,  on  transit  and  on  transport,  were  also  concluded  at  that 
conference  (Nos.  640-642,  post).  The  Final  Act  of  the  conference  with  various  resolutions 
and  technical  annexes  was  published  in  U.S.  Department  of  State,  Publication  No.  2282, 
Conference  Series  No.  64,  pp.  35-43,  96-284.  The  first  meeting  of  the  Interim  Council 
was  held  at  Montreal,  August  15-30,  1945;  a  meeting  of  the  Interim  Assembly  was  held  at 
Montreal,  May  2i-June  7,  1946. 

ACCEPTANCES.  On  July  i,  1947,  acceptances  of  this  Agreement  had  been  effected  by 
Afghanistan,  Argentine  Republic,  Australia,  Belgium,  Bolivia,  Brazil,  Canada,  Chile, 
China,  Colombia,  Cuba,  Czechoslovakia,  Denmark,  Dominican  Republic,  Egypt,  El  Salva- 
dor, Ethiopia,  France,  Great  Britain  (with  reservation),  Greece,  Guatemala,  Haiti,  Hon- 
duras, Iceland,  India  (with  reservation),  Iran,  Iraq,  Ireland,  Lebanon,  Liberia,  Luxemburg, 
Mexico,  Netherlands,  New  Zealand  (with  reservation),  Nicaragua,  Norway,  Paraguay, 
Peru,  Philippines,  Poland,  Portugal,  South  Africa,  Spain,  Sweden,  Switzerland,  Syria,  Thai- 
land, Transjordan,  Turkey,  the  United  States  of  America,  and  Venezuela. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Agreement  is  also  published  in  U.S.  Department  of 
State,  Publication  No.  2282,  Conference  Series  No.  64,  p.  44;  Canada,  Treaty  Series,  1944, 
No.  36,  p.  22;  Br.  Part.  Papers,  Misc.  No.  6  (1945),  Cmd.  6614;  39  Am.  Jour.  Int.  Law 
(Supp.,  1945),  pp.  122-35.  The  proceedings  of  the  Chicago  Conference  have  been  pub- 
lished in  U.S.  Department  of  State,  Publication  2820,  International  Organization  and 
Conference  Series  IV,  ICAO  3  (Washington,  1949),  2  vols.,  1509  pp.  The  activities  of 
PICAO  are  recorded  in  the  PICAO  Journal  and  in  the  PICAO  Monthly  Bulletin. 

Anon.,  "Conferencia  Internacional  de  Aviaci6n  Civil,"  8  Revista  argentina  de  derecho 
internacional  (2d  sen,  1945),  pp.  180-207,  299-338;  W.  Arnold-Forster,  "Civil  Air  Trans- 
port," 15  Political  Quarterly  (1944),  pp.  213-19;  T.  Burke,  "Influences  Affecting  Interna- 
tional Aviation  Policy,"  n  Law  and  Contemporary  Problems  (1946),  pp.  598-608;  Canada, 
Wartime  Information  Board,  Canada  and  International  Civil  Aviation  (Ottawa,  1945), 
30  pp.;  D.  Cook,  The  Chicago  Aviation  Agreements:  An  Approach  to  World  Policy  (American 
Enterprise  Association,  Economic  Survey  Series,  No.  406,  New  York,  1945),  39  pp.;  J.  C. 
Cooper,  The  Right  to  Fly  (New  York,  1947),  pp.  157-96;  M.  Domke,  "International  CivH 


158  INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION  No.  639 

Aviation  Sets  New  Pattern,"  I  International  Arbitration  Journal  (1945),  pp.  20-29;  A.  Gar- 
nault,  "Les  conventions  et  resolutions  de  Chicago,"  I  Revue  frangaise  de  droit  afrien  (1947), 
PP-  25-32;  S.  Latchford,  "Coordination  of  CITEJA  with  the  New  International  Civil 

Aviation  Organization,"  12  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1945),  pp.  310-13; , 

"Concerning  Acceptance  of  Aviation  Agreements  as  Executive  Agreements,"  idem  (1945), 
pp.  1104-8;  A.  Linares  Fleytas,  "La  Conferencia  Internacional  de  Aviaci6n  Civil,"  48 
Revista  de  derecho  international  (1945),  pp.  215-42;  49  idem  (1946),  pp.  79-110,  237-46; 
O.  Mance  and  J.  E.  Wheeler,  International  Air  Transport  (London,  New  York,  1944), 
117  pp.;  A.  C.  McKim,  "World  Order  in  Air  Transport,"  2  International  Journal  (1947), 
pp.  226-36;  S.  W.  Morgan,  "The  International  Civil  Aviation  Conference  at  Chicago  and 

What  It  Means  to  America,"  12  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1945),  pp.  33-38; , 

"International  Civil  Aviation  Problems,"  idem,  pp.  701-7,714;  H.  Oppikofer,  "Die 
Konferenz  von  Chicago  und  ihre  Abkommen,"  2  Schweizerisches  Jahrbuchftlr  internationales 
Recht  (1945),  pp.  216-29;  H.  Osterhout,  "A  Review  of  the  Recent  Chicago  International 
Air  Conference,"  31  Virginia  Law  Review  (1945),  pp.  376-86;  C.  S.  Rhyne,  "Legal  Rules 
for  International  Aviation,"  idem,  pp.  267-315;  L.  T.  Salinas,  "El  porvenir  del  trafico 
a&reo:  Comentarios  a  la  Conferencia  de  Chicago,"  9  Revista  de  estudios  politicos  (1944), 
pp.  170-77;  H.  Stannard,  "Civil  Aviation,"  21  International  A/airs  (1945),  pp.  497-511; 
United  Nations  Information  Office,  Towards  Freedom  in  the  Air:  The  Story  of  the  Interna- 
tional Civil  Aviation  Conference  (New  York,  1945),  31  pp.;  U.S.  Department  of  State, 
Blueprint  for  World  Civil  Aviation  (Publ.  2348,  Conf.  Series  No.  70;  1945),  34  pp.;  J.  P. 

Van  Zandt,  Civil  Aviation  and  Peace  (Washington,  1944),  *57  PP-I .  "The  Chicago 

Aviation  Conference,"  20  Foreign  Policy  Reports  (1945),  pp.  290-96;  R.  K.  Waldo,  "Sequels 
to  the  Chicago  Aviation  Conference,"  n  Law  and  Contemporary  Problems  (1946),  pp.  609- 
28;  J.  D.  Walstrom,  "The  Chicago  Air  Conference,"  II  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin 
(1944),  pp.  843-46;  E.  Warner,  "The  Chicago  Air  Conference,"  23  Foreign  Affairs  (1945), 

pp.  406-21; ,  "Notes  from  PICAO  Experience,"  I  Air  Affairs  (1946),  pp.  30-44; 

A.  Worthington,  International  Airways  (New  York,  1945),  275  pp. 

Entered  into  force  June  6,  1945.* 

Text  from  U.S.  Executive  Agreement  Series,  No.  469. 

The    undersigned,    on    behalf    of     an  Interim  Council,  and  it  shall  have 
their  respective  governments,  agree     its  seat  in  Canada, 
to  the  following:  Section  3.     The   Organization    is 

A  O-T     n      •  •       i  established    for   an    interim    period 

ARTICLE ^i. -The  Provisional          which  shall  last  unti,  a  new  pi;rma. 

Urbanization  nent  convention  on  international 
Section  I.  The  signatory  States  civil  aviation  shall  have  come  into 
hereby  establish  a  provisional  inter-  force  or  another  conference  on  inter- 
national organization  of  a  technical  national  civil  aviation  shall  have 
and  advisory  nature  of  sovereign  agreed  upon  other  arrangements: 
States  for  the  purpose  of  collabora-  provided,  however,  that  the  interim 
tion  in  the  field  of  international  civil  period  shall  in  no  event  exceed  three 
aviation.  The  organization  shall  be  years  from  the  coming  into  force  of 
known  as  the  Provisional  Inter-  the  present  Agreement, 
national  Civil  Aviation  Organiza-  Section  4.  The  Organization  shall 
tion.  enjoy  in  the  territory  of  each  mem- 
Section  2.  The  Organization  shall  ber  State  such  legal  capacity  as  may 
consist  of  an  Interim  Assembly  and  be  necessary  for  the  performance  of 

*The  Provisional  Organization  ceased  to  exist  on  April  4,  1947,  when  the  permanent 
convention  (No.  640,  post)  came  into  force. 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


159 


its  functions.  Full  juridical  person- 
ality shall  be  granted  wherever  com- 
patible with  the  constitution  and 
laws  of  the  State  concerned. 

ARTICLE  2. — The  Interim  Assembly 

Section  I.  The  Assembly  shall 
meet  annually  and  shall  be  convened 
by  the  Council  at  a  suitable  time 
and  place.  Extraordinary  meetings 
of  the  Assembly  may  be  held  at  any 
time  upon  call  of  the  Council  or  at 
the  request  of  any  ten  member 
States  of  the  Organization  addressed 
to  the  Secretary  General. 

All  member  States  shall  have  equal 
right  to  be  represented  at  the  meet- 
ings of  the  Assembly  and  each  mem- 
ber State  shall  be  entitled  to  one 
vote.  Delegates  representing  mem- 
ber States  may  be  assisted  by  tech- 
nical advisers  who  may  participate 
in  the  meetings  but  shall  have  no 
vote. 

A  majority  of  the  member  States 
is  required  to  constitute  a  quorum 
for  the  meetings  of  the  Assembly. 
Unless  otherwise  provided  herein, 
voting  of  the  Assembly  shall  be  by 
a  simple  majority  of  the  member 
States  present. 

Section  2.  The  powers  and  duties 
of  the  Assembly  shall  be  to: 

1 .  Elect  at  each  meeting  its  Presi- 
dent and  other  officers. 

2.  Elect  the  member  States  to  be 
represented  on  the  Council,  as  pro- 
vided in  Article  3,  Section  I. 

3.  Examine,  and  take  appropriate 
action  upon,  the  reports  of  the  Coun- 
cil and  decide  upon  any  matter  re- 
ferred to  it  by  the  Council. 

4.  Determine  its  own  rules  of  pro- 
cedure and  establish  such  subsidiary 
commissions  and  committees  as  may 
be  necessary  or  advisable. 

5.  Approve  an  annual  budget  and 
determine  the  financial  arrangements 
of  the  Organization. 

6.  At  its  discretion,  refer  to  the 
Council  any  specific  matter  for  its 
consideration  and  report. 

7.  Delegate  to  the  Council  all  the 


powers  and  authority  that  may  be 
considered  necessary  or  advisable  for 
the  discharge  of  the  duties  of  the 
Organization.  Such  delegations  of 
authority  may  be  revoked  or  modi- 
fied at  any  time  by  the  Assembly. 

8.  Deal  with  any  matter  within 
the  sphere  of  action  of  the  Organiza- 
tion not  specifically  assigned  to  the 
Council. 

ARTICLE  $.—The  Interim  Council 

Section  I.  The  Council  shall  be 
composed  of  not  more  than  21  mem- 
ber States  elected  by  the  Assembly 
for  a  period  of  two  years.  In  elect- 
ing the  members  of  the  Council,  the 
Assembly  shall  give  adequate  repre- 
sentation (i)  to  those  member  States 
of  chief  importance  in  air  transport, 
(2)  to  those  member  States  not  oth- 
erwise included  which  make  the 
largest  contribution  to  the  provision 
of  facilities  for  international  civil  air 
navigation,  and  (3)  to  those  member 
States  not  otherwise  included  whose 
election  will  insure  that  all  major 
geographical  areas  of  the  world  are 
represented.  Any  vacancy  on  the 
Council  shall  be  filled  by  the  Assem- 
bly at  its  next  meeting.  Any  mem- 
ber State  of  the  Council  so  elected 
shall  hold  office  for  the  remainder  of 
its  predecessor's  term  of  office. 

Section  2.  No  representative  of  a 
member  State  on  the  Council  shall 
be  actively  associated  with  the  op- 
eration of  an  international  air  service 
or  financially  interested  in  such  a 
service. 

Section  3 .  The  Council  shall  elect, 
and  determine  the  emoluments  of,  a 
President,  for  a  term  not  to  exceed 
the  interim  period.  The  President 
shall  have  no  vote.  The  Council 
shall  also  elect  from  among  its  mem- 
bers one  or  more  Vice  Presidents, 
who  shall  retain  their  right  to  vote 
when  serving  as  Acting  President. 
The  President  need  not  be  selected 
from  the  members  of  the  Council  but 
if  a  member  is  elected,  his  seat  shall 
be  deemed  vacant  and  it  shall  be 


i6o 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  639 


filled  by  the  State  which  he  repre- 
sented. The  President  shall  con- 
vene, and  preside  at,  the  meetings  of 
the  Council;  he  shall  act  as  the  Coun- 
cil's representative;  and  he  shall 
carry  out  such  functions  on  behalf 
of  the  Council  as  may  be  assigned  to 
him. 

Decisions  by  the  Council  will  be 
deemed  valid  only  when  approved  by 
a  majority  of  all  the  members  of  the 
Council. 

Section  4.  Any  member  State  not 
a  member  of  the  Council  may  par- 
ticipate in  the  deliberations  of  the 
Council  whenever  any  decision  is  to 
be  taken  which  especially  concerns 
such  member  State.  Such  member 
State,  however,  shall  not  have  the 
right  to  vote;  provided  that,  in  any 
case  in  which  there  is  a  dispute  be- 
tween one  or  more  member  States 
who  are  not  members  of  the  Council 
and  one  or  more  member  States  who 
are  members  of  the  Council,  any 
State  within  the  second  category 
which  is  a  party  to  the  dispute  shall 
have  no  right  to  vote  on  that  dis- 
pute. 

Section  5.  The  powers  and  duties 
of  the  Council  shall  be  to: 

1.  Carry  out  the  directives  of  the 
Assembly. 

2.  Determine  its  own  organization 
and  rules  of  procedure. 

3.  Determine  the  method  of  ap- 
pointment, emoluments,  and  condi- 
tions of  service  of  the  employees  of 
the  Organization. 

4.  Appoint  a  Secretary  General. 

5.  Provide  for  the  establishment 
of  any  subsidiary  working  groups 
which  may  be  considered  desirable, 
among  which  there  shall  be  the  fol- 
lowing interim  committees: 

a.  A  Committee  on  Air  Trans- 
port, 

b.  A  Committee  on  Air  Naviga- 
tion, and 

c.  A    Committee    on    Interna- 
tional Convention  on  Civil  Avia- 
tion. 

If  a  member  State  so  desires,  it  shall 


have  the  right  to  appoint  a  represent- 
ative on  any  such  interim  committee 
or  working  group. 

6.  Prepare  and  submit  to  the  As- 
sembly   budget    estimates    of    the 
Organization,    and    statements    of 
accounts  of  all  receipts  and  expendi- 
tures and  to  authorize  its  own  ex- 
penditures. 

7.  Enter    into    agreements    with 
other  international  bodies  when  it 
deems  advisable  for  the  maintenance 
of  common  services  and  for  common 
arrangements  concerning  personnel 
and,  with  the  approval  of  the  As- 
sembly,  enter  into  such  other  ar- 
rangements  as   may   facilitate    the 
work  of  the  Organization. 

Section  6.  In  addition  to  the 
powers  and  authority  which  the  As- 
sembly may  delegate  to  it,  the  func- 
tions of  the  Council  shall  be  to: 

1.  Maintain  liaison  with  the  mem- 
ber States  of  the  Organization,  call- 
ing upon   them  for  such   pertinent 
data  and  information  as  may  be  re- 
quired   in    giving   consideration    to 
recommendations  made  by  them. 

2.  Receive,  register,  and  hold  open 
to  inspection  by  member  States  all 
existing   contracts   and   agreements 
relating  to  routes,  services,  landing 
rights,    airport    facilities,    or    other 
international  air  matters  to  which 
any  member  State  or  any  airline  of  a 
member  State  is  a  party. 

3.  Supervise  and  coordinate  the 
work  of: 

a.  The  Committee  on  Air  Trans- 
port, whose  functions  shall  be  to: 

(1)  Observe,  correlate,  and  con- 
tinuously  report   upon   the  facts 
concerning  the  origin  and  volume 
of  international  air  traffic  and  the 
relation  of  such  traffic,  or  the  de- 
mand   therefor,    to   the   facilities 
actually  provided. 

(2)  Request,    collect,    analyze 
and   report  on   information  with 
respect  to  subsidies,  tariffs,  and 
costs  of  operation. 

(3)  Study  any  matters  affecting 
the  organization  and  operation  of 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


161 


international  air  services,  includ- 
ing the  international  ownership 
and  operation  of  international 
trunk  lines. 

(4)  Study  and  report  with  rec- 
ommendations to  the  Assembly  as 
soon  as  practicable  on  the  matters 
on  which  it  has  not  been  possible 
to  reach  agreement  among  the  na- 
tions represented  at  the  Interna- 
tional Civil  Aviation  Conference, 
convened  in  Chicago,  November 
i,  1944,  in  particular  the  matters 
comprehended  within  the  headings 
of  Articles  2,  10,  n,  and  12  of 
Conference  Document  422,  to- 
gether with  Conference  Docu- 
ments 384,  385,  400,  407,  and  429, 
and  all  other  documentation  relat- 
ing thereto. 

b.  The  Committee  on  Air  Naviga- 
tion, whose  functions  shall  be  to: 

(1)  Study,  interpret  and  advise 
on  standards  and  procedures  with 
respect    to    communications   sys- 
tems and  air  navigation  aids,  in- 
cluding ground  marks;  rules  of  the 
air  and  air  traffic  control  prac- 
tices;   standards    governing    the 
licensing  of  operating  and  mechan- 
ical personnel ;  airworthiness  of  air- 
craft; registration  and  identifica- 
tion   of    aircraft;    meteorological 
protection  of  international  aero- 
nautics; log  books  and  manifests; 
aeronautical  maps  and  charts;  air- 
ports; customs,  immigration,  and 
quarantine  procedure;  accident  in- 
vestigation, including  search  and 
salvage;  and  the  further  unifica- 
tion of  numbering  and  systems  of 
dimensioning  and  specification  of 
dimensions    used    in    connection 
with  international  air  navigation. 

(2)  Recommend  the  adoption, 
and  take  all  possible  steps  to  secure 
the  application,  of  minimum  re- 
quirements and  standard   proce- 
dures with  respect  to  the  subjects 
in  the  preceding  paragraph. 

(3)  Continue  the  preparation  of 
technical   documents,   in   accord- 
ance with  the  recommendations  of 


the  International  Civil  Aviation 
Conference  approved  at  Chicago 
on  December  7, 1944,  and  with  the 
resulting  suggestions  of  the  mem- 
ber States,  for  attachment  to  the 
Convention  on  International  Civil 
Aviation,   signed   at  Chicago  on 
December  7,  1944. 
c.  The    Committee    on    Interna- 
tional Convention  on  Civil  Aviation, 
whose  functions  shall  be  to  continue 
the  study  of  an  international  conven- 
tion on  civil  aviation. 

4.  Receive  and  consider  the  re- 
ports of  the  committees  and  working 
groups. 

5.  Transmit  to  each  member  State 
the  reports  of  these  committees  and 
working  groups  and  the  findings  of 
the  Council  thereon. 

6.  Make    recommendations   with 
respect  to  technical  matters  to  the 
member  States  of  the  Assembly  in- 
dividually or  collectively. 

7.  Submit  an  annual  report  to  the 
Assembly. 

8.  When  expressly  requested  by 
all  the  parties  concerned,  act  as  an 
arbitral  body  on  any  differences  aris- 
ing among  member  States  relating  to 
international  civil  aviation  matters 
which  may  be  submitted  to  it.     The 
Council  may  render  an  advisory  re- 
port or,  if  the  parties  concerned  so 
expressly  decide,  they  may  obligate 
themselves  in  advance  to  accept  the 
decision  of  the  Council.     The  pro- 
cedure to  govern  the  arbitral  pro- 
ceedings   shall    be    determined    in 
agreement  between  the  Council  and 
all  the  interested  parties. 

9.  On  direction  of  the  Assembly, 
convene  another  conference  on  inter- 
national civil  aviation;  or  at  such 
time  as  the  Convention  is  ratified, 
convene  the  first  Assembly  under  the 
Convention. 

ARTICLE  4. — The  Secretary  General 

The  Secretary  General  shall  be  the 
chief  executive  and  administrative 
officer  of  the  Organization.  The 
Secretary  General  shall  be  responsi- 


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INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  639 


ble  to  the  Council  as  a  whole  and, 
following  established  policies  of  the 
Council,  shall  have  full  power  and 
authority  to  carry  out  the  duties 
assigned  to  him  by  the  Council. 
The  Secretary  General  shall  make 
periodic  reports  to  the  Council  cov- 
ering the  progress  of  the  Secretariat's 
activities.  The  Secretary  General 
shall  appoint  the  staff  of  the  Secre- 
tariat. He  shall  likewise  appoint 
the  secretariat  and  staff  necessary  to 
the  functioning  of  the  Assembly,  of 
the  Council,  and  of  Committees  or 
such  working  groups  as  are  men- 
tioned in  the  present  Agreement  or 
may  be  constituted  pursuant  thereto. 

ARTICLE  5. — Finances 

Each  member  State  shall  bear  the 
expenses  of  its  own  delegation  to  the 
Assembly  and  the  salary,  travel  and 
other  expenses  of  its  own  delegate  on 
the  Council  and  of  its  representatives 
on  committees  or  subsidiary  working 
groups. 

The  expenses  of  the  organization 
shall  be  borne  by  the  member  States 
in  proportions  to  be  decided  by  the 
Assembly.  Funds  shall  be  advanced 
by  each  member  State  to  coyer  the 
initial  expenses  of  the  Organization. 

The  Assembly  may  suspend  the 
voting  power  of  any  member  State 
that  fails  to  discharge,  within  a  rea- 
sonable period,  its  financial  obliga- 
tions to  the  Organization. 

ARTICLE  6. — Special  Duties 

The  Organization  shall  also  carry 
out  the  functions  placed  upon  it  by 
the  International  Air  Services  Tran- 
sit Agreement  and  by  the  Interna- 
tional Air  Transport  Agreement 
drawn  up  at  Chicago  on  December 
7,  1944,  in  accordance  with  the  terms 
and  conditions  therein  set  forth. 

Members  of  the  Assembly  and  the 
Council  who  have  not  accepted  the 
International  Air  Services  Transit 
Agreement  or  the  International  Air 
Transport  Agreement  drawn  up  at 
Chicago  on  December  7,  1944  shall 


not  have  the  right  to  vote  on  any 
questions  referred  to  the  Assembly 
or  Council  under  the  provisions  of 
the  relevant  Agreements. 

ARTICLE  7.—  Transfer  of  Functions, 
Records^  and  Property 

The  exercise  of  any  functions 
which  shall  have  been  herein  as- 
signed to  the  Provisional  Organiza- 
tion shall  cease  at  any  time  that 
those  particular  functions  have  been 
completed  or  transferred  to  another 
international  organization.  At  the 
time  of  the  coming  into  force  of  the 
Convention  on  International  Civil 
Aviation  signed  at  Chicago,  Decem- 
ber 7,  1944,  the  records  and  property 
of  the  Provisional  Organization  shall 
be  transferred  to  the  International 
Civil  Aviation  Organization  estab- 
lished under  the  above-mentioned 
Convention. 

ARTICLE  8.— Flight  over  Territory 
of  Member  States 

Section  I.  The  member  States 
recognize  that  every  State  has  com- 
plete and  exclusive  sovereignty  over 
the  airspace  above  its  territory. 

Section  2.  For  the  purposes  of 
this  Agreement  the  territory  of  a 
State  shall  be  deemed  to  be  the  land 
areas  and  territorial  waters  adjacent 
thereto  under  the  sovereignty,  su- 
zerainty, protection  or  mandate  of 
such  State. 

Section  j.  This  Agreement  shall 
be  applicable  only  to  civil  aircraft, 
and  shall  not  be  applicable  to  state 
aircraft.  Aircraft  used  in  military, 
customs  and  police  services  shall  be 
deemed  to  be  state  aircraft. 

Section  4.  Except  in  a  case 
where,  under  the  terms  of  an  agree- 
ment or  of  a  special  authorization, 
aircraft  are  permitted  to  cross  the 
territory  of  a  member  State  without 
landing,  every  aircraft  which  enters 
the  territory  of  a  member  State  shall, 
if  the  regulations  of  that  State  so 
require,  land  at  an  airport  designated 
by  that  State  for  the  purpose  of  cus- 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


163 


toms  and  other  examination.  On 
departure  from  the  territory  of  a 
member  State,  such  aircraft  shall  de- 
part from  a  similarly  designated  cus- 
toms airport.  Particulars  of  all 
designated  customs  airports  shall  be 
published  by  the  State  and  trans- 
mitted to  the  Provisional  Interna- 
tional Civil  Aviation  Organization 
for  communication  to  all  other  mem- 
ber States. 

Section  5.  Subject  to  the  provi- 
sions of  this  Agreement,  the  laws  and 
regulations  of  a  member  State  relat- 
ing to  the  admission  to  or  departure 
from  its  territory  of  aircraft  engaged 
in  international  air  navigation,  or  to 
the  operation  and  navigation  of  such 
aircraft  while  within  its  territory, 
shall  be  applied  to  the  aircraft  of  all 
member  States  without  distinction 
as  to  nationality,  and  shall  be  com- 
plied with  by  such  aircraft  upon 
entering  or  departing  from  or  while 
within  the  territory  of  that  State. 

Section  6.  Each  member  State 
undertakes  to  adopt  measures  to  in- 
sure that  every  aircraft  flying  over  or 
maneuvering  within  its  territory  and 
that  every  aircraft  carrying  its  na- 
tionality mark,  wherever  it  may  be, 
shall  comply  with  the  rules  and 
regulations  relating  to  the  flight  and 
maneuver  of  aircraft  there  in  force. 
Each  member  State  undertakes  to 
insure  the  prosecution  of  all  persons 
violating  the  regulations  applicable. 

Section  7.  The  laws  and  regula- 
tions of  a  member  State  as  to  the 
admission  to  or  departure  from  its 
territory  of  passengers,  crew  or  cargo 
of  aircraft,  such  as  regulations  relat- 
ing to  entry,  clearance,  immigration, 
passports,  customs,  and  quarantine 
shall  be  complied  with  by  or  on  be- 
half of  such  passengers,  crew  or  cargo 
upon  entrance  into  or  departure 
from,  or  while  within  the  territory  of 
that  State. 

Section  8.  The  member  States 
agree  to  take  effective  measures  to 
prevent  the  spread  by  means  of  air 
navigation  of  cholera,  typhus  (epi- 


demic), smallpox,  yellow  fever,  and 
plague,  and  such  other  communica- 
ble diseases  as  the  member  States 
shall  from  time  to  time  decide  to 
designate,  and  to  that  end  member 
States  will  keep  in  close  consultation 
with  the  agencies  concerned  with  in- 
ternational regulations  relating  to 
sanitary  measures  applicable  to  air- 
craft. Such  consultation  shall  be 
without  prejudice  to  the  application 
of  any  existing  international  conven- 
tion on  this  subject  to  which  the 
member  States  may  be  parties. 

Section  9.  Each  member  State 
may,  subject  to  the  provisions  of  this 
Agreement, 

1.  Designate  the  route  to  be  fol- 
lowed  within   its   territory  by  any 
international  air  service  and  the  air- 
ports which  any  such  service  may  use; 

2.  Impose  or  permit  to  be  imposed 
on  any  such  service  just  and  reason- 
able charges  for  the  use  of  such  air- 
ports   and    other    facilities;    these 
charges   shall    not   be   higher   than 
would  be  paid  for  the  use  of  such  air- 
ports and  facilities  by  its  national 
aircraft  engaged  in  similar  interna- 
tional services; 

provided  that,  upon  representation 
by  an  interested  member  State,  the 
charges  imposed  for  the  use  of  air- 
ports and  other  facilities  shall  be 
subject  to  review  by  the  Council, 
which  shall  report  and  make  recom- 
mendations thereon  for  the  consider- 
ation of  the  State  or  States  concerned. 
Section  10.  The  appropriate  au- 
thorities of  each  of  the  member 
States  shall  have  the  right,  without 
unreasonable  delay,  to  search  air- 
craft of  the  other  member  States  on 
landing  or  departure,  and  to  inspect 
the  certificates  and  other  documents 
prescribed  by  this  Agreement. 

ARTICLE  9. — Measures  to  Facilitate 
Air  Navigation 

Section  i.  Each  member  State 
undertakes,  so  far  as  it  may  find 
practicable,  to  make  available  such 


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radio  facilities,  such  meteorological 
services,  and  such  other  air  naviga- 
tion facilities  as  may  from  time  to 
time  be  required  for  the  operation  of 
safe  and  efficient  scheduled  interna- 
tional air  services  under  the  provi- 
sions of  this  Agreement. 

Section  2.  Each  member  State 
undertakes  to  provide  such  meas- 
ures of  assistance  to  aircraft  in  dis- 
tress in  its  territory  as  it  may  find 
practicable,  and  to  permit,  subject 
to  the  control  of  its  own  authorities, 
the  owners  or  authorities  of  the  State 
in  which  the  aircraft  is  registered  to 
provide  such  measures  of  assistance 
as  may  be  necessitated  by  the  cir- 
cumstances. 

Section  j.  In  the  event  of  an  ac- 
cident to  an  aircraft  of  a  member 
State  occurring  in  the  territory  of  an- 
other member  State,  and  involving 
death  or  serious  injury,  or  indicating 
serious  technical  defect,  in  the  air- 
craft or  air  navigation  facilities,  the 
State  in  which  the  accident  occurs 
will  institute  an  inquiry  into  the  cir- 
cumstances of  the  accident.  The 
State  in  which  the  aircraft  is  regis- 
tered shall  be  given  the  opportunity 
to  appoint  observers  to  be  present  at 
the  inquiry  and  the  State  holding  the 
inquiry  shall  communicate  the  report 
and  findings  in  the  matter  to  that 
State. 

ARTICLE  10.— Conditions  to  be 
Fulfilled  with  Respect  to  Aircraft 

Section  I.  Every  aircraft  of  a 
member  State,  engaged  in  interna- 
tional navigation,  shall  carry  the  fol- 
lowing documents: 

(a)  Its  certificate  of  registration. 

(ft)  Its  certificate  of  airworthiness. 

(c)  The  appropriate  licenses  for 
each  member  of  the  crew. 

(d)  Its  journey  log  book. 

(e)  If  it  is  equipped  with  radio  ap- 
paratus, the  aircraft  radio  station 
license. 

(/)  If  it  carries  passengers,  a  list  of 
their  names  and  places  of  embarka- 
tion and  destination. 


(g)  If  it  carries  cargo,  a  manifest 
and  detailed  declarations  of  the 
cargo. 

Section  2. — (a)  Aircraft  of  each 
member  State  may,  in  or  over  the 
territory  of  other  member  States, 
carry  radio  transmitting  apparatus 
only  if  a  license  to  install  and  operate 
such  apparatus  has  been  issued  by 
the  appropriate  authorities  of  the 
State  in  which  the  aircraft  is  regis- 
tered. The  use  of  radio  transmit- 
ting apparatus  in  the  territory  of  the 
member  State  whose  territory  is 
flown  over  shall  be  in  accordance 
with  the  regulations  prescribed  by 
that  State. 

(6)  Radio  transmitting  apparatus 
may  be  used  only  by  members  of  the 
flight  crew  who  are  provided  with  a 
special  license  for  the  purpose,  issued 
by  the  appropriate  authorities  of  the 
State  in  which  the  aircraft  is  regis- 
tered. 

Section  j.  Every  aircraft  en- 
gaged in  international  navigation 
shall  be  provided  with  a  certificate 
of  airworthiness  issued  or  rendered 
valid  by  the  State  in  which  it  is 
registered. 

Section  4. — (a)  The  pilot  of  every 
aircraft  and  the  other  members  of 
the  operating  crew  of  every  aircraft 
engaged  in  international  navigation 
shall  be  provided  with  certificates  of 
competency  and  licenses  issued  or 
rendered  valid  by  the  State  in  which 
the  aircraft  is  registered. 

(&)  Each  member  State  reserves 
the  right  to  refuse  to  recognize, 
for  the  purpose  of  flight  above  its 
own  territory,  certificates  of  compe- 
tency and  licenses  granted  to  any 
of  its  nationals  by  another  member 
State. 

Section  5.  Subject  to  the  provi- 
sions of  Section  4(6),  certificates  of 
airworthiness  and  certificates  of  com- 
petency and  licenses  issued  or  ren- 
dered valid  by  the  member  State  in 
which  the  aircraft  is  registered,  shall 
be  recognized  as  valid  by  the  other 
member  State. 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


165 


Section  6.  There  shall  be  main- 
tained in  respect  of  every  aircraft 
engaged  in  international  navigation 
a  journey  log  book  in  which  shall  be 
entered  particulars  of  the  aircraft,  its 
crew  and  each  journey. 

Section  7.  Each  member  State 
may  prohibit  or  regulate  the  use  of 
photographic  apparatus  in  aircraft 
over  its  territory. 

ARTICLE  ii.— Airports  and 
Air  Navigation  Facilities 

Where  a  member  State  desires  as- 
sistance in  the  provision  of  airports 
or  air  navigation  facilities  in  its  ter- 
ritory, the  Council  may  make  ar- 
rangements for  the  provision  of  such 
assistance  so  far  as  may  be  prac- 
ticable in  accordance  with  the  provi- 
sions of  Chapter  XV  of  the  Conven- 
tion on  International  Civil  Aviation 
signed  at  Chicago,  December  7, 
1944. 

ARTICLE  12. — Joint  Operating 
Organizations  and  A  rrangements 

Section  I.  Nothing  in  this  Agree- 
ment shall  prevent  two  or  more 
member  States  from  constituting 
joint  air  transport  operating  organ- 
izations or  international  operating 
agencies  and  from  pooling  their  air 
services  on  any  routes  or  in  any  re- 
gions, but  such  organizations  or 
agencies  and  such  pooled  services 
shall  be  subject  to  all  the  provisions 
of  this  Agreement,  including  those 
relating  to  the  registration  of  agree- 
ments with  the  Council. 

Section  2.  The  Council  may  sug- 
gest to  member  States  concerned 
that  they  form  joint  organizations  to 
operate  air  services  on  any  routes  or 
in  any  regions. 

Section  j.  A  State  may  partici- 
pate in  joint  operating  organizations 
or  in  pooling  arrangements,  either 
through  its  government  or  through 
an  airline  company  or  companies 
designated  by  its  government.  The 
companies  may,  at  the  sole  discretion 
of  the  State  concerned,  be  State- 


owned    or    partly    State-owned    or 
privately  owned. 

ARTICLE  13. — Undertakings  of 
Member  States 

Section  I.  Each  member  State 
undertakes  to  transmit  to  the  Coun- 
cil copies  of  all  existing  and  future 
contracts  and  agreements  relating 
to  routes,  services,  landing  rights, 
airport  facilities,  or  other  interna- 
tional air  matters  to  which  any 
member  State  or  any  airline  of  a 
member  State  is  a  party,  as  des- 
cribed in  Article  3,  Section  6,  Sub- 
section 2. 

Section  2.  Each  member  State 
undertakes  to  require  its  interna- 
tional airlines  to  file  with  the  Coun- 
cil, in  accordance  with  requirements 
laid  down  by  the  Council,  traffic  re- 
ports, cost  statistics,  and  financial 
statements  as  described  in  Article  3, 
Section  6,  Subsection  3,  a  (i)  and  (2), 
showing,  among  other  things,  all  re- 
ceipts and  the  sources  thereof. 

Section  j.  The  member  States 
undertake,  with  respect  to  the  mat- 
ters set  forth  in  Article  3,  Section  6, 
Subsection  3,  b  (i),  to  apply,  as  ra- 
pidly as  possible,  in  their  national 
civil  aviation  practices,  the  general 
recommendations  of  the  Interna- 
tional Civil  Aviation  Conference, 
convened  in  Chicago,  November  i, 
1944,  and  such  recommendations  as 
will  be  made  through  the  continuing 
study  of  the  Council. 

ARTICLE  14. — Withdrawal 

Any  member  State,  a  party  to  the 
present  Agreement,  may  withdraw 
therefrom  on  six  months'  notice 
given  by  it  to  the  Secretary  General, 
who  shall  at  once  inform  all  the  mem- 
ber States  of  the  Organization  of 
such  notice  of  withdrawal. 

ARTICLE  15. — Definitions 

For  the  purpose  of  this  Agreement 
the  expression: 

(a)  "Air  service  "  means  any  sched- 
uled air  service  performed  by  air- 


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INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  639 


craft  for  the  public  transport  of 
passengers,  mail  or  cargo. 

(6)  " International  air  service" 
means  an  air  service  which  passes 
through  the  airspace  over  the  terri- 
tory of  more  than  one  State. 

(c)  ' 4  Airline ' '  means  any  air  trans- 
port enterprise  offering  or  operating 
an  international  air  service. 

ARTICLE  16. — Election  of  First 
Interim  Council 

The  first  Interim  Council  shall  be 
composed  of  the  States  elected  for 
that  purpose  by  the  International 
Civil  Aviation  Conference  convened 
in  Chicago  on  November  I,  1944, 
provided  that  no  State  thus  elected 
shall  become  a  member  of  the  Coun- 
cil until  it  has  accepted  the  present 
Agreement  and  unless  such  accept- 
ance has  taken  place  within  six 
months  after  December  7,  1944.  In 
no  case  shall  the  term  of  office  of  a 
State  as  a  member  of  the  first  In- 
terim Council  begin  before  or  go  be- 
yond the  period  of  two  years,  start- 
ing from  the  coming  into  force  of  the 
present  Agreement. 

Each  State  so  elected  to  the  In- 
terim Council  shall  take  its  seat  in 
the  Council  upon  acceptance  by  that 
State  of  this  Agreement  or  upon  the 
entry  into  force  of  this  Agreement, 
whichever  is  the  later  date,  and  it 
shall  hold  its  seat  until  the  end  of 
the  two  years  following  the  coming 
into  force  of  this  Agreement:  pro- 
vided, that  any  State  so  elected  to 
the  Council  which  does  not  accept 
this  Agreement  within  six  months 
after  the  above-mentioned  election 
shall  not  become  a  member  of  the 
Council  and  the  seat  shall  remain 
vacant  until  the  next  meeting  of  the 
Assembly. 

ARTICLE  17. — Signatures  and 
Acceptances  of  Agreement 

The  undersigned  delegates  to  the 
International  Civil  Aviation  Con- 
ference, convened  in  Chicago  on 


November  i,  1944,  have  affixed  their 
signatures  to  the  present  Interim 
Agreement  with  the  understanding 
that  the  Government  of  the  United 
States  of  America  shall  be  informed 
at  the  earliest  possible  date  by  each 
of  the  governments  on  whose  behalf 
the  Agreement  has  been  signed 
whether  signature  on  its  behalf  shall 
constitute  an  acceptance  of  the 
Agreement  by  that  government  and 
an  obligation  binding  upon  it. 

Any  State,  a  member  of  the  United 
Nations  and  any  State  associated 
with  them,  as  well  as  any  State  which 
remained  neutral  during  the  present 
world  conflict,  not  a  signatory  to 
this  Agreement,  may  accept  the  pres- 
ent Agreement  as  an  obligation  bind- 
ing upon  it  by  notification  of  its  ac- 
ceptance to  the  Government  of  the 
United  States,  and  such  acceptance 
shall  become  effective  upon  the  date 
of  the  receipt  of  such  notification  by 
that  Government. 

The  present  Interim  Agreement 
shall  come  into  force  when  it  has 
been  accepted  by  twenty-six  States. 
Thereafter  it  will  become  binding  as 
to  each  other  State  indicating  its  ac- 
ceptance to  the  Government  of  the 
United  States  on  the  date  of  the 
receipt  of  the  acceptance  by  that 
Government. 

The  Government  of  the  United 
States  shall  inform  all  governments 
represented  at  the  International  Civil 
Aviation  Conference  referred  to  of 
the  date  on  which  the  present  In- 
terim Agreement  comes  into  force 
and  shall  likewise  notify  them  of  all 
acceptances  of  the  Agreement. 

IN  WITNESS  WHEREOF,  the  under- 
signed, having  been  duly  authorized, 
sign  this  Agreement  on  behalf  of  their 
respective  governments  on  the  dates 
appearing  opposite  their  signatures. 

Done  at  Chicago  the  seventh  day 
of  December  1944,  in  the  English 
language.1  A  text  drawn  up  in  the 
English,  French,  and  Spanish  Ian- 


1  The  following  note  is  inserted  at  this  point  in  U.S.  Executive  Agreement  Series,  No.  469, 
from  which  the  text  of  the  present  Agreement  is  reproduced:  "The  present  publication  was 


Dec.  7,  1944  INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION  167 

guages,  each  of  which  shall  be  of  United  States  of  America,  and  certi- 

equal  authenticity,  shall  be  opened  fied  copies  shall  be  transmitted  by 

for  signature  at  Washington,  D.  C.  that  Government  to  the  governments 

Both  texts  shall  be  deposited  in  the  of  all  the  States  which  may  sign  and 

archives  of  the  Government  of  the  accept  this  Agreement. 

[Signed:2]  For  Afghanistan:  A.  HOSAYN  Aziz;  for  the  Government  of  the 
Commonwealth  of  Australia :  (Subject  to  confirmation  by  Australian  Government) 
ARTHUR  S.  DRAKEFORD;  for  Belgium:  [April  9,  1945];  for  Bolivia:  TCNL. 
A.  PACHECO;  for  Brazil:  [May  29,  1945];  for  Canada:  H.  J.  SYMINGTON;  for 
Chile:  R.  SAENZ,  G.  BISQUERT,  R.  MAGALLANES  B.;  for  China:  CHANG  KIA 
NGAU;  for  Colombia:  [May  24,  1945];  for  Costa  Rica:  [March  10,  1945];  for 
Cuba:  [April  20,  1945];  for  Czechoslovakia:  [April  18,  1945];  for  the  Domini- 
can Republic:  C.  A.  MCLAUGHLIN;  for  Ecuador:  J.  A.  CORREA;  for  Egypt: 
M.  HASSAN,  M.  ROUSHDY,  M.  A.  KHALIFA;  for  El  Salvador:  [May  9, 1945]; 
for  Ethiopia:  [March  22,  1945];  for  France:  M.  HYMANS,  C.  LEBEL,  P. 
LOCUSSOL,  BOURGES;  for  Greece:  D.  NOTI  BOTZARIZ,  A.  J.  ARGYROPOULOS; 
for  Guatemala:  [January  30,  1945];  for  Haiti:  EDOUARD  ROY;  for  Honduras: 

E.  P.  LEFEBVRE;  for  Iceland:  THOR  THORS;  for  India:  G.  BEWOOR;  for  Iran: 
M.  SHAYESTEH;  for  Iraq:  ALI  JAWDAT;  for  Ireland:  ROBT.  BRENNAN,  JOHN 
LEYDON,  JOHN  J.  HEARNE,  T.  J.  O'DRISCOLL;  for  Lebanon:  C.  CHAMOUN, 

F.  EL-Hoss;  for  Liberia:  WALTER  F.  WALKER;  for  Luxembourg:  [July  9, 
1945];  for  Mexico:  PEDRO  A.  CHAPA;  for  the  Netherlands:  M.  STEENBERGHE, 
COPES,  F.  E.  ARONSTEIN;  for  the  Government  of  New  Zealand:  DANIEL 
GILES  SULLIVAN;  for  Nicaragua:  R.  E.  FRIZELL;  for  Norway:  [January  30, 
1945];  for  Panama:  [May  14,  1945];  for  Paraguay:  [July  27,  1945];  for 
Peru:  A.  REVOREDO,  J.  S.  KOECHLIN,  Luis  ALVARADO,  F.  ELGUERA,  GUIL- 
LERMO  VAN  OORDT;  for  the  Philippine  Commonwealth:  J.  HERNANDEZ, 
URBANO  A.  ZAFRA,  J.  H.  FOLEY;  for  Poland:  ZBYSLAW  CIOLKOSZ,  DR.  H.  J. 
GORECKI,  STEFAN  J.  KONORSKI,  WITOLD  A.  URBANOWICZ,  LUDWIK  H. 
GOTTLIEB;  for  Portugal:  MARIO  DE  FIGUEIREDO,  ALFREDO  DELESQUE  DOS 
SANTOS  CINTRA,  DUARTE  DE  GUSMAO,  VASCO  VIEIRA  GARIN;  for  Spain: 

E.  TERRADAS,  GERMAN  BARAIBAR;  for  Sweden:  R.  KUMLIN;  for  Switzer- 
land: CHARLES  BRUGGMANN;  for  Syria:  KAHALE;  for  Turkey:  S.  KOCAK, 

F.  SAHINBAS,  ORHAN  H.  EROL;  for  the  Union  of  South  Africa:  [June  4, 
1945];  for  the  Government  of  the  United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and 
Northern  Ireland:  SWINTON;  for  the  United  States  of  America:  ADOLF  A. 
BERLE,  JR.,  ALFRED  L.  BUL WINKLE,  CHAS.  A.  WOLVERTON,  F.  LAGUARDIA, 
EDWARD  WARNER,  L.  WELCH  POGUE,  WILLIAM  A.  M.  BURDEN;  for  Uru- 
guay: CARL  CARBAJAL,  COL.  MEDARDO  R.  FARIAS;  for  Venezuela:  (La 
Delegaci6n  de  Venezuela  firma  ad  referendum  y  deja  constancia  de  que  la  aprobaci6n 
de  este  documento  por  su  Gobierno  esta  sujeta  a  las  disposiciones  constitucionales  de 
los  Estados  Unidos  de  Venezuela.)     F.  J,  SUCRE,  J.  BLANCO  UsTARiz;  for  Den- 
mark: HENRIK  KAUFFMANN;  for  Thailand:  M.  R.  SENI  PRAMOJ. 

printed  from  a  lithographed  certified  copy  of  the  signed  original,  prepared  by  the  Depart- 
ment of  State  under  date  of  Jan.  22,  1945.  Signatures  affixed  to  the  original  document 
subsequent  to  that  date  do  not  appear  herein,  but  the  dates  of  those  signatures  have  been 
indicated  in  footnotes."  For  convenience  in  the  present  volume  these  dates  have  been 
inserted  in  brackets  within  the  paragraph  listing  the  signatories  of  the  Agreement  rather 
than  in  the  form  of  footnotes. — ED. 
•See  note  i,  above. 


1 68  INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION  No.  640 

No.  640 

CONVENTION  on  International  Civil  Aviation.    Opened  for  signa- 
ture at  Chicago,  December  7,  1944. 

CONVENTION  relative  ft  Taviation"  civile  Internationale.    Ouverte 
&  la  signature  Si  Chicago,  7  dScembre  1944. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Convention  was  formulated  at  the  International  Civil  Aviation 
Conference  held  at  Chicago,  November  i-December  7,  1944.  The  first  Assembly  of  ICAO, 
which  met  at  Montreal  May  6-27,  1947,  adopted  an  amendment  to  the  Convention  (No. 
64oa,  post).  An  interim  agreement  on  the  same  subject  (No.  639,  ante),  and  agreements  on 
air  services  transit  and  air  transport  (Nos.  641,  642,  post)  were  also  concluded  at  the  Chicago 
Conference.  For  the  text  of  the  Paris  convention  on  aerial  navigation  of  1919,  and  of  the 
Habana  convention  on  commercial  aviation  of  1928,  denounced  by  several  states  in  ac- 
cordance with  Article  80  of  this  Convention,  see  Nos.  9  and  187,  ante;  cf.  Nos.  412,  413,  ante. 
For  other  agreements  relating  to  international  aviation,  see  Nos.  170,  235,  326,  328,  436,  531, 
532,  554.  °»te;  No.  644,  post. 

RATIFICATIONS.  On  February  28,  1949,  ratifications  of  or  accessions  to  this  Convention 
had  been  deposited  at  Washington  by  Afghanistan,  Argentine  Republic,  Australia,  Austria, 
Belgium,  Bolivia,  Brazil,  Burma,  Canada,  Ceylon,  Chile,  China,  Colombia,  Czechoslovakia, 
Denmark,  Dominican  Republic,  Egypt,  El  Salvador,  Ethiopia,  France,  Great  Britain, 
Greece,  Guatemala,  Haiti,  Iceland,  India,  Iraq,  Ireland,  Italy,  Liberia,  Luxemburg,  Mexico, 
Netherlands,  New  Zealand,  Nicaragua,  Norway,  Pakistan,  Paraguay,  Peru,  Philippines, 
Poland,  Portugal,  South  Africa,  Spain  (see  No.  6403,  post),  Sweden,  Switzerland  (includ- 
ing Liechtenstein),  Thailand,  Transjordan,  Turkey,  the  United  States  of  America,  and 
Venezuela. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Convention  is  also  published  in  U.S.  Department  of 
State,  Publication  No.  2282,  Conference  Series  No.  64,  p.  59;  Br.  Part.  Papers,  Misc.  No.  6 
(1945),  Cmd.  6614;  Canada,  Treaty  Series,  1944,  No.  36,  p.  34. 

Anon.,  "The  International  Civil  Aviation  Organization,"  18  U.S.  Department  of  State 
Bulletin  (1948),  pp.  463-67,  491;  W.  L.  Clayton,  "Chicago  Convention  on  International 
Civil  Aviation,"  14  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1946),  pp.  1004-7;  H.  A.  Colclaser, 
"The  New  International  Civil  Aviation  Organization,"  31  Virginia  Law  Review  (1945),  pp. 
457~78;  A.  Giannini,  "La  convenzione  di  Chicago  sull'aviazione  civile  internazionale,"  44 
Rivista  di  diritto  commerciale  (1946),  pp.  83-92;  R.Y.  Jennings,  "  International  Civil  Aviation 
and  the  Law,"  22  British  Year  Book  of  International  Law  (1945),  pp.  191-209;  S.  Latchford, 
"  Comparison  of  the  Chicago  Aviation  Convention  with  the  Paris  and  Habana  Conventions," 

12  U.S.  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (1945),  pp.  411-20; ,  "CITEJA  and  the  Legal 

Committee  of  ICAO,"  17  idem  (1947),  pp.  487-97;  G.  Norton,  "First  Assembly  of  ICAO," 
16  idem  (1947),  pp.  979-81;  E.  S.  Prentice,  "The  First  Assembly  of  the  ICAO,"  idem,  pp. 
1145-51 ;  A.  Ulloa,  "La  Organizaci6n  de  Aviaci6n  Civil  Internacional,"  6  Revista  peruana  de 
derecho  international  (1946),  pp.  41-53.  See  also  the  bibliography  under  No.  639,  ante. 

Entered  into  force  April  4, I047-1 
Text  and  translation  from  15  U.N.  Treaty  Series,  p.  295. 

[Traduction] 

PREAMBLE  PR&AMBULE 

Whereas  the  future  development         Consid6rant  que  le  cteveloppement 
of  international  civil  aviation  can     futur  de   Taviation   civile   interna- 
1  Filed  with  the  Secretariat  of  the  United  Nations,  No.  102,  April  19,  1948. 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


169 


greatly  help  to  create  and  preserve 
friendship  and  understanding  among 
the  nations  and  peoples  of  the  world, 
yet  its  abuse  can  become  a  threat  to 
the  general  security;  and 


Whereas  it  is  desirable  to  avoid 
friction  and  to  promote  that  cooper- 
ation between  nations  and  peoples 
upon  which  the  peace  of  the  world 
depends; 

Therefore,  the  undersigned  gov- 
ernments having  agreed  on  certain 
principles  and  arrangements  in  order 
that  international  civil  aviation  may 
be  developed  in  a  safe  and  orderly 
manner  and  that  international  air 
transport  services  may  be  estab- 
lished on  the  basis  of  equality  of  op- 
portunity and  operated  soundly  and 
economically; 

Have  accordingly  concluded  this 
Convention  to  that  end. 

PART  I 

AIR  NAVIGATION 

CHAPTER  I 

GENERAL    PRINCIPLES    AND   APPLICA- 
TION OF  THE  CONVENTION 

ARTICLE  i. — Sovereignty 

The  contracting  States  recognize 
that  every  State  has  complete  and 
exclusive  sovereignty  over  the  air- 
space above  its  territory. 

ARTICLE  2. — Territory 

For  the  purposes  of  this  Conven- 
tion the  territory  of  a  State  shall  be 
deemed  to  be  the  land  areas  and 
territorial  waters  adjacent  thereto 
under  the  sovereignty,  suzerainty, 
protection  or  mandate  of  such  State. 

ARTICLE  3. — Civil  and  state  aircraft 

(a)  This  Convention  shall  be  ap- 
plicable only  to  civil  aircraft,  and  shall 
not  be  applicable  to  state  aircraft. 


tionale  peut  contribuer  puissamment 
£  faire  naitre  et  £  maintenir  entre  les 
nations  et  les  peuples  du  monde 
1'amitie  et  la  comprehension,  alors 
que  tout  abus  qui  en  serait  fait  peut 
devenir  un  danger  pour  la  s6curit6 
generate,  et 

Considerant  qu'il  est  desirable 
d'eviter  tout  disaccord  entre  nations 
et  entre  peuples  et  de  d6velopper 
entre  eux  cette  cooperation  dont  de- 
pend la  paix  du  monde, 

En  consequence,  les  Gouverne- 
ments  soussignes  etant  convenus  de 
certains  principes  et  arrangements, 
afin  que  Taviation  civile  Interna- 
tionale puisse  se  developper  d'une 
mantere  sflre  et  ordonnee  et  que  les 
services  internationaux  de  trans- 
ports aeriens  puissent  £tre  etablis  en 
donnant  £  tous  des  chances  egales, 
et  exploites  d'une  mantere  saine  et 
economique; 

Ont  conclu  la  presente  Convention 
4  ces  fins. 

PREMlfiRE  PARTIE 

NAVIGATION  A£RIENNE 

CHAPITRE  I 

PRINCIPES  G£N£RAUX  ET  APPLICA- 
TION DE  LA  CONVENTION 

ARTICLE  i. — Souveraineti 

Les  Etats  contractants  reconnais- 
sent  que  chaque  Etat  a  la  souverain- 
ete  complete  et  exclusive  sur  1'espace 
aerien  au-dessus  de  son  territoire. 

ARTICLE  2. — Territoire 

Aux  fins  de  la  presente  Conven- 
tion, il  faut  entendre  par  territoire 
d'un  Etat  les  regions  terrestres  et  les 
eaux  territoriales  y  adjacentes  pla- 
c6es  sous  la  souverainete,  la  suzer- 
ainete,  la  protection  ou  le  mandat 
dudit  Etat. 

ARTICLE  3. — Atronefs  civils  et 
aSronefs  d'Etat 

a)  La  presente  Convention  ne 
s'applique  qu'aux  a£ronefs  civils  et 
ne  s'applique  pas  aux  a6ronefs  df  Etat. 


170 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  640 


(b)  Aircraft  used  in  military,  cus- 
toms and   police  services  shall   be 
deemed  to  be  state  aircraft. 

(c)  No  state  aircraft  of  a  contract- 
ing State  shall  fly  over  the  territory 
of  another  State  or   land    thereon 
without    authorization    by    special 
agreement  or  otherwise,  and  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  terms  thereof. 

(d)  The  contracting  States  under- 
take, when  issuing  regulations  for 
their  state  aircraft,   that  they  will 
have  due  regard  for  the  safety  of 
navigation  of  civil  aircraft. 

ARTICLE  4. — Misuse  of  civil  aviation 

Each  contracting  State  agrees 
not  to  use  civil  aviation  for  any  pur- 
pose inconsistent  with  the  aims  of 
this  Convention. 

CHAPTER  II 

FLIGHT  OVER  TERRITORY  OF  CON- 
TRACTING STATES 

ARTICLE  5. — Right  of  non-scheduled 
flight 

Each  contracting  State  agrees  that 
all  aircraft  of  the  other  contracting 
States,  being  aircraft  not  engaged  in 
scheduled  international  air  services 
shall  have  the  right,  subject  to  the 
observance  of  the  terms  of  this  Con- 
vention, to  make  flights  into  or  in 
transit  non-stop  across  its  territory 
and  to  make  stops  for  non-traffic 
purposes  without  the  necessity  of 
obtaining  prior  permission,  and  sub- 
ject to  the  right  of  the  State  flown 
over  to  require  landing.  Each  con- 
tracting State  nevertheless  reserves 
the  right,  for  reasons  of  safety  of 
flight,  to  require  aircraft  desiring  to 
proceed  over  regions  which  are  in- 
accessible or  without  adequate  air 
navigation  facilities  to  follow  pre- 
scribed routes,  or  to  obtain  special 
permission  for  such  Sights. 


b)  Les  a£ronefs  militaires  et  ceux 
de  douane  ou  de  police  sont  con- 
sid6r6s  comme  a6ronefs  d'Etat. 

c)  Aucun    a£ronef    d'Etat    d'un 
Etat  contractant  ne  peut  survoler  le 
territoire  d'un  autre  Etat  ou  y  at- 
terrir  sans  en  avoir  obtenu  1'autori- 
sation  par  voie  d 'accord  special  ou 
de  toute  autre  mantere,  et  conform6- 
ment  aux  conditions  ainsi  stiputees. 

d)  Les   Etats   contractants   s'en- 
gagent  £  tenir  dflment  compte  de  la 
s6curit6  de  la  navigation  des  a6ronefs 
civils,  lorsqu'ils  £tabliront  des  r6gle- 
ments  pour  leurs  a6ronefs  d'Etat. 

ARTICLE  ^—Emploi abusif  de 
Variation  civile 

Chaque  Etat  contractant  s'engage 
£  ne  pas  employer  1'aviation  civile  £ 
des  fins  incompatibles  avec  les  buts 
de  la  pr6sente  Convention. 

CHAPITRE  II 

SURVOL  DES  TERRITOIRES  DES  6TATS 
CONTRACTANTS 

ARTICLE  5. — Droit  de  survol  pour  les 
aSronefs  n'assurant  pas  des  services 
reguliers 

Chaque  Etat  contractant  convient 
que  tous  les  a6ronefs  des  autres  Etats 
contractants  qui  ne  sont  pas  em- 
ploy£s  &  des  services  a£riens  inter- 
nationaux  reguliers  ont  le  droit  de 
p£n6trer  sur  son  territoire,  ou  de  le 
traverser  en  transit  sans  escale,  et 
d'y  faire  des  escales  non  commer- 
ciales  sans  avoir  &  obtenir  une  auto- 
risation  pr6alable,  &  condition  que 
soient  respect£s  les  termes  de  la 
pr£sente  Convention  et  sous  reserve 
du  droit  pour  TEtat  survolfe  d'exiger 
un  atterrissage.  N6anmoins,  chaque 
Etat  contractant  se  reserve,  pour  des 
raisons  de  s6curit6  de  vol,  le  droit 
d'exiger  que  les  a£ronefs  qui  d6- 
sirent  survoler  des  regions  inacces- 
sibles,  ou  non  pourvues  de  facilit6s 
ad£quates  pour  la  navigation  a£ri- 
enne,  suivent  les  routes  prescrites  ou 
obtiennent  une  autorisation  sp6ciale. 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


171 


Such  aircraft,  if  engaged  in  the 
carriage  of  passengers,  cargo,  or  mail 
for  remuneration  or  hire  on  other 
than  scheduled  international  air 
services,  shall  also,  subject  to  the 
provisions  of  Article  7,  have  the 
privilege  of  taking  on  or  discharging 
passengers,  cargo,  mail,  subject  to 
the  right  of  any  State  where  such 
embarkation  or  discharge  takes  place 
to  impose  such  regulations,  condi- 
tions or  limitations  as  it  may  con- 
sider desirable. 


ARTICLE   6. — Scheduled  air  services 

No  scheduled  international  air 
service  may  be  operated  over  or  into 
the  territory  of  a  contracting  State, 
except  with  the  special  permission  or 
other  authorization  of  that  State, 
and  in  accordance  with  the  terms 
of  such  permission  or  authorization. 


ARTICLE  7.— Cabotage 

Each  contracting  State  shall  have 
the  right  to  refuse  permission  to  the 
aircraft  of  other  contracting  States 
to  take  on  in  its  territory  passengers, 
mail  and  cargo  carried  for  remunera- 
tion or  hire  and  destined  for  another 
point  within  its  territory.  Each  con- 
tracting State  undertakes  not  to 
enter  into  any  arrangements  which 
specifically  grant  any  such  privilege 
on  an  exclusive  basis  to  any  other 
State  or  an  airline  of  any  other 
State,  and  not  to  obtain  any  such 
exclusive  privilege  from  any  other 
State. 


ARTICLE  8. — Pilotless  aircraft 

No  aircraft  capable  of  being  flown 
without  a  pilot  shall  be  flown  with- 


Si  lesdits  a£ronefs  assurent  le 
transport  de  passagers,  de  marchan- 
dises  ou  de  courrier,  moyennant  re- 
muneration ou  en  execution  d'un 
contrat  de  location,  en  dehors  des 
services  aeriens  internationaux  r6gu- 
liers,  ils  auront  aussi  le  privilege, 
sous  reserve  des  dispositions  de 
1'article  7,  d'embarquer  ou  de  d6- 
barquer  des  passagers,  des  marchan- 
dises  ou  du  courrier,  sous  reserve  du 
droit  pour  1'Etat  oft  a  lieu  1'em- 
barquement  ou  le  debarquement 
d'imposer  telles  r6glementations, 
conditions  ou  restrictions  qu'il 
pourra  juger  souhai tables. 

ARTICLE  6. — Services  atriens  riguliers 

Aucun  service  a£rien  international 
regulier  ne  peut  £tre  exploit^  au- 
dessus  du  territoire  d'un  Etat  con- 
tractant  ou  £  1'interieur  de  celui-ci, 
sauf  avec  une  permission  sp£ciale  ou 
toute  autre  autorisation  dudit  Etat 
et  £  condition  de  se  conformer  aux 
termes  de  ladite  permission  ou  auto- 
risation. 

ARTICLE  7. — Cabotage 

Chaque  Etat  contractant  a  le 
droit  de  refuser  aux  a6ronefs  d'autres 
Etats  contractants  la  permission 
d'embarquer  sur  son  territoire  des 
passagers,  du  courrier  ou  des  mar- 
chandises  pour  les  transporter  & 
destination  d'un  autre  point  situ6 
4 1'interieur  de  son  territoire,  moyen- 
nant remuneration  ou  en  execution 
d'un  contrat  de  location.  Chaque 
Etat  contractant  s'engage  d'une 
part  &  ne  conclure  aucun  arrange- 
ment aux  termes  duquel  tout  privi- 
l&ge  de  cette  nature  serait  express6- 
ment  accorde,  sur  la  base  de  1'ex- 
clusivite,  £  un  autre  Etat  ou  £  une 
entreprise  de  transports  aeriens  d'un 
autre  Etat,  et  d'autre  part  4  ne  pas  se 
faire  octroyer  un  tel  privilege  ex- 
clusif  par  un  autre  Etat. 

ARTICLE  S.—ASronefs  sans  piloie 

Aucun  a^ronef  susceptible  de  voler 
sans  pilote  ne  peut  survoler  sans 


172 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  640 


out  a  pilot  over  the  territory  of  a 
contracting  State  without  special 
authorization  by  that  State  and  in 
accordance  with  the  terms  of  such 
authorization.  Each  contracting 
State  undertakes  to  insure  that  the 
flight  of  such  aircraft  without  a 
pilot  in  regions  open  to  civil  aircraft 
shall  be  so  controlled  as  to  obviate 
danger  to  civil  aircraft. 

ARTICLE  9. — Prohibited  areas 

(a)  Each  contracting  State  may, 
for  reasons  of  military  necessity  or 
public  safety,  restrict  or  prohibit 
uniformly  the  aircraft  of  other  States 
from  flying  over  certain  areas  of  its 
territory,  provided  that  no  distinc- 
tion in  this  respect  is  made  between 
the  aircraft  of  the  State  whose  terri- 
tory is  involved,  engaged  in  inter- 
national scheduled  airline  services, 
and  the  aircraft  of  the  other  contract- 
ing States  likewise  engaged.  Such 
prohibited  areas  shall  be  of  reason- 
able extent  and  location  so  as  not  to 
interfere  unnecessarily  with  air  navi- 
gation. Descriptions  of  such  pro- 
hibited areas  in  the  territory  of  a 
contracting  State,  as  well  as  any 
subsequent  alterations  therein,  shall 
be  communicated  as  soon  as  possible 
to  the  other  contracting  States  and 
to  the  International  Civil  Aviation 
Organization. 


(b)  Each    contracting    State    re- 
serves also  the  right,  in  exceptional 
circumstances  or  during  a  period  of 
emergency,  or  in  the  interest  of  pub- 
lic safety,  and  with  immediate  effect, 
temporarily  to  restrict  or  prohibit 
flying  over  the  whole  or  any  part  of 
its  territory,  on  condition  that  such 
restriction   or   prohibition   shall  be 
applicable    without    distinction    of 
nationality  to  aircraft  of  all  other 
States. 

(c)  Each  contracting  State,  under 


pilote  le  territoire  d'un  Etat  con- 
tractant &  moins  d'une  autorisation 
sp6ciale  dudit  Etat  et  conform6ment 
aux  termes  de  ladite  autorisation. 
Chaque  Etat  contractant  s'engage 
£  prendre  les  mesures  n£cessaires 
pour  que  le  vol  sans  pilote  d'un 
tel  a6ronef  dans  des  regions  ouvertes 
aux  a£ronefs  civils  soit  soumis  £ 
contrdle  de  mani&re  £  6viter  tout 
danger  pour  les  a^ronefs  civils. 

ARTICLE  9. — Zones  interfiles 

a)  Chaque  Etat  contractant  peut, 
pour  des  raisons  de  n£cessit£  militaire 
ou  dans  l'int£ret  de  la  s£curit6  publi- 
que,  restreindre  ou  interdire  d'une 
mantere  uniforme  pour  tous  a6ronefs 
d 'autres  Etats  le  survol  de  certaines 
zones  de   son   territoire,   6tant  en- 
tendu    qu'il    ne    sera    fait    aucune 
distinction    &    cet    £gard    entre    les 
a^ronefs  de  1'Etat  en  question  em- 
ploy£s  £  des  services  a£riens  inter- 
nationaux  r£guliers  et  les  a6ronefs 
des  autres  Etats  contractants  em- 
ploy£s    £    des    services    similaires. 
Lesdites    zones    interdites    devront 
avoir  une  6tendue  et  un  emplacement 
raisonnables  de  fagon  £  ne  pas  gener 
inutilement  la  navigation  a£rienne. 
La  definition  desdites  zones  inter- 
dites situ£es  sur  le  territoire  d'un 
Etat  contractant  et  toutes  les  modi- 
fications dont  elles  pourraient  faire 
1'objet    par    la    suite    doivent    gtre 
communiques  dfes  que  possible  aux 
autres  Etats  contractants  ainsi  qu'£ 
TOrganisation    de    1'aviation    civile 
internationale. 

b)  Chaque    Etat   contractant    se 
reserve  6galement  le  droit,  dans  des 
circonstances  exceptionnelles  ou  pen- 
dant une  p6riode  de  crise  ou  encore 
dans  l'int£r£t  de  la  s£curit6  publique, 
de   restreindre   ou   d'interdire   pro- 
visoirement,  et  avec  effet  imm6diat, 
le  survol  de  son  territoire  ou  d'une 
partie  decelui-ci,  ^condition  que  cette 
restriction  ou  interdiction  soit  appli- 
cable, sans  distinction  de  nationalit6, 
aux  a£ronefs  de  tous  les  autres  Etats. 

c)  Chaque  Etat  contractant  peut, 


Dec.  7,  1944 

such  regulations  as  it  may  prescribe, 
may  require  any  aircraft  entering  the 
areas  contemplated  in  subparagraphs 
(a)  or  (b)  above  to  effect  a  landing  as 
soon  as  practicable  thereafter  at 
some  designated  airport  within  its 
territory. 

ARTICLE    10. — Landing   at   customs 
airport 

Except  in  a  case  where,  under  the 
terms  of  this  Convention  or  a  special 
authorization,  aircraft  are  permitted 
to  cross  the  territory  of  a  contracting 
State  without  landing,  every  aircraft 
which  enters  the  territory  of  a  con- 
tracting State  shall,  if  the  regulations 
of  that  State  so  require,  land  at  an 
airport  designated  by  that  State  for 
the  purpose  of  customs  and  other 
examination.  On  departure  from 
the  territory  of  a  contracting  State, 
such  aircraft  shall  depart  from  a 
similarly  designated  customs  airport. 
Particulars  of  all  designated  customs 
airports  shall  be  published  by  the 
State  and  transmitted  to  the  Inter- 
national Civil  Aviation  Organization 
established  under  Part  II  of  this 
Convention  for  communication  to  all 
other  contracting  States. 


ARTICLE    n. — Applicability   of  air 
regulations 

Subject  to  the  provisions  of  this 
Convention,  the  laws  and  regulations 
of  a  contracting  State  relating  to  the 
admission  to  or  departure  from  its 
territory  of  aircraft  engaged  in  in- 
ternational air  navigation,  or  to  the 
operation  and  navigation  of  such  air- 
craft while  within  its  territory,  shall 
be  applied  to  the  aircraft  of  all  con- 
tracting States  without  distinction 
as  to  nationality,  and  shall  be  com- 
plied with  by  such  aircraft  upon  en- 
tering or  departing  from  or  while 
within  the  territory  of  that  State. 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


173 


dans  des  conditions  qu'il  a  la  facult6 
de  determiner,  exiger  que  tout 
a£ronef  qui  p6n£tre  dans  les  zones 
vis6es  aux  alin6as  a)  et  b)  ci-dessus, 
atterrisse  aussit&t  que  possible  sur 
un  a6roport  d6sign6  &  I'int6rieur  de 
son  territoire. 

ARTICLE    10. — Atterrissage    sur    un 
a&roport  douanier 

En  dehors  du  cas  oti,  aux  termes 
de  la  pr£sente  Convention  ou  d'une 
autorisation  sp6ciale,  des  a6ronefs 
ont  la  permission  de  traverser  le 
territoire  d'un  Etat  contractant  sans 
y  atterrir,  tout  a6ronef  qui  p£n6tre 
sur  le  territoire  d'un  Etat  contractant 
doit,  si  les  rdglements  dudit  Etat 
1'exigent,  atterrir  sur  un  a6roport 
d6sign6  par  cet  Etat  aux  fins  d'in- 
spections  douanidres  et  autres.  En 
quittant  le  territoire  d'un  Etat 
contractant,  tout  a£ronef  doit  partir 
d'un  a6roport  douanier  d6sign6  de  la 
m£me  mantere.  Les  caract£ristiques 
de  tous  les  a6roports  d£sign£s  comme 
a6roports  douaniers  doivent  6tre 
publi£es  par  chaque  Etat  et  trans- 
mises  &  1'Organisation  de  1'aviation 
civile  Internationale  institute  en 
vertu  des  dispositions  de  la  deuxi&ne 
partie  de  la  pr6sente  Convention, 
qui  en  donnera  communication  & 
tous  les  autres  Etats  contractants. 

ARTICLE  n. — Application  des  rlgle- 
ments  relatifs  d  la  navigation 
a&rienne 

Sous  reserve  des  dispositions  de  la 
pr6sente  Convention,  les  lois  et 
r£glements  d'un  Etat  contractant 
r£gissant  sur  son  territoire  l'entr£e  et 
la  sortie  des  a6ronefs  employes  &  la 
navigation  a6rienne  internationale, 
ou  r6gissant  1'exploitation  et  la 
navigation  desdits  a6ronefs  pendant 
leur  s£jour  £  I'int6rieur  de  son 
territoire,  s'appliquent,  sans  dis- 
tinction de  nationality,  aux  aferonefs 
de  tous  les  Etats  contractants,  et 
lesdits  a6ronefs  doivent  s'y  con- 
former  &  I'entr6e,  £  la  sortie  et  4 
Tint^rieur  du  territoire  de  cet  Etat. 


174 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  640 


ARTICLE  12. — Rules  of  the  air 

Each  contracting  State  under- 
takes to  adopt  measures  to  insure 
that  every  aircraft  flying  over  or 
maneuvering  within  its  territory  and 
that  every  aircraft  carrying  its  na- 
tionality mark,  wherever  such  air- 
craft may  be,  shall  comply  with  the 
rules  and  regulations  relating  to  the 
flight  and  maneuver  of  aircraft  there 
in  force.  Each  contracting  State 
undertakes  to  keep  its  own  regula- 
tions in  these  respects  uniform,  to 
the  greatest  possible  extent,  with 
those  established  from  time  to  time 
under  this  Convention.  Over  the 
high  seas,  the  rules  in  force  shall  be 
those  established  under  this  Con- 
vention. Each  contracting  State 
undertakes  to  insure  the  prosecution 
of  all  persons  violating  the  regula- 
tions applicable. 


ARTICLE    13. — Entry  and   clearance 
regulations 

The  laws  and  regulations  of  a  con- 
tracting State  as  to  the  admission  to 
or  departure  from  its  territory  of 
passengers,  crew  or  cargo  of  aircraft, 
such  as  regulations  relating  to  entry, 
clearance,  immigration,  passports, 
customs,  and  quarantine  shall  be 
complied  with  by  or  on  behalf  of 
such  passengers,  crew  or  cargo  upon 
entrance  into  or  departure  from,  or 
while  within  the  territory  of  that 
State. 


ARTICLE  14. — Prevention  of  spread  of 
disease 

Each  contracting  State  agrees  to 
take  effective  measures  to  prevent 
the  spread  by  means  of  air  navigation 
of  cholera,  typhus  (epidemic),  small- 
pox, yellow  fever,  plague,  and  such 
other  communicable  diseases  as  the 
contracting  States  shall  from  time  to 
time  decide  to  designate,  and  to  that 
end  contracting  States  will  keep  in 
close  consultation  with  the  agencies 


ARTICLE  12. — Rtgles  de  Vair 

Chaque  Etat  contractant  s'engage 
It  adopter  des  mesures  propres  It 
assurer  que  tout  a£ronef  survolant 
son  territoire  ou  y  manoeuvrant,  ainsi 

3ue  tout  a^ronef  portant  la  marque 
e  sa  nationality  en  quelque  lieu 
qu'il  se  trouve,  se  conforme  aux 
regies  et  r£glements  applicables  en  ce 
lieu  au  vol  et  It  la  manoeuvre  des 
a£ronefs.  Chaque  Etat  contractant 
prend  Tengagement  de  veiller  It  ce 
que  ses  propres  r&glements  de- 
meurent  It  cet  6gard  et  dans  la  plus 
grande  mesure  possible  conformes  It 
ceux  qui  seront  £tablis  de  temps  It 
autre  en  application  de  la  pr6sente 
Convention.  En  haute  mer,  les 
regies  applicables  seront  les  regies 
£tablies  conform£ment  £  la  pr6sente 
Convention.  Chaque  Etat  con- 
tractant s'engage  £  poursuivre  toutes 
les  personnes  qui  enfreindront  les 
r&glements  applicables. 

ARTICLE  13. — Rtglements  d'entrte  et 
de  congt 

Les  lois  et  r£glements  d'un  Etat 
contractant  r6gissant,  sur  son  terri- 
toire, I'entr6e  ou  la  sortie  des 
passagers,  des  Equipages  ou  des 
marchandises  transports  par  a£ron- 
efs,  tels  que  les  lois  et  r£glements 
relatifs  aux  formalins  d 'entr£e,  de 
cong£,  d'immigration,  de  passeports, 
de  douane  et  de  quarantaine,  doivent 
gtre  observes  par  lesdits  passagers  ou 
Equipages  ou  pour  lesdites  mar- 
chandises, It  Tentr6e,  It  la  sortie  ou  It 
I'int6rieur  du  territoire  de  cet  Etat. 

ARTICLE    14. — Protection    contre   la 
propagation  des  maladies 

Chaque  Etat  contractant  s'engage 
It  prendre  des  mesures  efficaces  pour 
pr6venir  la  propagation,  par  1'inter- 
m£diaire  de  la  navigation  a6rienne, 
du  cholera,  du  typhus  (6pid£mique), 
de  la  variole,  de  la  fifrvre  jaune,  de  la 
peste,  ainsi  que  de  toute  autre 
maladie  contagieuse  qu'il  appartien- 
dra  aux  Etats  contractants,  le  cas 
6ch6ant,  de  designer.  A  cette  fin, 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


175 


concerned  with  international  regu- 
lations relating  to  sanitary  measures 
applicable  to  aircraft.  Such  con- 
sultation shall  be  without  prejudice 
to  the  application  of  any  existing 
international  convention  on  this 
subject  to  which  the  contracting 
States  may  be  parties. 


ARTICLE    15. — Airport  and   similar 
charges 

Every  airport  in  a  contracting 
State  which  is  open  to  public  use  by 
its  national  aircraft  shall  likewise, 
subject  to  the  provisions  of  Article 
68,  be  open  under  uniform  condi- 
tions to  the  aircraft  of  all  the  other 
contracting  States.  The  like  uni- 
form conditions  shall  apply  to  the 
use,  by  aircraft  of  every  contracting 
State,  of  all  air  navigation  facilities, 
including  radio  and  meteorological 
services,  which  may  be  provided  for 
public  use  for  the  safety  and  expedi- 
tion of  air  navigation. 


Any  charges  that  may  be  imposed 
or  permitted  to  be  imposed  by  a  con- 
tracting State  for  the  use  of  such  air- 
ports and  air  navigation  facilities  by 
the  aircraft  of  any  other  contracting 
State  shall  not  be  higher, 

(a)  As  to  aircraft  not  engaged  in 
scheduled  international  air  services, 
than  those  that  would  be  paid  by  its 
national  aircraft  of  the  same  class 
engaged  in  similar  operations,  and 

(b)  As    to    aircraft    engaged    in 
scheduled  international  air  services, 
than  those  that  would  be  paid  by  its 
national  aircraft  engaged  in  similar 
international  air  services. 

All  such  charges  shall  be  published 
and  communicated  to  the  Interna- 


les  Etats  contractants  se  tiendront 
en  6troite  consultation  avec  les 
prganismes  charges  des  r&glements 
internationaux  relatifs  aux  mesures 
sanitaires  applicables  aux  a£ronefs. 
Ces  consultations  n'affecteront  en 
rien  1'application  de  toute  conven- 
tion Internationale  existante  en  la 
matifere  &  laquelle  les  Etats  contrac- 
tants pourraient  gtre  parties. 

ARTICLE   13.—  Taxes  d'atroports  et 
droits  similaires 

Tout  a6roport  d'un  Etat  con- 
tractant  qui  est  ouvert  aux  a6ronefs 
nationaux  de  cet  Etat  aux  fins 
d'usage  public  est,  sous  reserve  des 
dispositions  de  Tarticle  68,  6galement 
ouvert  dans  des  conditions  uniformes 
aux  a6ronefs  de  tous  les  autres  Etats 
contractants.  Des  conditions  fegale- 
ment  uniformes  sont  applicables  en 
ce  qui  concerne  1'utilisation  par  les 
a6ronefs  de  chaque  Etat  contractant 
de  toutes  les  facilit£s  pour  la  naviga- 
tion a£rienne,  y  compris  les  services 
radio£lectriques  et  m6t6orologiques, 
qui  peuvent  etre  mises  £  la  disposi- 
tion du  public  pour  contribuer  a  la 
s£curit6  et  £  la  rapidit6  de  la  naviga- 
tion a6rienne. 

Les  taxes  qu'un  Etat  contractant 
peut  imposer  ou  permettre  d'imposer 
pour  1'utilisation  desdits  a£roports  et 
facilitfe  pour  la  navigation  a£rienne 
par  les  a6ronefs  de  tout  autre  Etat 
contractant  ne  doivent  pas  £tre  plus 


a)  Pour  ce  qui  est  des  a^ronefs 
qui  ne  sont  pas  employes  a  des  serv- 
ices a£riens  internationaux  r6guliers, 
que    les    droits    acquitt£s    par    ses 
a£ronefs  nationaux  de  meme  classe 
employes  a  des  services  similaires;  et 

b)  Pour  ce  qui  est  des  a£ronefs 
employes  &  des  services  a6riens  inter- 
nationaux r6guliers,  que  les  droits 
acquitt£s  par  ses  a£ronefs  nationaux 
employes    a   des   services    interna- 
tionaux similaires. 

Toutes  ces  taxes  seront  publtees  et 
communiques  £  TOrganisation  de 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  640 


tional  Civil  Aviation  Organization: 
provided  that,  upon  representation 
by  an  interested  contracting  State, 
the  charges  imposed  for  the  use  of 
airports  and  other  facilities  shall  be 
subject  to  review  by  the  Council, 
which  shall  report  and  make  recom- 
mendations thereon  for  the  consid- 
eration of  the  State  or  States  con- 
cerned. No  fees,  dues  or  other 
charges  shall  be  imposed  by  any 
contracting  State  in  respect  solely 
of  the  right  of  transit  over  or  entry 
into  or  exit  from  its  territory  of  any 
aircraft  of  a  contracting  State  or 
persons  or  property  thereon. 

ARTICLE  16. — Search  of  Aircraft 

The  appropriate  authorities  of 
each  of  the  contracting  States  shall 
have  the  right,  without  unreasonable 
delay,  to  search  aircraft  of  the  other 
contracting  States  on  landing  or  de- 
parture, and  to  inspect  the  certifi- 
cates and  other  documents  prescribed 
by  this  Convention. 


CHAPTER  III 

NATIONALITY  OF  AIRCRAFT 

ARTICLE  17. — Nationality  of  aircraft 

Aircraft  have  the  nationality  of 
the  State  in  which  they  are  registered. 

ARTICLE  iS.—Dual  registration 

An  aircraft  cannot  be  validly 
registered  in  more  than  one  State, 
but  its  registration  may  be  changed 
from  one  State  to  another. 

ARTICLE  19.— National  laws 
governing  registration 

The  registration  or  transfer  of 
registration  of  aircraft  in  any  con- 
tracting State  shall  be  made  in  ac- 
cordance with  its  laws  and  regula- 
tions. 


1'aviation  civile  Internationale,  6tant 
entendu  que,  sur  representation  d'un 
Etat  contractant  int£ress6,  les  taxes 
imposes  pour  1'utilisation  des  a6ro- 
ports  et  autres  facilit6s  feront  1'objet 
d'un  examen  par  le  Conseil,  qui 
etablira  un  rapport  et  formulera  des 
recommandations  £  ce  sujet  aux  fins 
d 'examen  par  1'Etat  ou  les  Etats 
int£ress6s.  Aucun  Etat  contractant 
n'imposera  de  droits,  frais  ou  autres 
taxes  uniquement  en  raison  du  droit 
de  transit  ou  dfentr6e,  au-dessus  du 
territoire  ou  sur  celui-ci,  ou  de  sortie 
hors  de  celui-ci  d'un  a6ronef  quel- 
conque  d'un  Etat  contractant,  ou  des 
personnes  ou  biens  se  trouvant  £  bord. 

ARTICLE  16. — Visite  des  atronefs 

Les  autorit6s  comp6tentes  de  cha- 
cun  des  Etats  contractants  ont  le 
droit  de  visiter,  £  1'atterrissage  et  au 
depart,  sans  provoquer  de  retard 
excessif,  les  a£ronefs  des  autres 
Etats  contractants,  ainsi  que  d'ex- 
aminer  les  certificats  et  autres  docu- 
ments presents  par  la  pr6sente  Con- 
vention. 

CHAPITRE  III 

NATIONALITY  DES  A^RONEFS 

ARTICLE  17. — Nationality  des  aSronefs 

Les  a£ronefs  ont  la  nationality  de 
1'Etat  dans  lequel  ils  sont  immatri- 
cutes. 

ARTICLE  18. — Immatriculation 
multiple 

Un  a^ronef  ne  peut  Stre  valable- 
ment  immatricul6  dans  plusieurs 
Etats.  Toutefois,  son  immatricula- 
tion  peut  6tre  transferee  d'un  Etat 
£  un  autre. 

ARTICLE  19. — Lois  nationales 
rSgissant  Vimmatriculation 

L'immatriculation  ou  le  transfert 
d'immatriculation  d'un  a^ronef  dans 
un  Etat  contractant  quelconque 
s'effectuera  conform6ment  aux  lois 
et  rfiglements  dudit  Etat. 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


177 


ARTICLE  20. — Display  of  marks 

Every  aircraft  engaged  in  inter- 
national air  navigation  shall  bear  its 
appropriate  nationality  and  regis- 
tration marks. 

ARTICLE  21. — Report  of  registrations 

Each  contracting  State  under- 
takes to  supply  to  any  other  con- 
tracting State  or  to  the  International 
Civil  Aviation  Organization,  on  de- 
mand, information  concerning  the 
registration  and  ownership  of  any 
particular  aircraft  registered  in  that 
State.  In  addition,  each  contract- 
ing State  shall  furnish  reports  to  the 
International  Civil  Aviation  Or- 
ganization, under  such  regulations  as 
the  latter  may  prescribe,  giving  such 
pertinent  data  as  can  be  made 
available  concerning  the  ownership 
and  control  of  aircraft  registered  in 
that  State  and  habitually  engaged  in 
international  air  navigation.  The 
data  thus  obtained  by  the  Interna- 
tional Civil  Aviation  Organization 
shall  be  made  available  by  it  on 
request  to  the  other  contracting 
States. 


CHAPTER  IV 

MEASURES  TO  FACILITATE  AIR 
NAVIGATION 

ARTICLE  22. — Facilitation  of 
formalities 

Each  contracting  State  agrees 
to  adopt  all  practicable  measures, 
through  the  issuance  of  special  regu- 
lations or  otherwise,  to  facilitate  and 
expedite  navigation  by  aircraft  be- 
tween the  territories  of  contracting 
States,  and  to  prevent  unnecessary 
delays  to  aircraft,  crews,  passengers 
and  cargo,  especially  in  the  adminis- 
tration of  the  laws  relating  to  immi- 
gration, quarantine,  customs  and 
clearance. 


ARTICLE  20. — Port  des  marques 

Tout  a6ronef  employ^  &  la  naviga- 
tion a£rienne  Internationale  portera 
les  marques  de  nationality  et  d'im- 
matriculation  qui  lui  sont  propres. 

ARTICLE  21. — Communication  des 
immatriculations 

Chaque  Etat  contractant  s'engage 
&  fournir,  sur  demande,  i  tout  autre 
Etat  contractant  ou  &  1'Organisation 
de  1'aviation  civile  Internationale, 
des  renseignements  concernant  Tim- 
matriculation  et  la  propri6t6  de 
tout  a6ronef  immatricul6  dans  ledit 
Etat.  De  plus,  chaque  Etat  con- 
tractant fournira  £  1'Organization  de 
1'aviation  civile  internationale,  con- 
form£ment  aux  regies  que  cette 
derntere  pourrait  prescrire,  des  rap- 
ports donnant  tous  les  renseigne- 
ments pertinents  qu'il  lui  sera  pos- 
sible de  fournir  concernant  la  pro- 
pri6t6  et  le  contrfile  des  a6ronefs 
immatricutes  dans  cet  Etat  et  nor- 
malement  affect^s  £  la  navigation 
a£rienne  internationale.  L'Organi- 
sation  de  1'aviation  civile  internatio- 
nale mettra  les  renseignements  ainsi 
obtenus  &  la  disposition  des  autres 
Etats  contractants  sur  leur  demande. 

CHAPITRE  IV 

MESURES  DESTINIES  A  FACILITER  LA 
NAVIGATION  A^RIENNE 

ARTICLE  22. — Simplification  des 
formalitis 

Chaque  Etat  contractant  s'engage 
&  adopter,  par  la  promulgation  de 
rfeglements  sp£ciaux  ou  de  toute  autre 
manure,  toutes  mesures  pratiques 
tendant  £  faciliter  et  &  acc616rer  la 
navigation  par  a6ronef  entre  les 
territoires  des  Etats  contractants, 
ainsi  qu'£  £viter  des  retards  inu tiles 
aux  a6ronefs,  £  leurs  Equipages,  £ 
leurs  passagers  et  &  leur  cargaison, 
sp6cialement  en  ce  qui  concerne 
1'application  des  lois  relatives  £ 
Timmigration,  £  la  quarantaine,  aux 
douanes  et  aux  formalitfe  de  cong6. 


178 


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No.  640 


ARTICLE  23. — Customs  and  immigra- 
tion procedures 

Each  contracting  State  under- 
takes, so  far  as  it  may  find  practica- 
ble, to  establish  customs  and  immi- 
gration procedures  affecting  inter- 
national air  navigation  in  accordance 
with  the  practices  which  may  be  es- 
tablished or  recommended  from  time 
to  time,  pursuant  to  this  Convention. 
Nothing  in  this  Convention  shall  be 
construed  as  preventing  the  estab- 
lishment of  customs-free  airports. 


ARTICLE  24. — Customs  duty 

(a)  Aircraft  on  a  flight  to,  from,  or 
across  the  territory  of  another  con- 
tracting State  shall  be  admitted 
temporarily  free  of  duty,  subject  to 
the  customs  regulations  of  the  State. 
Fuel,  lubricating  oils,  spare  parts, 
regular  equipment  and  aircraft  stores 
on  board  an  aircraft  of  a  contracting 
State,  on  arrival  in  the  territory  of 
another  contracting  State  and  re- 
tained on  board  on  leaving  the  terri- 
tory of  that  State  shall  be  exempt 
from  customs  duty,  inspection  fees  or 
similar  national  or  local  duties  and 
charges.  This  exemption  shall  not 
apply  to  any  quantities  or  articles 
unloaded,  except  in  accordance  with 
the  customs  regulations  of  the  State, 
which  may  require  that  they  shall 
be  kept  under  customs  supervision. 


(b)  Spare  parts  and  equipment 
imported  into  the  territory  of  a  con- 
tracting State  for  incorporation  in  or 
use  on  an  aircraft  of  another  con- 
tracting State  engaged  in  interna- 
tional air  navigation  shall  be  ad- 
mitted free  of  customs  duty,  subject 


ARTICLE  23. — FormaliUs  de  douane 
et  d' immigration 

Chaque  Etat  contractant  s'engage, 
dans  la  mesure  oil  il  le  jugera  r6alisa- 
ble,  £  6tablir  des  r&glements  de 
douane  et  d'immigration  s'appli- 
quant  £  la  navigation  a£rienne  In- 
ternationale, conform6ment  aux  m£- 
thodes  qui  pourraient  fitre  6tablies 
ou  recommand&es  de  temps  £  autre 
en  application  de  la  pr£sente  Con- 
vention. Aucune  disposition  de  la 
pr6sente  Convention  ne  peut  gtre 
interpr£t£e  comme  empgchant  la 
creation  d'a£roports  francs. 

ARTICLE  24. — Droits  de  douane 

a)  Tout    a£ronef    effectuant    un 
voyage  £  destination  ou  en  prove- 
nance du  territoire  d'un  autre  Etat 
contractant,  ou  £  travers  ledit  terri- 
toire, est  temporairement  admis  en 
franchise  de  douane,  dans  les  condi- 
tions   pr6vues    par   les    rdglements 
douaniers  de  cet  Etat.     Les  carbu- 
rants,    les    huiles    lubrifiantes,    les 
pieces    de    rechange,    I'^quipement 
normal  et  les  appro visionnements  de 
bord  se  trouvant  £  bord  d'un  a6ronef 
d'un  Etat  contractant,  £  son  arrivte 
sur   le    territoire   d'un    autre    Etat 
contractant  et  se  trouvant  encore  £ 
bord  dudit  a^ronef  lors  de  son  depart 
de  ce  territoire,  sont  exon6r6s  des 
droits  de  douane,  frais  de  visite  ou 
autres  droits  et  taxes  similaires  im- 
posts par  1'Etat  ou  les  autorit6s  lo- 
cales.    Cette  exoneration   ne  s'ap- 
plique   pas   aux   quantit£s   ou    aux 
objets  d6charg6s,   sauf  dispositions 
contraires  des  r&glements  douaniers 
de  cet  Etat,  lesquels  peuvent  stipu- 
ler  que  lesdites  quantit&s  ou  objets 
seront  gardes  sous  la  surveillance  de 
la  douane. 

b)  Les    pieces    de    rechange    et 
r^quipement  imports  dans  le  terri- 
toire d'un   Etat  contractant   pour 
fitre    months    ou    utilises    sur    un 
a^ronef  d'un  autre  Etat  contractant 
employ^   £   la   navigation   a£rienne 
Internationale  sont  admis  en  fran- 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


179 


to  compliance  with  the  regulations 
of  the  State  concerned,  which  may 
provide  that  the  articles  shall  be 
kept  under  customs  supervision  and 
control. 


ARTICLE  25. — Aircraft  in  distress 

Each  contracting  State  under- 
takes to  provide  such  measures  of 
assistance  to  aircraft  in  distress  in 
its  territory  as  it  may  find  practica- 
ble, and  to  permit,  subject  to  control 
by  its  own  authorities,  the  owners  of 
the  aircraft  or  authorities  of  the 
State  in  which  the  aircraft  is  regis- 
tered to  provide  such  measures  of 
assistance  as  may  be  necessitated  by 
the  circumstances.  Each  contract- 
ing State,  when  undertaking  search 
for  missing  aircraft,  will  collaborate 
in  coordinated  measures  which  may 
be  recommended  from  time  to  time 
pursuant  to  this  Convention. 


ARTICLE  26. — Investigation  of 
accidents 

In  the  event  of  an  accident  to  an 
aircraft  of  a  contracting  State  oc- 
curring in  the  territory  of  another 
contracting  State,  and  involving 
death  or  serious  injury,  or  indicating 
serious  technical  defect  in  the  aircraft 
or  air  navigation  facilities,  the  State 
in  which  the  accident  occurs  will 
institute  an  inquiry  into  the  circum- 
stances of  the  accident,  in  accord- 
ance, so  far  as  its  laws  permit,  with 
the  procedure  which  may  be  recom- 
mended by  the  International  Civil 
Aviation  Organization.  The  State 
in  which  the  aircraft  is  registered 
shall  be  given  the  opportunity  to 
appoint  observers  to  be  present  at 
the  inquiry  and  the  State  holding 
the  inquiry  shall  communicate  the 
report  and  findings  in  the  matter 
to  that  State. 


chise  de  douane,  sous  reserve  de 
Tobservation  des  r£glements  de  TEtat 
int6ress6,  lesquels  peuvent  stipuler 
que  les  articles  en  question  seront 
gardes  sous  la  surveillance  et  le 
contrdle  de  la  douane. 

ARTICLE  25. — Atronejs  en  dtiresse 

Chaque  Etat  contractant  s'engage 
£  fournir  toute  Tassistance  qu'il 
jugera  possible  aux  a6ronefs  en 
d6tresse  sur  son  territoire  et,  sous 
reserve  de  1'exercice  d'un  droit  de 
contr&le  par  ses  propres  autoritfes,  £ 
permettre  aux  propri6taires  ou  aux 
autorit6s  de  1'Etat  dans  lequel 
l'a£ronef  est  immatricul£  de  fournir 
les  mesures  d 'assistance  que  les  cir- 
constances  pourraient  n£cessiter. 
Chaque  Etat  contractant,  lorsqu'il 
entreprendra  des  recherches  pour 
retrouver  des  a£ronefs  disparus, 
participera  aux  mesures  coordonn£es 
qui  pourront  £tre  recommand6es  de 
temps  £  autre  en  application  de  la 
pr6sente  Convention. 

ARTICLE  26. — Enquite  sur  accidents 

En  cas  d'accident  survenu  4  un 
a£ronef  d'un  Etat  contractant  sur  le 
territoire  d'un  autre  Etat  con- 
tractant, entralnant  mort  ou  bles- 
sures  graves,  ou  indiquant  1'existence 
de  graves  imperfections  techniques 
dans  I'a6ronef  ou  dans  les  facilit6s 
pour  la  navigation  a£rienne,  1'Etat 
sur  le  territoire  duquel  1'accident 
s'est  produit  ouvre  une  enqu£te 
sur  les  circonstances  de  1'accident,  en 
se  conformant,  dans  la  mesure  oft 
ses  lois  le  permettent,  &  la  procedure 
qui  pourra  6tre  recommand£e  par 
1'Organisation  de  1'aviation  civile 
Internationale.  II  sera  accord6  £ 
1'Etat  dans  lequel  I'a6ronef  est  im- 
matricu!6  la  possibility  de  designer 
des  observateurs  pour  assister  £ 
1'enqufite,  et  1'Etat  qui  proc6dera  £ 
cette  enqufite  communiquera  £  Tautre 
Etat  le  rapport  et  les  conclusions 
concernant  Taccident. 


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INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  640 


ARTICLE  27. — Exemption  from  seizure 
on  patent  claims 

(a)  While    engaged    in    interna- 
tional air  navigation,  any  authorized 
entry  of  aircraft  of  a  contracting 
State  into  the  territory  of  another 
contracting  State  or  authorized  tran- 
sit across  the  territory  of  such  State 
with  or  without  landings  shall  not 
entail  any  seizure  or  detention  of  the 
aircraft  or  any  claim   against  the 
owner  or  operator  thereof  or  any 
other  interference  therewith  by  or  on 
behalf  of  such  State  or  any  person 
therein,  on  the  ground  that  the  con- 
struction,   mechanism,     parts,    ac- 
cessories or  operation  of  the  aircraft 
is  an  infringement  of  any  patent, 
design,   or  model  duly  granted  or 
registered  in  the  State  whose  terri- 
tory is  entered  by  the  aircraft,  it 
being  agreed  that  no  deposit  of  se- 
curity in  connection  with  the  fore- 
going   exemption    from    seizure    or 
detention  of  the  aircraft  shall  in  any 
case  be  required  in  the  State  en- 
tered by  such  aircraft. 

(b)  The  provisions  of  paragraph 
(a)  of  this  Article  shall  also  be  appli- 
cable to  the  storage  of  spare  parts 
and  spare  equipment  for  the  aircraft 
and  the  right  to  use  and  install  the 
same  in  the  repair  of  an  aircraft  of  a 
contracting  State  in  the  territory  of 
any   other   contracting  State,   pro- 
vided  that   any   patented   part   or 
equipment  so  stored   shall   not  be 
sold  or  distributed  internally  in  or 
exported    commercially    from    the 
contracting   State   entered    by   the 
aircraft. 


(c)  The  benefits  of  this  Article 
shall  apply  only  to  such  States, 
parties  to  this  Convention,  as  either 
(i)  are  parties  to  the  International 
Convention  for  the  Protection  of 
Industrial  Property  and  to  any 
amendments  thereof;  or  (2)  have 
enacted  patent  laws  which  recognize 
and  give  adequate  protection  to 


ARTICLE  27. — Exemption  de  saisie 
pour  contrefa$on  de  brevet  d'invention 

a)  Lorsqu'un  a6ronef  d'un   Etat 
contractant  est  employ^  4  la  naviga- 
tion a£rienne  internationale,  Tentr6e 
autoris£e  sur  le  territoire  d'un  autre 
Etat  contractant  ou  le  transit  auto- 
ris6  £  travers  ledit  territoire  avec  ou 
sans  atterrissage  ne  peut  donner  lieu 
ni  £  saisie  ou  retention  de  I'a6ronef, 
ni  £  reclamation  £  Tencontre  de  son 
proprtetaire  ou  exploitant,  ni  &  toute 
autre  intervention  de  la  part  ou  au 
nom  de  cet  Etat  ou  de  toute  per- 
sonne  y  r6sidant,  sous  pr6texte  que 
la  construction,   le  m6canisme,   les 
pieces,  les  accessoires,  ou  le  mode  de 
fonctionnement    de    l'a£ronef    con- 
stituent la  contrefagon  d'un  brevet, 
dessin  ou  module  quelconque  ddment 
accord6  ou  d£pos£  dans  1'Etat  sur 
le  territoire  duquel  a  p£n6tr£  l'a£- 
ronef,  6tant  entendu  que  1'Etat  sur 
le  territoire  duquel  a  p£n£tr6  I'a6- 
ronef   n'exigera   en    aucun    cas    un 
d£p6t  de  garantie  pour  1 'exemption 
mentionnte  ci-dessus  de  saisie  ou  de 
retention  de  Ta£ronef. 

b)  Les  dispositions  du  paragraphe 
a)   du   present  article   s'appliquent 
£galement  au  magasinage  des  pieces 
dltach£es    et    £quipements    de    re- 
change  pour  Iesa6ronefs,  ainsi  qu'au 
droit    d'utiliser    et    d'installer    ces 
pieces   et   6quipements    lors   de   la 
reparation  d'un  a£ronef  d'un  Etat 
contractant   sur   le   territoire   d'un 
autre   Etat  contractant,   £tant  en- 
tendu que  toute  ptece  ou  £quipement 
brevet6  ainsi  emmagasin6  ne  peut 
Stre  vendu  ou  distribu6  &  I'int6rieur 
de  1'Etat  sur  le  territoire  duquel  a 
p6n£tr6  l'a£ronef,  ou  export^  dudit 
Etat  £  titre  commercial. 

c)  Ne  b£n6ficient  des  dispositions 
du    present    article    que    les    Etats 
parties   £   la    pr£sente    Convention 
i)  qui  spnt  parties  £  la  Convention 
internationale  pour  la  protection  de 
la  propri^t^  industrielle  et  4  tous 
amendements  £  ladite  Convention, 
ou  2)  qui  ont  promulgu£  des  lois  sur 
les  brevets  reconnaissant  les  inven- 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


181 


inventions  made  by  the  nationals  of 
the  other  States  parties  to  this  Con- 
vention. 

ARTICLE  28. — Air  navigation  facilities 
and  standard  systems 

Each  contracting  State  undertakes, 
so  far  as  it  may  find  practicable,  to: 

(a)  Provide,  in  its  territory,  air- 
ports, radio  services,  meteorological 
services   and    other   air   navigation 
facilities   to   facilitate   international 
air  navigation,  in  accordance  with 
the  standards  and  practices  recom- 
mended or  established  from  time  to 
time,  pursuant  to  this  Convention; 

(b)  Adopt  and  put  into  operation 
the    appropriate    standard    systems 
of  communications  procedure,  codes, 
markings,  signals,  lighting  and  other 
operational  practices  and  rules  which 
may  be  recommended  or  established 
from  time  to  time,  pursuant  to  this 
Convention; 

(c)  Collaborate    in    international 
measures  to  secure  the  publication  of 
aeronautical    maps    and    charts    in 
accordance    with    standards    which 
may  be  recommended  or  established 
from  time  to  time,  pursuant  to  this 
Convention. 

CHAPTER  V 

CONDITIONS  TO   BE  FULFILLED  WITH 
RESPECT  TO  AIRCRAFT 

ARTICLE  29. — Documents  carried  in 
aircraft 

Every  aircraft  of  a  contracting 
State,  engaged  in  international  navi- 
gation, shall  carry  the  following 
documents  in  conformity  with  the 
conditions  prescribed  in  this  Con- 
vention : 

(a)  Its  certificate  of  registration; 

(b)  Its  certificate  of  airworthiness; 

(c)  The  appropriate  licenses  for 
each  member  of  the  crew; 

(d)  Its  journey  log  book; 


tions  faites  par  les  ressortissants  des 
autres  Etats  parties  i  la  pr6sente 
Convention  et  leur  accordant  la 
protection  qui  convient. 

ARTICLE   28. — Facilitts   et  systtmes 
standards  de  navigation  airienne 

Chaque  Etat  contractant  s'engage, 
dans  la  mesure  oft  il  le  juge  possible, 

a)  A  etablir,  sur  son  territoire,  des 
a£roports,    des    services    radio61ec- 
triques  et  m£t6orologiques  et  d 'au- 
tres facilit6s  £  la  navigation  a£rienne 
en  vue  d 'aider  la  navigation  a6rienne 
Internationale,    conform£ment    aux 
standards  et  pratiques  recommand6s 
ou  6tablis  de  temps  £  autre  en  vertu 
de  la  pr6sente  Convention; 

b)  A  adopter  et  mettre  en  applica- 
tion les  systfemes  standards  appro- 
prifes  en  mattere  de  procedures  de 
communications,  de  codes,  de  bali- 
sage,   de   signalisation,   de   feux  et 
d'autres  pratiques  et  regies  d'exploi- 
tation  qui  peuvent  6tre  recommand£s 
ou  6tablis  de  temps  &  autre  en  vertu 
de  la  pr6sente  Convention; 

c)  A  collaborer  aux  mesures  prises 
sur  le  plan  international  pour  assurer 
la   publication   de   cartes   et   plans 
a£ronautiques,  en  conformity  avec 
les  standards  qui  peuvent  £tre  recom- 
mand6s  ou  6tablis  de  temps  &  autre 
en  vertu  de  la  pr&ente  Convention. 

CHAPITRE  V 

CONDITIONS    A    REMPLIR    PAR    LES 
A£RONEFS 

ARTICLE  29. — Documents  de  bord  des 
atronefs 

Tout  a6ronef  d'un  Etat  contrac- 
tant employ^  &  la  navigation  Inter- 
nationale doit,  conform6ment  aux 
conditions  prescrites  par  la  pr6sente 
Convention,  avoir  £  bord  les  docu- 
ments suivants: 

a)  Son    certificat    d'immatricula- 
tion; 

b)  Son  certificat  de  navigabilit6 ; 

c)  Les  licences  approprtees  pour 
chaque  membre  de  l'£quipage; 

d)  Son  carnet  de  route; 


182 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  640 


(e)  If  it  is  equipped  with  radio 
apparatus,  the  aircraft  radio  station 
license; 

(/)  If  it  carries  passengers,  a  list 
of  their  names  and  places  of  em- 
barkation and  destination; 

(g)  If  it  carries  cargo,  a  manifest 
and  detailed  declarations  of  the 
cargo. 

ARTICLE  30. — Aircraft  radio  equip- 
ment 

(a)  Aircraft  of  each  contracting 
State  may,  in  or  over  the  territory  of 
other  contracting  States,  carry  radio 
transmitting   apparatus   only    if   a 
license  to  install  and  operate  such 
apparatus  has  been  issued  by  the 
appropriate  authorities  of  the  State 
in  which  the  aircraft  is  registered. 
The  use  of  radio  transmitting  ap- 
paratus in  the  territory  of  the  con- 
tracting   State    whose    territory    is 
flown  over  shall  be  in  accordance 
with  the  regulations  prescribed  by 
that  State. 

(b)  Radio  transmitting  apparatus 
may  be  used  only  by  members  of  the 
flight  crew  who  are  provided  with 
a   special   license  for  the   purpose, 
issued  by  the  appropriate  authorities 
of  the  State  in  which  the  aircraft  is 
registered. 

ARTICLE  31. — Certificates  of  air- 
worthiness 

Every  aircraft  engaged  in  inter- 
national navigation  shall  be  provided 
with  a  certificate  of  airworthiness 
issued  or  rendered  valid  by  the  State 
in  which  it  is  registered. 

ARTICLE  32. — Licenses  of  personnel 

(a)  The  pilot  of  every  aircraft  and 
the  other  members  of  the  operating 
crew  of  every  aircraft  engaged  in 
international  navigation  shall  be 
provided  with  certificates  of  com- 
petency and  licenses  issued  or  ren- 
dered valid  by  the  State  in  which  the 
aircraft  is  registered. 


e)  S'il  est  muni  d 'appareils  radio- 
£lectriques,  la  licence  de  la  station 
radio  de  l'a£ronef; 

/)  S'il  transporte  des  passagers,  la 
liste  nominative  de  ceux-ci,  indi- 
quant  leurs  lieux  d'embarquement 
et  de  destination ; 

g)  S'il  transporte  des  marchan- 
dises,  un  manifeste  et  des  d£clara- 
tions  d£taill£es  de  la  cargaison. 

ARTICLE  30. — Equipement  radio  des 
a6ronefs 

a)  Les  a£ronefs  de  chaque  Etat 
contractant  ne  peuvent,  lorsqu'ils  se 
trouvent  sur  le  territoire  d'autres 
Etats    contractants    ou    au-dessus 
dudit  territoire,  avoir  a  leur  bord 
des  appareils  6metteurs  que  si  les 
autoritis  comp^tentes  de  1'Etat  dans 
lequel  I'a6ronef  est  immatricul6  ont 
d61ivr£  &  cet  effet  une  licence  per- 
mettant  d'installer  et  d'utiliser  les- 
dits  appareils.     Les  appareils  £met- 
teurs  ne  peuvent  6tre  utilises  dans  le 
territoire  de  1'Etat  contractant  sur- 
vol£  qu'en  conformity  des  r^glements 
presents  par  cet  Etat. 

b)  Les    appareils    6metteurs    ne 
peuvent   gtre   utilises   que   par   les 
membres  du  personnel  de  conduite 
munis  a  cet  effet  d'une  licence  sp£- 
ciale,    d61ivr6e     par    les    autorit6s 
comp6tentes  de  1'Etat  dans  lequel 
l'a£ronef  est  immatricul6. 

ARTICLE  31. — Certificats  de 
navigabiliU 

Tout  a£ronef  employ^  a  la  navi- 
gation Internationale  doit  §tre  muni 
d'un  certificat  de  navigability  d£- 
Iivr6  ou  valid6  par  1'Etat  dans  lequel 
Ta£ronef  est  immatricute. 

ARTICLE  32. — Licences  du  personnel 

a)  Le  pilote  et  les  autres  membres 
du  personnel  de  conduite  de  tout 
a6ronef  employ^  a  la  navigation  in- 
ternationale  doivent  Stre  munis  de 
brevets  d'aptitude  et  de  licences 
d61ivr£s  ou  valid6s  par  1'Etat  dans 
lequel  I'a6ronef  est  immatriculS. 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


183 


(6)  Each  contracting  State  re- 
serves the  right  to  refuse  to  recog- 
nize, for  the  purpose  of  flight  above 
its  own  territory,  certificates  of 
competency  and  licenses  granted  to 
any  of  its  nationals  by  another  con- 
tracting State. 

ARTICLE  33. — Recognition  of  certifi- 
cates and  licenses 

Certificates  of  airworthiness  and 
certificates  of  competency  and  li- 
censes issued  or  rendered  valid  by 
the  contracting  State  in  which  the 
aircraft  is  registered,  shall  be  recog- 
nized as  valid  by  the  other  contract- 
ing States,  provided  that  the  require- 
ments under  which  such  certificates 
or  licenses  were  issued  or  rendered 
valid  are  equal  to  or  above  the  mini- 
mum standards  which  may  be  es- 
tablished from  time  to  time  pursuant 
to  this  Convention. 


ARTICLE  34. — Journey  log  books 

There  shall  be  maintained  in  re- 
spect of  every  aircraft  engaged  in 
international  navigation  a  journey 
log  book  in  which  shall  be  entered 
particulars  of  the  aircraft,  its  crew 
and  of  each  journey,  in  such  form 
as  may  be  prescribed  from  time  to 
time  pursuant  to  this  Convention. 

ARTICLE  35. — Cargo  restrictions 

(a)  No  munitions  of  war  or  imple- 
ments of  war  may  be  carried  in  or 
above  the  territory  of  a  State  in  air- 
craft engaged  in  international  navi- 
gation, except  by  permission  of  such 
State.  Each  State  shall  determine 
by  regulations  what  constitutes  mu- 
nitions of  war  or  implements  of  war 
for  the  purposes  of  this  Article, 
giving  due  consideration,  for  the 
purposes  of  uniformity,  to  such 
recommendations  as  the  Interna- 
tional Civil  Aviation  Organization 
may  from  time  to  time  make. 


ft)  Chaque  Etat  contractant  se 
reserve  le  droit  de  ne  pas  reconnaltre 
valables,  aux  fins  de  survol  de  son 
propre  territoire,  les  brevets  d'apti- 
tude  et  les  licences  accord£s  &  Tun  de 
ses  ressortissants  par  un  autre  Etat 
contractant. 

ARTICLE  33. — Reconnaissance  des 
certificats  et  licences 

Les  certificats  de  navigability, 
ainsi  que  les  brevets  d 'aptitude  et 
les  licences  d£livr£s  ou  valid£s  par 
1'Etat  contractant  dans  lequel  I'a6- 
ronef  est  immatricute,  seront  recon- 
nus  valables  par  les  autres  Etats 
contractants,  &  condition  toutefois 
que  les  conditions  sous  lesquelles 
ces  brevets  ou  licences  ont  6te  d£- 
Iivr6s  ou  valid6s  soient  6quivalentes 
ou  sup6rieures  aux  standards  mini- 
mum qui  pourraient,  de  temps  & 
autre,  gtre  £tablis  en  vertu  de  la 
pr6sente  Convention. 

ARTICLE  34. — Garnets  de  route 

Pour  chaque  a£ronef  employ^  i 
la  navigation  Internationale,  il  est 
tenu  un  carnet  de  route  sur  lequel 
sont  portes  les  renseignements  re- 
latifs  &  I'adronef,  &  l'£quipage  et  £ 
chaque  voyage,  sous  la  forme  qui 
peut  £tre  prescrite  de  temps  &  autre 
en  vertu  de  la  pr6sente  Conven- 
tion. 

ARTICLE  35. — Restrictions  relatives  d 
la  cargaison 

a)  Aucun  a£ronef  employ^  i  la 
navigation  internationale  ne  peut 
transporter  de  munitions  de  guerre 
ou  de  mat6riel  de  guerre  £  1'interieur 
ou  au-dessus  du  territoire  d'un  Etat, 
£  moins  d'une  autorisation  dudit 
Etat.  Chaque  Etat  determine  par 
voie  de  r&glement  ce  qu'il  faut  en- 
tendre par  munitions  de  guerre  ou 
materiel  de  guerre  aux  fins  du  present 
article,  en  tenant  dflment  compte, 
dans  un  souci  d'uniformitfe,  des 
recommendations  que  ['Organisation 
de  1'ayiation  civile  internationale 
peut  faire  de  temps  £  autre. 


1 84 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  640 


(b)  Each  contracting  State  re- 
serves the  right,  for  reasons  of  public 
order  and  safety,  to  regulate  or  pro- 
hibit the  carriage  in  or  above  its 
territory  of  articles  other  than  those 
enumerated  in  paragraph  (a):  pro- 
vided that  no  distinction  is  made  in 
this  respect  between  its  national 
aircraft  engaged  in  international 
navigation  and  the  aircraft  of  the 
other  States  so  engaged;  and  pro- 
vided further  that  no  restriction  shall 
be  imposed  which  may  interfere  with 
the  carriage  and  use  on  aircraft  of 
apparatus  necessary  for  the  opera- 
tion or  navigation  of  the  aircraft  or 
the  safety  of  the  personnel  or  pas- 
sengers. 


ARTICLE  36. — Photographic  apparatus 

Each  contracting  State  may  pro- 
hibit or  regulate  the  use  of  photo- 
graphic apparatus  in  aircraft  over 
its  territory. 


CHAPTER  VI 

INTERNATIONAL  STANDARDS  AND 
RECOMMENDED  PRACTICES 

ARTICLE   37. — Adoption  of  interna- 
tional standards  and  procedures 

Each  contracting  State  under- 
takes to  collaborate  in  securing  the 
highest  practicable  degree  of  uni- 
formity in  regulations,  standards, 
procedures,  and  organization  in  re- 
lation to  aircraft,  personnel,  airways 
and  auxiliary  services  in  all  matters 
in  which  such  uniformity  will  facili- 
tate and  improve  air  navigation. 


To  this  end  the  International  Civil 
Aviation  Organization  shall  adopt 
and  amend  from  time  to  time,  as  may 
be  necessary,  international  standards 
and  recommended  practices  and 
procedures  dealing  with: 


b)  Chaque  Etat  contractant  se 
reserve  le  droit,  pour  des  raisons 
d'ordre  public  et  de  s6curit6,  de 
rtglementer  ou  d'interdire  le  trans- 
port £  j'interieur  ou  au-dessus  de 
son  territoire,  d 'articles  autres  que 
ceux  qui  sont  6num6r£s  au  para- 
graphe  a),  6tant  entendu  qu'il  ne 
sera  fait  aucune  distinction  £  cet 
6gard  entre  ses  a£ronefs  nationaux 
employes  £  la  navigation  interna- 
tional et  les  a£ronefs  des  autres 
Etats  employes  aux  memes  fins,  et 
6tant  en  outre  entendu  qu'il  ne  sera 
impost  aucune  restriction  susceptible 
de  g£ner  le  transport  et  1'usage,  £  bord 
des  a£ronefs,  des  appareils  n6cessaires 
£  la  manoeuvre  ou  £  la  navigation 
desdits  a£ronefsf  ainsi  qu'£  la  s£curit£ 
du  personnel  ou  des  passagers. 

ARTICLE  36. — Appareils  photogra- 
phiques 

Chaque  Etat  contractant  a  la 
facult^  d'interdire  ou  de  r£glementer 
1'usage  des  appareils  photogra- 
phiques  £  bord  des  a6ronefs  survolant 
son  territoire. 

CHAPITRE  VI 

STANDARDS  INTERNATIONAUX  ET 
PRATIQUES  RECOMMANDEES 

ARTICLE  37. — Adoption  de  standards 
et  de  procedures  international 

Chaque  Etat  contractant  s'engage 
£  prater  son  concours  pour  atteindre 
le  plus  haut  degr6  realisable  d'uni- 
formite  dans  les  rfeglements,  stand- 
ards, procedures  et  m6thodes  d'or- 
ganisation  relatifs  aux  a£ronefs,  au 
personnel,  aux  routes  a£riennes  et 
aux  services  auxiliaires,  dans  tous 
les  domaines  oil  une  telle  uniformit6 
facilitera  et  am61iorera  la  navigation 
a£rienne. 

A  cet  effet,  TOrganisation  de 
Taviation  civile  Internationale  adop- 
tera  et  modifiera,  de  temps  &  autre 
et  selon  les  n£cessit£s,  des  standards 
internationaux  ainsi  que  des  pra- 
tiques et  procedures  recommand£es 
concernant  les  domaines  suivants: 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


185 


(a)  Communications  systems  and 
air  navigation  aids,  including  ground 
marking; 

(ft)  Characteristics  of  airports  and 
landing  areas; 

(c)  Rules  of  the  air  and  air  traffic 
control  practices; 

(d)  Licensing    of    operating    and 
mechanical  personnel; 

(e)  Airworthiness  of  aircraft; 

(/)  Registration  and  identifica- 
tion of  aircraft ; 

(g)  Collection  and  exchange  of 
meteorological  information ; 

(h)  Log  books; 

(i)  Aeronautical  maps  and  charts; 

(j)  Customs  and  immigration  pro- 
cedures; 

(k)  Aircraft  in  distress  and  inves- 
tigation of  accidents; 

and  such  other  matters  concerned 
with  the  safety,  regularity,  and  effi- 
ciency of  air  navigation  as  may  from 
time  to  time  appear  appropriate. 

ARTICLE  38. — Departures  from  inter- 
national standards  and  procedures 

Any  State  which  finds  it  imprac- 
ticable to  comply  in  all  respects  with 
any  such  international  standards  or 
procedure,  or  to  bring  its  own  regu- 
lations or  practices  into  full  accord 
with  any  international  standard  or 
procedure  after  amendment  of  the 
latter,  or  which  deems  it  necessary  to 
adopt  regulations  or  practices  differ- 
ing in  any  particular  respect  from 
those  established  by  an  international 
standard,  shall  give  immediate  noti- 
fication to  the  International  Civil 
Aviation  Organization  of  the  differ- 
ences between  its  own  practice  and 
that  established  by  the  international 
standard.  In  the  case  of  amendments 
to  international  standards,  any  State 
which  does  not  make  the  appropriate 
amendments  to  its  own  regulations 
or  practices  shall  give  notice  to  the 
Council  within  sixty  days  of  the 
adoption  of  the  amendment  to  the 


a)  Systfemes    de    t616communica- 
tions    et    aides    £    la    navigation 
a£rienne,  y  compris  le  balisage  au 
sol; 

b)  Caracteristiques  des  a6roports 
et  des  aires  d'atterrissage; 

c)  Regies  de  1'air  et  m£thodes  de 
contrdle  de  la  circulation  a^rienne; 

d)  D£livrance  de  licences  au  per- 
sonnel de  conduite  et  aux  m6cani- 
ciens; 

e)  Navigability  des  a£ronefs; 

/)  Immatriculation  et  identifica- 
tion des  a6ronefs; 

g)  Centralisation  et  ^change  de 
renseignements  m6t6orologiques; 

h)  Livres  de  bord ; 

i)  Cartes  et  plans  a£ronautiques; 

j)  Formalins  de  douane  et  d'im- 
migration ; 

k)  A£ronefs  en  detresse  et  en- 
quetes  sur  accidents; 

ainsi  que  tous  autres  domaines 
int£ressant  la  s6curit£,  la  r£gularit£ 
et  I'efficacit6  de  la  navigation  a6ri- 
enne,  qui  pourraient  de  temps  i 
autre  paraitre  le  n£cessiter. 

ARTICLE  38. — Derogations  aux  stan- 
dards et  aux  formahUs  Internationales 

Tout  Etat  qui  juge  impossible  de 
se  conformer  en  tous  points  £  de  tcls 
standards  ou  procedures  interna- 
tionaux,  ou  de  mettre  ses  propres 
r£glements  ou  pratiques  en  complet 
accord  avec  des  standards  ou  proc£- 
dures  internationaux  lorsque  ceux-ci 
auront  £t£  modifies,  ou  qui  estime 
n£cessaire  d 'adopter  des  rdgles  ou 
des  pratiques  diff£rant  sur  un  point 
quelconque  de  celles  £tablies  par  un 
standard  international,  notifiera  im- 
m£diatement  £  1'Organisation  de 
1 'aviation  civile  Internationale  les 
differences  existant  entre  ses  propres 
pratiques  et  celles  6tablies  par  le 
standard  international.  S'il  s'agit 
d'amendements  i  des  standards  in- 
ternationaux, tout  Etat  qui  n'ap- 
portera  pas  les  modifications  cor- 
respondantes  £  ses  propres  r6gle- 
ments  ou  pratiques  en  avisera  le 
Conseil  dans  les  soixante  jours  qui 


186 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  640 


international  standard,  or  indicate 
the  action  which  it  proposes  to  take. 
In  any  such  case,  the  Council  shall 
make  immediate  notification  to  all 
other  States  of  the  difference  which 
exists  between  one  or  more  features 
of  an  international  standard  and  the 
corresponding  national  practice  of 
that  State. 


ARTICLE  39. — Endorsement  of  certifi- 
cates and  licenses 

(a)  Any  aircraft  or  part  thereof 
with  respect  to  which  there  exists  an 
international  standard  of  airworthi- 
ness or  performance,  and  which 
failed  in  any  respect  to  satisfy  that 
standard  at  the  time  of  its  certifica- 
tion, shall  have  endorsed  on  or 
attached  to  its  airworthiness  cer- 
tificate a  complete  enumeration  of 
the  details  in  respect  of  which  it  so 
failed. 

(ft)  Any  person  holding  a  license 
who  does  not  satisfy  in  full  the  con- 
ditions laid  down  in  the  international 
standard  relating  to  the  class  of 
license  or  certificate  which  he  holds 
shall  have  endorsed  on  or  attached 
to  his  license  a  complete  enumera- 
tion of  the  particulars  in  which  he 
does  not  satisfy  such  conditions. 

ARTICLE  40. — Validity  of  endorsed 
certificates  and  licenses 

No  aircraft  or  personnel  having 
certificates  or  licenses  so  endorsed 
shall  participate  in  international 
navigation,  except  with  the  per- 
mission of  the  State  or  States  whose 
territory  is  entered.  The  registra- 
tion or  use  of  any  such  aircraft,  or 
of  any  certificated  aircraft  part,  in 
any  State  other  than  that  in  which 
it  was  originally  certificated  shall 
be  at  the  discretion  of  the  State  into 
which  the  aircraft  or  part  is  im- 
ported. 


suivront  1'adoption  de  ramendement 
au  standard  international  ou  indi- 
quera  les  mesures  qu'ils  se  propose 
de  prendre.  En  pareil  cas,  le  Conseil 
notifiera  imm£diatement  £  tous  les 
autres  Etats  les  differences  existant 
sur  un  ou  plusieurs  points  entre  le 
standard  international  et  la  pratique 
correspondante  en  usage  dans  1'Etat 
en  question. 

ARTICLE  39. — Mentions  porUes  sur 
les  certificats  et  licences 

a)  Tout  a^ronef  ou  Element  d'a£- 
ronef  au  sujet  duquel  il  existe  un 
standard  international  en  mati&re  de 
navigabilit6  ou  de  performance,  mais 
qui  au  moment  de  I'etablissement  de 
son  certificat  de  navigability  manque 
en  quelque  point  £  satisfaire  &  ce 
standard,  doit  avoir  sur  son  certificat 
de  navigability  ou  en  annexe  £  celui- 
ci  une  liste  complete  des  points  sur 
lesquels  il  s'£carte  de  ce  standard. 

b)  Toute  personne  titulaire  d'une 
licence  qui  ne  remplit  pas  enttere- 
ment  les  conditions  imposes  par  le 
standard   international   relatif  4  la 
classe  de  licence  ou  de  brevet  dont 
elle  est  titulaire  doit  avoir  sur  sa 
licence,  ou  en  annexe  £  celle-ci,  une 
Enumeration  complete  des  points  sur 
lesquels  elle  ne  remplit  pas  lesdites 
conditions. 

ARTICLE  40. —  ValiditS  des  licences  et 
des  certificats  sur  lesquels  des  men- 
tions ont  iti  porties 

Aucun  a6ronef  ou  aucun  membre 
du  personnel  poss6dant  un  certificat 
ou  une  licence  sur  lequel  des  men- 
tions ont  6t6  ainsi  port6es  ne  peut 
prendre  part  £  la  navigation  Inter- 
nationale si  ce  n'est  avec  1'autorisa- 
tion  de  1  Etat  ou  des  Etats  dont  le 
territoire  est  survolE.  L'immatricu- 
lation  ou  Temploi  d'un  tel  a^ronef, 
ou  d'une  ptece  quelconque  d'a£ronef 
ainsi  homologu£,  dans  un  Etat  autre 
que  celui  oft  le  certificat  a  6t6  etabli 
£  1'origine,  est  Iaiss6  £  la  discretion 
de  1'Etat  dans  lequel  l'a£ronef  ou  la 
pifece  en  question  est  import^. 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


I87 


ARTICLE  41. — Recognition  of  existing 
standards  of  airworthiness 

The  provisions  of  this  Chapter 
shall  not  apply  to  aircraft  and  air- 
craft equipment  of  types  of  which 
the  prototype  is  submitted  to  the 
appropriate  national  authorities  for 
certification  prior  to  a  date  three 
years  after  the  date  of  adoption  of  an 
international  standard  of  airworthi- 
ness for  such  equipment. 

ARTICLE  42. — Recognition  of  existing 
standards  of  competency  of  personnel 

The  provisions  of  this  Chapter 
shall  not  apply  to  personnel  whose 
licenses  are  originally  issued  prior 
to  a  date  one  year  after  initial  adop- 
tion of  an  international  standard  of 
qualification  for  such  personnel ;  but 
they  shall  in  any  case  apply  to  all 
personnel  whose  licenses  remain 
valid  five  years  after  the  date  of 
adoption  of  such  standard. 


PART  II 

THE   INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIA- 
TION ORGANIZATION 

CHAPTER  VII 

THE  ORGANIZATION 

ARTICLE  43. — Name  and  composition 

An  organization  to  be  named  the 
International  Civil  Aviation  Organ- 
ization is  formed  by  the  Convention. 
It  is  made  up  of  an  Assembly,  a 
Council,  and  such  other  bodies  as 
may  be  necessary. 

ARTICLE  44. — Objectives 

The  aims  and  objectives  of  the 
Organization  are  to  develop  the 
principles  and  techniques  of  inter- 
national air  navigation  and  to  foster 
the  planning  and  development  of 


ARTICLE  4 1 . — Reconnaissance  des 
standards  existants  en  mati&re  de 
navigabiliU 

Les  dispositions  du  present  chapi- 
tre  ne  s'appliquent  ni  aux  a6ronefs 
ni  aux  6quipements  d'a£ronefs  ap- 
partenant  £  des  types  dont  le  proto- 
type a  £t£  soumis  aux  autorit£s 
nationales  comp6tentes  pour  homo- 
logation  avant  1'expiration  des  trois 
ann£es  qui  suivent  la  date  d' adopt  ion 
d'un  standard  international  de  navi- 
gabilit£  pour  ce  materiel. 

ARTICLE  42. — Reconnaissance  des 
standards  existants  en  ce  qui  con- 
cerne  la  competence  du  personnel 

Les  dispositions  du  present  chapi- 
tre  ne  s'appliquent  pas  aux  membres 
du  personnel  dont  les  licences  ont 
£t6  d61ivr£es  £  1'origine  avant  1'expi- 
ration de  l'ann£e  qui  suit  la  date  de 
1'adoption  initiale  d'un  standard 
international  d'aptitude;  toutefois, 
elles  s'appliquent  en  tout  6tat  de 
cause  £  tous  les  membres  du  per- 
sonnel dont  les  licences  sont  encore 
valides  cinq  ans  aprds  la  date  de 
1'adoption  de  ce  standard. 

DEUXlfcME  PARTIE 

L'ORGANISATION  DE   L'AVIATION 
CIVILE  INTERNATIONALE 

CHAPITRE  VII 

L'ORGANISATION 

ARTICLE   43. — Nom   et   composition 

II  est  instituS  par  la  pr6sente  Con- 
vention une  organisation  qui  portera 
le  nom  d 'Organisation  de  1'aviation 
civile  Internationale.  Elle  se  com- 
pose d'une  Assemble,  d'un  Conseil 
et  de  tous  autres  organismes  qui 
pourront  6tre  n6cessaires. 

ARTICLE  44. — Objets 

L/Organisation  a  pour  objet  de 
d^velopper  les  principes  et  les  tech- 
niques de  la  navigation  a£rienne 
Internationale,  ainsi  que  de  favoriser 
l'6tablissement  et  de  stimuler  le 


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international  air  transport  so  as  to: 

(a)  Insure  the  safe  and  orderly 
growth  of  international  civil  aviation 
throughout  the  world ; 

(b)  Encourage  the  arts  of  aircraft 
design  and   operation  for  peaceful 
purposes; 

(c)  Encourage    the    development 
of  airways,   airports,  and  air  navi- 
gation   facilities    for    international 
civil  aviation ; 

(d)  Meet  the  needs  of  the  peoples 
of  the  world  for  safe,  regular,  efficient 
and  economical  air  transport; 

(e)  Prevent  economic  waste  caused 
by  unreasonable  competition ; 

(/)  Insure  that  the  rights  of  con- 
tracting States  are  fully  respected 
and  that  every  contracting  State 
has  a  fair  opportunity  to  operate 
international  airlines; 


(g)  Avoid  discrimination  between 
contracting  States; 

(h)  Promote  safety  of  flight  in 
international  air  navigation ; 

(i)  Promote  generally  the  devel- 
opment of  all  aspects  of  international 
civil  aeronautics. 


ARTICLE    45. — Permanent    seat 

The  permanent  seat  of  the  Or- 
ganization shall  be  at  such  place  as 
shall  be  determined  at  the  final 
meeting  of  the  Interim  Assembly  of 
the  Provisional  International  Civil 
Aviation  Organization  set  up  by  the 
Interim  Agreement  on  International 
Civil  Aviation  signed  at  Chicago  on 
December  7,  1944.  The  seat  may 
be  temporarily  transferred  elsewhere 
by  decision  of  the  Council. 


ARTICLE     46. — First     meeting 
Assembly 


cteveloppement  des  transports  a6riens 
internationaux  de  fagon  4: 

a)  Assurer  le  d6veloppement  or- 
donn6  et  sain  de  1'aviation  civile 
internationale  dans  le  monde  en  tier; 

ft)  Encourager  £  des  fins  pacifiques 
les  techniques  de  construction  et 
d'exploitation  des  aferonefs; 

c)  Encourager  le  d6veloppement 
de  routes  a£riennes,  d'a6roports  et 
de  facilit6s  de  navigation  a6rienne  & 
1'usage  de  1'aviation  civile  interna- 
tionale; 

d)  Procurer  aux  peuples  du  monde 
les  transports  a£riens  sflrs,  r6guliers, 
efficaces  et  £conomiques  dont  ils  ont 
besoin ; 

e)  Eviter  le  gaspillage  6conomique 
qu'engendre  une  concurrence  exces- 
sive; 

f)  Assurer  que  les  droits  des  Etats 
contractants    soient    int£gralement 
respect6s  et  que  chaque  Etat  con- 
tractant  ait  une  possibility  Equitable 
d'exploiter  des  entreprises  de  trans- 
ports a£riens  internationaux; 

g)  Eviter  toute  discrimination  en- 
tre  Etats  contractants; 

h)  Am61iorer  la  s£curit6  de  vol 
dans  la  navigation  a6rienne  inter- 
nationale ; 

i)  Favoriser,  d'une  mani&re  g6n6- 
rale,  le  d6veloppement  de  I'a6ronau- 
tique  civile  internationale  sous  tous 
ses  aspects. 

ARTICLE  45. — Sitge  permanent 

L'Organisation  a  son  stege  per- 
manent au  lieu  que  fixera,  au  cours 
de  sa  derntere  session,  1'Assembtee 
int£rimaire  de  1'Organisation  provi- 
soire  de  Taviation  civile  interna- 
tionale, £tablie  par  1'Accord  int£ri- 
maire  sur  1'aviation  civile  interna- 
tionale sign6  4  Chicago  le  7  d6cem- 
bre  1944.  Ce  si&ge  pourra  etre 
transfer^  provisoirement  en  tout 
autre  lieu  par  d6cision  du  Conseil. 


of    ARTICLE   46. — Premilre    session    de 
V  Assemble 


The  first  meeting  of  the  Assembly 
shall  be  summoned  by  the  Interim 


La  premiere  session  de  TAssem- 
btee  est  convoqu6e  par  le  Conseil 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


189 


Council  of  the  above-mentioned 
Provisional  Organization  as  soon  as 
the  Convention  has  come  into  force, 
to  meet  at  a  time  and  place  to  be 
decided  by  the  Interim  Council. 

ARTICLE  47. — Legal  capacity 

The  Organization  shall  enjoy  in 
the  territory  of  each  contracting 
State  such  legal  capacity  as  may  be 
necessary  for  the  performance  of  its 
functions.  Full  juridical  personality 
shall  be  granted  wherever  compatible 
with  the  constitution  and  laws  of  the 
State  concerned. 


int6rimaire  de  TOrganisation  pro- 
visoire  mentionnte  ci-dessus,  d6s 
l'entr£e  en  vigueur  de  la  pr£sente 
Convention,  et  se  tient  £  la  date  et  au 
lieu  que  fixera  le  Conseil  int6rimaire. 

ARTICLE  47. — CapaciU  juridique 

L'Organisation  jouit,  sur  le  terri- 
toire  de  chaque  Etat  contractant,  de 
la  capacity  juridique  n6cessaire  & 
Texercice  de  ses  fonctions.  La  pleine 
personnalite  juridique  lui  est  ac- 
cordfee  partout  oft  elle  est  compatible 
avec  la  constitution  et  les  lois  de 
1'Etat  int£ress6. 


CHAPTER  VIII 

THE  ASSEMBLY 

ARTICLE  48. — Meetings  of  Assembly 
and  voting 

(a)  The  Assembly  shall  meet  an- 
nually and  shall  be  convened  by  the 
Council  at  a  suitable  time  and  place. 
Extraordinary  meetings  of  the  As- 
sembly may  be  held  at  any  time 
upon  the  call  of  the  Council  or  at  the 
request  of  any  ten  contracting  States 
addressed  to  the  Secretary  General. 

(&)  All  contracting  States  shall 
have  an  equal  right  to  be  repre- 
sented at  the  meetings  of  the  Assem- 
bly and  each  contracting  State  shall 
be  entitled  to  one  vote.  Delegates 
representing  contracting  States  may 
be  assisted  by  technical  advisers 
who  may  participate  in  the  meetings 
but  shall  have  no  vote. 

(c)  A  majority  of  the  contracting 
States  is  required  to  constitute  a 
quorum  for  the  meetings  of  the 
Assembly.  Unless  otherwise  pro- 
vided in  this  Convention,  decisions 
of  the  Assembly  shall  be  taken  by  a 
majority  of  the  votes  cast. 

ARTICLE  49. — Powers  and  duties  of 
Assembly 

The  powers  and  duties  of  the 
Assembly  shall  be  to: 

(a)  Elect  at  each  meeting  its 
President  and  other  officers; 


CHAPITRE  VIII 
L'ASSEMBL£E 

ARTICLE  48. — Session  de  VAssembUe 
et  vote 

a)  L'Assemblfe  se  r6unit  chaque 
ann6e  et  est  convoqu^e  par  le  Conseil 
en  temps  et  lieu  utiles.     Elle  peut 
tenir  des  sessions  extraordinaires  £ 
tout   moment   sur  convocation   du 
Conseil  ou  sur  requete  adress£e  au 
Secretaire    g£n6ral    par    dix    Etats 
contractants. 

b)  Les  Etats  contractants  ont  un 
droit   6gal    d'etre    repr6sent£s   aux 
sessions  de  TAssembl^e  et  chaque 
Etat  contractant  a  droit  i  une  voix. 
Les  d616gu6s  repr6sentant  les  Etats 
contractants   peuvent   §tre   assists 
de  conseillers  techniques,  qui  peu- 
vent participer  aux  reunions  mais 
n'ont  pas  droit  de  vote. 

c)  La  majoritfe  des  Etats  contrac- 
tants est  requise  pour  constituer  un 
quorum  lors  des  reunions  de  T Assem- 
ble.    Sauf    dispositions    contraires 
de  la  prtsente  Convention,  les  d6- 
cisions  de  TAssembtee  sont  prises  & 
la  majorit6  des  voix  exprim6es. 

ARTICLE  49. — Pouvoirs  et  attributions 
de  r Assemble 

Les  pouvoirs  et  attributions  de 
TAssemblte  sont  les  suiyants: 

a)  Elire  4  chaque  session  son  Pr£si- 
dent  et  les  autres  membres  du  bureau ; 


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(6)  Elect  the  contracting  States 
to  be  represented  on  the  Council, 
in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of 
Chapter  IX; 

(c)  Examine  and  take  appropriate 
action  on  the  reports  of  the  Council 
and  decide  on  any  matter  referred  to 
it  by  the  Council; 

(d)  Determine   its  own   rules  of 
procedure  and  establish  such  sub- 
sidiary commissions  as  it  may  con- 
sider to  be  necessary  or  desirable; 

(e)  Vote  an  annual  budget  and 
determine    the    financial    arrange- 
ments of  the  Organization,  in  ac- 
cordance   with    the    provisions    of 
Chapter  XII; 

(f)  Review  expenditures  and  ap- 
prove the  accounts  of  the  Organiza- 
tion; 

(g)  Refer,  at  its  discretion,  to  the 
Council,  to  subsidiary  commissions, 
or  to  any  other  body  any  matter 
within  its  sphere  of  action; 

(&)  Delegate  to  the  Council  the 
powers  and  authority  necessary  or 
desirable  for  the  discharge  of  the 
duties  of  the  Organization  and  re- 
voke or  modify  the  delegations  of 
authority  at  any  time; 

(*)  Carry  out  the  appropriate 
provisions  of  Chapter  XIII; 

(j)  Consider  proposals  for  the 
modification  or  amendment  of  the 
provisions  of  this  Convention  and,  if 
it  approves  of  the  proposals,  recom- 
mend them  to  the  contracting  States 
in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of 
Chapter  XXI ; 

(k)  Deal  with  any  matter  within 
the  sphere  of  action  of  the  Organiza- 
tion not  specifically  assigned  to 
the  Council. 

CHAPTER  IX 

THE  COUNCIL 

ARTICLE  50. — Composition  and  elec- 
tion of  Council 

(a)  The  Council  shall  be  a  perma- 
nent body  responsible  to  the  Assem- 
bly. It  shall  be  composed  of  twenty- 


b)  Elire    les    Etats   contractants 
qui  seront  repr£sent£s  au  Conseil, 
conform&nent  aux  dispositions  du 
chapitre  IX; 

c)  Examiner  les  rapports  du  Con- 
seil et  leur  donner  la  suite  qu'ils 
comportent;  decider  de  toute  ques- 
tion dont  elle  est  saisie  par  le  Conseil ; 

d)  Determiner  son  propre  rfegle- 
ment  interieur  et  instituer  les  com- 
missions subsidiaires  qu'elle  pourra 
juger  n£cessaires  ou  utiles; 

e)  Voter    un    budget    annuel    et 
determiner  le   regime   financier  de 
TOrganisation,    conform6ment    aux 
dispositions  du  chapitre  XII; 

/)  Verifier  les  d£penses  et  ap- 
prouver  les  comptes  de  1'Organisa- 
tion; 

g)  Renvoyer,  &  sa  discretion,  au 
Conseil,  aux  commissions  subsi- 
diaires ou  £  tout  autre  organe,  toute 
question  de  sa  competence; 

h)  Deieguer  au  Conseil  les  pou- 
voirs  et  1'autorite  necessaires  ou 
utiles  &  1'exercice  des  fonctions  de 
1'Organisation,  et  r6voquer  ou  modi- 
fier £  tout  moment  ces  delegations 
d'autorite; 

i)  Donner  effet  aux  dispositions 
appropriees  du  chapitre  XIII; 

j)  Examiner  les  propositions  ten- 
dant  &  modifier  ou  £  amender  les 
dispositions  de  la  pr6sente  Conven- 
tion, et,  si  elle  les  approuve,  en 
recommander  1'adoption  aux  Etats 
contractants  conformement  aux  dis- 
positions du  chapitre  XXI ; 

k)  Connaftre  de  toute  question 
relevant  de  la  competence  de  1'Orga- 
nisation,  dont  le  Conseil  n'est  pas 
expressement  charge. 

CHAPITRE  IX 
LE  CONSEIL 

ARTICLE  50. — Composition  et  flection 
du  Conseil 

a)  Le  Conseil  est  un  organe  per- 
manent relevant  de  1'Assembiee.  II 
se  compose  de  vingt  et  un  Etats 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


191 


one  contracting  States  elected  by  the 
Assembly.  An  election  shall  be 
held  at  the  first  meeting  of  the 
Assembly  and  thereafter  every  three 
years,  and  the  members  of  the  Coun- 
cil so  elected  shall  hold  office  until 
the  next  following  election. 

(b)  In  electing  the  members  of  the 
Council,   the  Assembly  shall   give 
adequate  representation  to  (i)  the 
States  of  chief  importance  in  air 
transport;  (2)  the  States  not  other- 
wise included  which  make  the  largest 
contribution    to    the    provision    of 
facilities  for  international  civil  air 
navigation;  and  (3)  the  States  not 
otherwise  included   whose  designa- 
tion   will    insure    that    all    major 
geographic  areas  of  the  world  are 
represented  on   the  Council.    Any 
vacancy  on  the  Council  shall  be  filled 
by  the  Assembly  as  soon  as  possible; 
any  contracting  State  so  elected  to 
the  Council  shall  hold  office  for  the 
unexpired  portion  of  its  predecessor's 
term  of  office. 

(c)  No  representative  of  a  con- 
tracting State  on  the  Council  shall 
be    actively    associated    with    the 
operation    of   an    international   air 
service  or  financially  interested  in 
such  a  service. 


contractants  £lus  par  1'Assembtee. 
II  est  proc6d6  &  une  Election  lors  de 
la  premiere  session  de  I'Assembtee, 
et  ensuite  tous  les  trois  ans;  les 
membres  du  Conseil  ainsi  £lus 
restent  en  fonctions  jusqu'a  l'election 
suivante. 

b)  En    glisant    les    membres    du 
Conseil,  I'Assemblee  donne  une  reprfe- 
sentation  approprtee:  i)  aux  Etats 
d' importance  majeure  en  matiere  de 
transport  a£rien;  2)  aux  Etats  non 
repr£sent£s  par  ailleurs  qui  contribu- 
ent  le  plus  a  fournir  des  facilites  pour 
la  navigation  a£rienne  civile  inter- 
nationale;  3)  aux  Etats  non  repr£- 
sent6s  par  ailleurs  dont  la  d£signa- 
tion    assure    la    representation    au 
Conseil    de    toutes    les    principales 
regions   gfographiques   du    monde. 
Tout  stege  qui  devient  vacant  au 
Conseil  est  pourvu  dans  le  plus  bref 
d61ai    par    l'Assembl6e;    tout    Etat 
contractant  ainsi  61u  au  Conseil  reste 
en  fonctions  jusqu'a  1'expiration  du 
mandat  de  son  pr6d6cesseur. 

c)  Aucun  repr^sentant  au  Conseil 
d'un  Etat  contractant  ne  peut  avoir 
une  part  active  dans  1 'exploitation 
d'un  service  a£rien  international  ou 
fetre  financiferement  int6ress6  a  un 
tel  service. 


ARTICLE  51. — President  of  Council     ARTICLE  51. — President  du  Conseil 


The  Council  shall  elect  its  Presi- 
dent for  a  term  of  three  years.  He 
may  be  reelected.  He  shall  have  no 
vote.  The  Council  shall  elect  from 
among  its  members  one  or  more  Vice 
Presidents  who  shall  retain  their 
right  to  vote  when  serving  as  acting 
President.  The  President  need  not 
be  selected  from  among  the  repre- 
sentatives of  the  members  of  the 
Council  but,  if  a  representative  is 
elected,  his  seat  shall  be  deemed 
vacant  and  it  shall  be  filled  by  the 
State  which  he  represented.  The 
duties  of  the  President  shall  be  to: 

(a)  Convene  meetings  of  the  Coun- 
cil, the  Air  Transport  Committee, 
and  the  Air  Navigation  Commission; 


Le  Conseil  61it  son  President  pour 
une  p6riode  de  trois  ans.  Le  Prtsi- 
dent  est  r£eJigibJe;  il  n'a  pas  le  droit 
de  vote.  Le  Conseil  choisit  parmi 
ses  membres  un  ou  plusieurs  vice- 
prtsidents,  qui  conservent  leur  droit 
de  vote  lorsqu'ils  remplissent  les 
fonctions  de  President.  Le  Pr6si- 
dent  n'est  pas  n£cessairement  choisi 
parmi  les  repr&sentants  des  membres 
du  Conseil;  toutefois,  si  un  repr6- 
sentant  est  61u,  son  stege  est  con- 
sid6r6  comme  vacant  et  pourvu  par 
TiEtat  qu'il  reprfeentait.  Les  at- 
tributions du  Pr6sident  sont  les 
suivantes: 

a)  Convoquer  le  Conseil,  le  Com- 
it6  du  transport  aj§rien  et  la  Com- 
mission de  navigation  aerienne; 


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INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  640 


(b)  Serve  as  representative  of  the 
Council;  and 

(c)  Carry  out  on  behalf  of  the 
Council    the   functions   which    the 
Council  assigns  to  him. 

ARTICLE  52. — Voting  in  Council 

Decisions  by  the  Council  shall  re- 
quire approval  by  a  majority  of  its 
members.  The  Council  may  dele- 
gate authority  with  respect  to  any 
particular  matter  to  a  committee  of 
its  members.  Decisions  of  any  com- 
mittee of  the  Council  may  be  ap- 
pealed to  the  Council  by  any  in- 
terested contracting  State. 

ARTICLE  53.— Participation  without 
a  vote 

Any  contracting  State  may  par- 
ticipate, without  a  vote,  in  the  con- 
sideration by  the  Council  and  by  its 
committees  and  commissions  on  any 
question  which  especially  affects  its 
interests.  No  member  of  the  Coun- 
cil shall  vote  in  the  consideration  by 
the  Council  of  a  dispute  to  which  it 
is  a  party. 

ARTICLE  54. — Mandatory  functions 
of  Council 

The  Council  shall: 

(a)  Submit  annual  reports  to  the 
Assembly; 

(b)  Carry  out  the  directions  of  the 
Assembly  and  discharge  the  duties 
and  obligations  which  are  laid  on  it 
by  this  Convention ; 

(c)  Determine  its  organization  and 
rules  of  procedure; 

(d)  Appoint  and  define  the  duties 
of   an    Air   Transport    Committee, 
which  shall  be  chosen  from  among 
the  representatives  of  the  members 
of  the  Council,  and  which  shall  be 
responsible  to  it; 

(e)  Establish  an  Air  Navigation 
Commission,  in  accordance  with  the 
provisions  of  Chapter  X; 

(/)  Administer  the  finances  of  the 
Organization  in  accordance  with  the 
provisions  of  Chapters  XII  and  XV; 


b)  Agir  comme  repr£sentant  du 
Conseil;et 

c)  Exercer  au  nom  du  Conseil  les 
fonctions  que  celui-ci  lui  assigne. 

ARTICLE  52. — Vote  au  Conseil 

Les  decisions  du  Conseil  dpivent 
fitre  approuv£es  par  la  majority  de 
ses  membres.  Le  Conseil  peut  d£l£- 
guer  son  autorit£,  en  ce  qui  con- 
cerne  une  question  d£termin£e,  £  un 
comit£  choisi  parmi  ses  membres. 
Tout  Etat  contractant  int6ress£  peut 
en  appeler  au  Conseil  des  decisions 
prises  par  un  comit£  du  Conseil. 

ARTICLE  53. — Participation  sans  droit 
devote 

Tout  Etat  contractant  peut  par- 
ticiper,  sans  droit  de  vote,  £  1'examen 
par  le  Conseil  ainsi  que  par  ses 
comit£s  et  commissions  de  toute 
question  mettant  directment  en  jeu 
ses  int£rSts.  Aucun  membre  du 
Conseil  ne  peut  prendre  part  au 
vote  lors  de  1'examen  par  le  Conseil 
d'un  dififerend  auquel  il  est  partie. 

ARTICLE  54. — Fonctions  obligatoires 
du  Conseil 

Le  Conseil  doit: 

a)  Soumettre  des  rapports  annuals 
41f  Assemble; 

b)  Mettre  £  execution  les  direc- 
tivesde  I'Assembtee  et  s'acquitter  de 
toutes  les  fonctions  et  obligations 
qui  lui  incombent  de  par  la  pr6sente 
Convention; 

c)  Determiner  son  organisation  et 
son  r&glement  int6rieur; 

d)  Nommer  un  Comit6  du  trans- 
port a£rien,  compost  de  repr£sen- 
tants  des  membres  du   Conseil  et 
responsable  envers  celui-ci,  et  d6finir 
ses  attributions; 

e)  Instituer  une  Commission  de 
navigation  a6rienne,  conform6ment 
aux  dispositions  du  chapitre  X; 

/)  G£rer  les  finances  de  TOrganisa- 
tion,  conform£ment  aux  dispositions 
des  chapitres  XII  et  XV; 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


193 


(g)  Determine  the  emoluments  of 
the  President  of  the  Council ; 

(h)  Appoint  a  chief  executive 
officer  who  shall  be  called  the  Secre- 
tary General,  and  make  provision 
for  the  appointment  of  such  other 
personnel  as  may  be  necessary,  in 
accordance  with  the  provisions  of 
Chapter  XI ; 

(i)  Request,  collect,  examine  and 
publish  information  relating  to  the 
advancement  of  air  navigation  and 
the  operation  of  international  air 
services,  including  information  about 
the  costs  of  operation  and  particu- 
lars of  subsidies  paid  to  airlines  from 
public  funds; 

(j)  Report  to  contracting  States 
any  infraction  of  this  Convention,  as 
well  as  any  failure  to  carry  out 
recommendations  or  determinations 
of  the  Council ; 

(k)  Report  to  the  Assembly  any 
infraction  of  this  Convention  where 
a  contracting  State  has  failed  to  take 
appropriate  action  within  a  reason- 
able time  after  notice  of  the  infrac- 
tion; 

(/)  Adopt,  in  accordance  with  the 
provisions  of  Chapter  VI  of  this 
Convention,  international  stand- 
ards and  recommended  practices; 
for  convenience,  designate  them  as 
Annexes  to  this  Convention;  and 
notify  all  contracting  States  of  the 
action  taken; 

(m)  Consider  recommendations  of 
the  Air  Navigation  Commission  for 
amendment  of  the  Annexes  and  take 
action  in  accordance  with  the  pro- 
visions of  Chapter  XX; 

(n)  Consider  any  matter  relating 
to  the  Convention  which  any  con- 
tracting State  refers  to  it. 

ARTICLE  55. — Permissive  functions  of 
Council 

The  Council  may: 
(a)  Where  appropriate  and  as  ex- 
perience may  show  to  be  desirable, 


g)  Fixer  les  Emoluments  du  Prfisi- 
dent  du  Conseil ; 

h)  Nommer  un  agent  ex£cutif 
principal,  qui  portera  le  titre  de 
Secretaire  g£n6ral,  et  prendre  toutes 
dispositions  pour  la  nomination  de 
tout  autre  personnel  n6cessaire,  con- 
form6ment  aux  dispositions  du  chapi- 
tre XI; 

i)  Demander,  r6unir,  Etudier  et 
publier  les  renseignements  relatifs 
aux  progrfes  de  la  navigation  a£rienne 
et  £  Texploitation  des  services  aferiens 
internationaux,  y  compris  tous  ren- 
seignements sur  les  frais  d 'exploita- 
tion et  les  subventions  verges  sur 
fonds  publics  aux  entreprises  de 
transports  a£riens; 

j)  Signaler  aux  Etats  contractants 
toute  infraction  4  la  pr6sente  Con- 
vention, ainsi  que  tout  manquement 
aux  recommandations  ou  aux  deci- 
sions du  Conseil ; 

K)  Faire  rapport  £  T Assemble  sur 
tpute  infraction  £  la  pr6sente  Conven- 
tion, au  cas  oft  un  Etat  contractant 
n'aurait  pas  pris  les  mesures  n£ces- 
saires  dans  un  d£lai  raisonnable  apr&s 
que  Tinfraction  aura  6t6  signa!6e; 

/)  Adopter,  conform6ment  aux  dis- 
positions du  Chapitre  VI  de  la 
pr£sente  Convention,  des  standards 
internationaux  et  des  pratiques  rec- 
ommand6es;  les  designer,  pour  plus 
de  commodity,  sous  le  nom  d'annexes 
&  la  pr6sente  Convention ;  et  notifier 
A  tous  les  Etats  contractants  les 
dispositions  prises  £  cet  effet; 

m)  Examiner  les  recommandations 
formutees  par  la  Commission  de  navi- 
gation a6rienne  en  vue  d'amender 
les  annexes  et  prendre  toutes  me- 
sures utiles  conform£ment  aux  dis- 
positions du  chapitre  XX; 

n)  Examiner  toute  question  rela- 
tive 4  la  Convention,  dont  il  est  saisi 
par  un  Etat  contractant. 

ARTICLE  55. — Fonctions  facultative* 
du  Conseil 

Le  Conseil  peut: 

a)  S'il  y  a  lieu  et  si  I'exp6rience  en 
montre  Tutilit^,  cr6er  des  commis- 


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No.  640 


create  subordinate  air  transport 
commissions  on  a  regional  or  other 
basis  and  define  groups  of  states  or 
airlines  with  or  through  which  it  may 
deal  to  facilitate  the  carrying  out  of 
the  aims  of  this  Convention; 


(ft)  Delegate  to  the  Air  Naviga- 
tion Commission  duties  additional 
to  those  set  forth  in  the  Convention 
and  revoke  or  modify  such  delega- 
tions of  authority  at  any  time; 

(c)  Conduct  research  into  all  as- 
pects of  air  transport  and  air  navi- 
gation  which    are   of   international 
importance,  communicate  the  results 
of  its  research   to  the  contracting 
States,  and  facilitate  the  exchange 
of  information  between  contracting 
States  on  air  transport  and  air  navi- 
gation matters; 

(d)  Study  any  matters  affecting 
the  organization  and  operation  of 
international  air  transport,  including 
the  international  ownership  and  op- 
eration of  international  air  services 
on  trunk  routes,  and  submit  to  the 
Assembly  plans  in  relation  thereto; 


(e)  Investigate,  at  the  request  of 
any  contracting  State,  any  situation 
which  may  appear  to  present  avoid- 
able obstacles  to  the  development  of 
international  air  navigation;  and, 
after  such  investigation,  issue  such 
reports  as  may  appear  to  it  desirable. 


CHAPTER  X 

THE  AIR  NAVIGATION  COMMISSION 


sions  subordonnees  de  transport 
a&rien,  sur  le  plan  regional,  ou  de 
toute  autre  fagon,  et  designer  des 
groupes  d'Etats  ou  d'entreprises  de 
transports  a£riens  avec  lesquels  ou 
par  1'intermgdiaire  desquels  il  pourra 
s'adresser  en  vue  de  faciliter  la  re- 
alisation des  fins  de  la  presente  Con- 
vention; 

b)  D£16guer  a  la  Commission  de 
navigation  aerienne  toutes  attribu- 
tions en  sus  de  celles  pr&vues  par  la 
pr£sente  Convention  et  r£voquer  ou 
modifier  a  tout  moment  de  telles 
delegations; 

c)  Proc6der  a  des  recherches  dans 
tous  les  domaines  du  transport  a6rien 
et  de  la  navigation  a£rienne  qui  sont 
d 'importance    internationale;    com- 
muniquer    le    r6sultat    de    ses    re- 
cherches aux  Etats  contractants  et 
faciliter  l'6change,  entre  Etats  con- 
tractants, de  renseignements  relatifs 
au  transport  aerien  et  a  la  navigation 
a^rienne; 

d)  Etudier  toutes  questions  ayant 
trait  a  1'organisation  et  a  1'exploita- 
tion  des  transports  a6riens  intcrna- 
tionaux,  y  compris  la  propri£t6  et 
1'exploitation  internationale  de  ser- 
vices a6riens  internationaux  sur  les 
routes   principales   et   soumettre   a 
1' Assembled  des  projets  s'y  rapport- 
ant; 

e)  Effectuer  des  enqugtes,  a  la  de- 
mande  de  tout  Etat  contractant,  sur 
toute  situation  susceptible  d'opposer 
au  d&veloppement  de  la  navigation 
a£rienne  internationale  des  obstacles 
qui  peuvent  £tre  6vit6s  et,  ces  en- 
qu&tes  termin6es,  publier  les  rapports 
qui  lui  semblent  indiqu£s. 

CHAPITRE  X 

LA  COMMISSION  DE  NAVIGATION 
AfiRIENNE 


ARTICLE  56. — Nomination  and 
appointment  of  Commission 

The  Air  Navigation  Commission 
shall  be  composed  of  twelve  members 

appointed    by    the    Council    from __  t 

among  persons  nominated  by  con-  des    personnes 


ARTICLE  56. — Candidature  et  nomi- 
nation d  la  Commission 


nation  a  la  commission 

La  Commission  de  navigation 
a6rienne  se  compose  de  douze  mem- 
bres  nomm6s  par  le  Conseil  parmi 
des  personnes  pr£sent£es  par  les 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


195 


tracting  States.  These  persons  shall 
have  suitable  qualifications  and  ex- 
perience in  the  science  and  practice 
of  aeronautics.  The  Council  shall 
request  all  contracting  States  to  sub- 
mit nominations.  The  President  of 
the  Air  Navigation  Commission  shall 
be  appointed  by  the  Council. 

ARTICLE  57. — Duties  of  Commission 

The  Air  Navigation  Commission 
shall: 

(a)  Consider,  and  recommend  to 
the  Council  for  adoption,  modifica- 
tions of  the  Annexes  to  this  Conven- 
tion; 

(6)  Establish  technical  subcom- 
missions  on  which  any  contracting 
State  may  be  represented,  if  it  so 
desires; 

(c)  Advise  the  Council  concerning 
the  collection  and  communication 
to  the  contracting  States  of  all  in- 
formation which  it  considers  neces- 
sary and  useful  for  the  advancement 
of  air  navigation. 

CHAPTER  XI 

PERSONNEL 

ARTICLE  58. — Appointment  of 
personnel 

Subject  to  any  rules  laid  down  by 
the  Assembly  and  to  the  provisions 
of  this  Convention,  the  Council  shall 
determine  the  method  of  appoint- 
ment and  of  termination  of  appoint- 
ment, the  training,  and  the  salaries, 
allowances,  and  conditions  of  service 
of  the  Secretary  General  and  other 
personnel  of  the  Organization,  and 
may  employ  or  make  use  of  the 
services  of  nationals  of  any  con- 
tracting State. 

ARTICLE  59. — International  character 
of  personnel 

The  President  of  the  Council,  the 
Secretary  General,  and  other  per- 


Etats  contractants.  Ces  personnes 
doivent  poss6der  la  competence  et 
1' experience  n£cessaires  en  mati&re 
de  science  et  de  pratique  agro- 
nautiques.  Le  Conseil  invitera  tous  les 
Etats  contractants  £  lui  soumettre 
des  candidatures.  Le  President  de  la 
Commission  de  navigation  a£rienne 
est  nomme  par  le  Conseil. 

ARTICLE  57 .—Attributions  de  la 
Commission 

Les  attributions  de  la  Commission 
de  navigation  a£rienne  sont  les 
suivantes: 

a)  Examiner  les  modifications  £ 
apporter  aux  annexes  £  la  pr^sente 
Convention     et     en   recommander 
1'adoption  au  Conseil; 

b)  Instituer  des  sous-commissions 
techniques,    auxquelles    tout    Etat 
contractant  pourra  fetre  repr£sent6, 
s'il  le  desire; 

c)  Donner  des  avis  au  Conseil  au 
sujet  de  la  centralisation  et  de  la 
communication  aux  Etats  contrac- 
tants de  tous  renseignements  qu'elle 
consid£re  n£cessaires  et  utiles  aux 
progrfes  de  la  navigation  a£rienne. 

CHAPITRE  XI 

PERSONNEL 

ARTICLE  58. — Nomination  du 
personnel 

Sous  reserve  des  r&glements  etablis 
par  1' Assemble  et  des  dispositions 
de  la  presente  Convention,  le  Conseil 
determine  le  mode  de  nomination  et 
de  licenciement,  la  formation  pro- 
fessionnelle,  les  traitements  et  in- 
demnites  et  les  conditions  d'emploi 
du  Secretaire  general  et  des  autres 
membres  du  personnel  de  1'Organisa- 
tion;  il  a  en  outre  la  faculte  d 'em- 
ployer des  ressortissants  de  tout 
Etat  contractant  ou  d'utiliser  leurs 
services. 

ARTICLE  59, — Caracttre  international 
du  personnel 

Dans  1'exercice  de  leurs  fonctions, 
le  President  du  Conseil,  le  Secretaire 


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No.  640 


aonnel  shall  not  seek  or  receive  in- 
structions in  regard  to  the  discharge 
of  their  responsibilities  from  any 
authority  external  to  the  Organiza- 
tion. Each  contracting  State  un- 
dertakes fully  to  respect  the  interna- 
tional character  of  the  responsibilities 
of  the  personnel  and  not  to  seek  to 
influence  any  of  its  nationals  in  the 
discharge  of  their  responsibilities. 

ARTICLE  60. — Immunities  and 
privileges  of  personnel 

Each  contracting  State  under- 
takes, so  far  as  possible  under  its 
constitutional  procedure,  to  accord 
to  the  President  of  the  Council,  the 
Secretary  General,  and  the  other 
personnel  of  the  Organization,  the 
immunities  and  privileges  which  are 
accorded  to  corresponding  personnel 
of  other  public  international  organ- 
izations. If  a  general  international 
agreement  on  the  immunities  and 
privileges  of  international  civil  serv- 
ants is  arrived  at,  the  immunities 
and  privileges  accorded  to  the  Presi- 
dent, the  Siecretary  General,  and  the 
other  personnel  of  the  Organization 
shall  be  the  immunities  and  privileges 
accorded  under  that  general  inter- 
national agreement. 

CHAPTER  XII 
FINANCE 

ARTICLE  61.— Budget  and  apportion- 
ment of  expenses 

The  Council  shall  submit  to  the 
Assembly  an  annual  budget,  annual 
statements  of  accounts  and  estimates 
of  all  receipts  and  expenditures. 
The  Assembly  shall  vote  the  budget 
with  whatever  modification  it  sees 
fit  to  prescribe,  and,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  assessments  under  Chapter 
XV  to  States  consenting  thereto, 
shall  apportion  the  expenses  of  the 
Organization  among  the  contracting 
States  on  the  basis  which  it  shall 
from  time  to  time  determine. 


g6n£ral  et  les  autres  membres  du 
personnel  ne  devront  ni  demander  ni 
accepter  d 'instructions  d'aucune  au- 
torite  exterieure  &  1'Organisation. 
Chaque  Etat  contractant  s'engage 
4  respecter  pleinement  le  caractere 
international  des  responsabilit6s  du 
personnel  et  £  ne  pas  chercher  £ 
influencer  un  quelconque  de  ses  res- 
sortissants  dans  1'exercice  de  ses 
fonctions. 

ARTICLE  60. — ImmunitSs  et  privileges 
du  personnel 

Chaque  Etat  contractant  s'engage, 
dans  toute  la  mesure  permise  par  ses 
regies  constitutionnelles,  £  accorder 
au  President  du  Conseil,  au  Secr6- 
taire  g6n£ral  et  £  tout  autre  membre 
du  personnel  de  1'Organisation  les 
privileges  et  immunit6s  accordSs  au 
personnel  correspondant  d 'autres  or- 
ganisations Internationales  publiques. 
Si  un  accord  international  g£n£ral 
intervient,  concernant  les  immunit£s 
et  privileges  des  fonctionnaires  inter- 
nationaux,  les  immunit6s  et  privi- 
leges accord^s  au  President  du  Con- 
seil, au  Secretaire  g£n6ral  et  aux 
autres  membres  du  personnel  de 
1'Organisation  seront  les  immunit6s 
et  privileges  accord6s  aux  termes  de 
cet  accord  international  g6n£ral. 

CHAPITRE  XII 
FINANCES 

ARTICLE  61. — Budget  et  repartition 
des  dfpenses 

Le  Conseil  soumet  chaque  ann£e  £ 
1*  Assemble  un  budget,  des  £tats  de 
comptes  et  des  provisions  de  recettes 
et  de  d6penses.  L 'Assemble  vote  le 
budget  en  y  apportant  les  modifica- 
tions qu'elle  juge  £  propos  et,  excep- 
tion faite  des  contributions  deman- 
d6es  en  vertu  du  chapitre  XV  4  des 
Etats  qui  y  consentent,  rOpartit  les 
d6penses  de  1'Organisation  entre  les 
Etats  contractants  dans  les  propor- 
tions qu'elle  determine  de  temps  £ 
autre. 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


197 


ARTICLE  62. — Suspension  of  voting 
power 

The  Assembly  may  suspend  the 
voting  power  in  the  Assembly  and 
in  the  Council  of  any  contracting 
State  that  fails  to  discharge  within  a 
reasonable  period  its  financial  obli- 
gations to  the  Organization. 

ARTICLE  63. — Expenses  of  delegations 
and  other  representatives 

Each  contracting  State  shall  bear 
the  expenses  of  its  own  delegation  to 
the  Assembly  and  the  remuneration, 
travel,  and  other  expenses  of  any 
person  whom  it  appoints  to  serve  on 
the  Council,  and  of  its  nominees  or 
representatives  on  any  subsidiary 
committees  or  commissions  of  the 
Organization. 


ARTICLE  62. — Suspension  du  droit 
de  vote 

L'Assembl£e  peut  suspendre  le 
droit  de  vote  £  F Assemble  et  au 
Conseil  de  tout  Etat  contractant  qui 
ne  s'acquitte  pas,  dans  un  d£lai 
raisonnable,  de  ses  obligations  finan- 
cteres  envers  I'Organisation. 

ARTICLE  63. — Dfpenses  des 
delegations  et  des  autres  reprfsentants 

Chaque  Etat  contractant  prend  £ 
sa  charge  les  d£penses  de  sa  propre 
delegation  4  1'Assembiee,  ainsi  que  la 
remuneration,  les  frais  de  d^place- 
ment  et  les  autres  depenses  de  toute 
personne  nommfee  par  lui  pour  sieger 
au  Conseil,  presentee  par  lui  ou  d6- 
signee  par  lui  comme  repr6sentant 
dans  Tun  quelconque  des  comit6s  ou 
commissions  subsidiaires  de  1'Orga- 
nisation. 


CHAPTER  XIII 

OTHER   INTERNATIONAL  ARRANGE- 
MENTS 

ARTICLE  64. — Security  arrangements 

The  Organization  may,  with  re- 
spect to  air  matters  within  its  com- 
petence directly  affecting  world  se- 
curity, by  vote  of  the  Assembly  enter 
into  appropriate  arrangements  with 
any  general  organization  set  up  by 
the  nations  of  the  world  to  preserve 
peace. 


ARTICLE  65. — Arrangements  with 
other  international  bodies 

The  Council,  on  behalf  of  the  Or- 
ganization, may  enter  into  agree- 
ments with  other  international  bodies 
for  the  maintenance  of  common 
services  and  for  common  arrange- 
ments concerning  personnel  and, 
with  the  approval  of  the  Assembly, 
may  enter  into  such  other  arrange- 
ments as  may  facilitate  the  work  of 
the  Organization. 


CHAPITRE  XIII 

AUTRES  ARRANGEMENTS 
INTERNATIONAL 

ARTICLE    64. — Arrangements   visant 
la  stcuritt 

En  ce  qui  concerne  les  questions 
aeriennes  de  sa  competence  qui  af- 
fectent  directement  la  s£curit6  du 
monde,  1'Organisation  peut,  par  un 
vote  de  1'Assembiee,  conclure  des  ar- 
rangements spedaux  avec  toute  or- 
ganisation generate  etablie  par  les 
nations  du  monde  pour  le  maintien 
de  la  paix. 

ARTICLE  65. — Arrangements  avec 
d'autres  organismes  international 

Le  Conseil  peut,  au  nom  de  1'Or- 
ganisation,  conclure  des  accords  avec 
d'autres  organismes  internationaux 
en  vue  de  maintenir  des  services 
communs  et  de  faire  des  arrange- 
ments communs  au  sujet  du  per- 
sonnel et,  avec  1'assentiment  de 
1'Assembiee,  conclure  tous  autres 
arrangements  susceptibles  de  facili- 
ter  la  tSche  de  1'Organisation. 


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INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  640 


ARTICLE  66. — Functions  relating  to 
other  agreements 

(a)  The  Organization  shall  also 
carry  out  the  functions  placed  upon 
it  by  the  International  Air  Services 
Transit  Agreement  and  by  the  In- 
ternational Air  Transport  Agree- 
ment drawn  up  at  Chicago  on  De- 
cember 7,  1944,  in  accordance  with 
the  terms  and  conditions  therein  set 
forth. 

(6)  Members  of  the  Assembly  and 
the  Council  who  have  not  accepted 
the  International  Air  Services  Transit 
Agreement  or  the  International  Air 
Transport  Agreement  drawn  up  at 
Chicago  on  December  7,  1944  shall 
not  have  the  right  to  vote  on  any 
questions  referred  to  the  Assembly 
or  Council  under  the  provisions  of 
the  relevant  Agreement. 


PART  III 
INTERNATIONAL  AIR  TRANSPORT 

CHAPTER  XIV 

INFORMATION  AND  REPORTS 

ARTICLE  67. — File  reports  with 
Council 

Each  contracting  State  under- 
takes that  its  international  airlines 
shall,  in  accordance  with  require- 
ments laid  down  by  the  Council, 
file  with  the  Council  traffic  reports, 
cost  statistics  and  financial  state- 
ments showing  among  other  things 
all  receipts  and  the  sources  thereof. 


ARTICLE  66.—Fonctions  relatives  d 
d'autres  accords 

a)  L'Organisation  exerce  6gale- 
ment  les  fonctions  qui  lui  sont  d6- 
volues  par  1' Accord  relatif  au  transit 
des  services  a^riens  internationaux  et 
par  T Accord  relatif  au  transport 
a6rien  international,  61abor6s  i  Chi- 
cago le  7  d6cembre  1944,  conform6- 
ment  aux  termes  et  conditions 
6nonc6s  dans  lesdits  accords. 

6)  Les  membres  de  I1  Assemble  et 
du  Conseil  qui  n'ont  pas  accept^ 
1' Accord  relatif  au  transit  des  ser- 
vices a6riens  internationaux  ou  1' Ac- 
cord relatif  au  transport  a£rien  in- 
ternational 61abor6s  It  Chicago  le  7 
d6cembre  1944,  n'ont  pas  droit  de 
vote  sur  toute  question  dont  1'As- 
sembl6e  ou  le  Conseil  sera  saisi  en 
application  des  dispositions  de  1'ac- 
cord  correspondant. 

TROISlfiME  PARTIE 
TRANSPORT  A£RIEN  INTERNATIONAL 

CHAPITRE  XIV 

RENSEIGNEMENTS  ET  RAPPORTS 

ARTICLE  67. — Dipot  de  rapports 
au  Conseil 

Chaque  Etat  contractant  s'engage 
£  ce  que  ses  entreprises  de  transports 
a^riens  internationaux  adressent  au 
Conseil,  conform6ment  aux  prescrip- 
tions 6tablies  par  celui-ci,  des  rap- 
ports sur  leur  trafic,  des  statistiques 
sur  leur  prix  de  revient,  ainsi  que  des 
6tats  comptables  indiquant,  entre 
autres,  le  montant  et  la  provenance 
de  toutes  leurs  recettes. 


CHAPTER  XV 

AIRPORTS    AND    OTHER    AIR    NAVIGA- 
TION FACILITIES 

ARTICLE  68. — Designation  of  routes 
and  airports 

Each  contracting  State  may,  sub- 
ject to  the  provisions  of  this  Con- 
vention, designate  the  route  to  be 


CHAPITRE  XV 

A6ROPORTS  ET  AUTRES  FACILITIES  DE 
NAVIGATION  A^RIENNE 

ARTICLE  68. — Designation  des  routes 
et  des  aSroports 

Chaque  Etat  contractant  peut, 
sous  reserve  des  dispositions  de  la 
pr6sente  Convention,  designer  la 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


199 


followed  within  its  territory  by  any 
international  air  service  and  the 
airports  which  any  such  service  may 
use. 

ARTICLE  69. — Improvement  of  air 
navigation  facilities 

If  the  Council  is  of  the  opinion 
that  the  airports  or  other  air  navi- 
gation facilities,  including  radio  and 
meteorological  services,  of  a  con- 
tracting State  are  not  reasonably 
adequate  for  the  safe,  regular,  effi- 
cient, and  economical  operation  of 
international  air  services,  present  or 
contemplated,  the  Council  shall  con- 
sult with  the  State  directly  con- 
cerned, and  other  States  affected, 
with  a  view  to  finding  means  by 
which  the  situation  may  be  reme- 
died, and  may  make  recommenda- 
tions for  that  purpose.  No  con- 
tracting State  shall  be  guilty  of  an 
infraction  of  this  Convention  if  it 
fails  to  carry  out  these  recommen- 
dations. 


ARTICLE  70. — Financing  of  air  navi- 
gation facilities 

A  contracting  State,  in  the  cir- 
cumstances arising  under  the  pro- 
visions of  Article  69,  may  conclude 
an  arrangement  with  the  Council  for 
giving  effect  to  such  recommenda- 
tions. The  State  may  elect  to  bear 
all  of  the  costs  involved  in  any  such 
arrangement.  If  the  State  does  not 
so  elect,  the  Council  may  agree,  at 
the  request  of  the  State,  to  provide 
for  all  or  a  portion  of  the  costs. 

ARTICLE  71. — Provision  and  mainte- 
nance of  facilities  by  Council 

If  a  contracting  State  so  requests, 
the  Council  may  agree  to  provide, 
man,  maintain,  and  administer  any 
or  all  of  the  airports  and  other  air 
navigation  facilities,  including  radio 
and  meteorological  services,  required 
in  its  territory  for  the  safe,  regular, 
efficient  and  economical  operation  of 


route  que  doit  suivre  4  Tint6rieur  de 
son  territpire  tout  service  interna- 
tional a6rien  ainsi  que  les  a£roports 
pouvant  etre  utilises  par  Tun  quel- 
conque  de  ces  services. 

ARTICLE  69. — Amelioration  des 
faciliUs  pour  la  navigation  airienne 

Si  le  Conseil  estime  que,  dans  un 
Etat  contractant,  les  a£roports  ou 
autres  facilit£s  pour  la  navigation 
a^rienne,  y  compris  les  services  radio- 
£lectriques  et  m£t6orologiques,  ne 
sont  pas  raisonnablement  suffisants 
pour  assurer  la  s£curit£,  la  r£gularit£, 
I'efficacite  et  1'exploitation  6cono- 
mique  des  services  aferiens  interna- 
tionaux  existants  ou  projet£s,  il  pro- 
c&de  £  des  consultations  avec  1'Etat 
directement  en  cause  et  avec  les 
autres  Etats  int6ress6s  en  vue  de 
trouver  les  moyens  de  rem£dier  a 
la  situation,  et  il  peut  formuler  des 
recommandations  a  cet  eftet.  Aucun 
Etat  contractant  ne  sera  consid£r6 
comme  coupable  d'infraction  a  la 
prtsente  Convention  s'il  ne  met  pas 
a  execution  ces  recommandations. 

ARTICLE  70. — Financement  des 
faciliUs  ae  navigation  afrienne 

Un  Etat  contractant  peut,  dans 
les  circonstances  vis£es  a  Particle  69, 
conclure  un  arrangement  avec  le 
Conseil  en  vue  de  donner  effet  £ 
de  telles  recommandations.  L'Etat 
peut  decider  de  prendre  &  sa  charge 
tous  les  frais  resultant  dudit  ar- 
rangement. Dans  le  cas  contraire,  le 
Conseil  peut  accepter,  a  la  demande 
de  1'Etat,  de  pourvoir  a  la  totalit6  ou 
a  une  partie  des  frais. 

ARTICLE  71. — Fourniture  et  entretien 
de  faciliUs  par  le  Conseil 

Si  un  Etat  contractant  en  fait  la 
demande,  le  Conseil  peut  accepter  de 
fournir,  pourvoir  en  personnel,  entre^ 
tenir  et  g£rer  en  totality  ou  en  partie 
les  a^roports  et  autres  facility  de 
navigation  a£rienne,  y  compris  les 
services  radioglectriques  et  m£t£o- 
rologiques  qui,  $ur  le  territoire  dudit 


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the  international  air  services  of  the 
other  contracting  States,  and  may 
specify  just  and  reasonable  charges 
for  the  use  of  the  facilities  provided. 


ARTICLE  72. — Acquisition  or  use  of 
land 

Where  land  is  needed  for  facilities 
financed  in  whole  or  in  part  by  the 
Council  at  the  request  of  a  con- 
tracting State,  that  State  shall 
either  provide  the  land  itself,  retain- 
ing title  if  it  wishes,  or  facilitate  the 
use  of  the  land  by  the  Council  on 
just  and  reasonable  terms  and  in 
accordance  with  the  laws  of  the 
State  concerned. 

ARTICLE  73. — Expenditure  and  as- 
sessment of  funds 

Within  the  limit  of  the  funds 
which  may  be  made  available  to  it 
by  the  Assembly  under  Chapter 
XII,  the  Council  may  make  current 
expenditures  for  the  purposes  of  this 
Chapter  from  the  general  funds  of 
the  Organization.  The  Council  shall 
assess  the  capital  funds  required  for 
the  purposes  of  this  Chapter  in  pre- 
viously agreed  proportions  over  a 
reasonable  period  of  time  to  the  con- 
tracting States  consenting  thereto 
whose  airlines  use  the  facilities. 
The  Council  may  also  assess  to 
States  that  consent  any  working 
funds  that  are  required. 


ARTICLE    74. — Technical    assistance 
and  utilization  of  revenues 

When  the  Council,  at  the  request 
of  a  contracting  State,  advances 
funds  or  provides  airports  or  other 
facilities  in  whole  or  in  part,  the 
arrangement  may  provide,  with  the 
consent  of  that  State,  for  technical 
assistance  in  the  supervision  and 


Etat,  sont  ngcessaires  £  la  s£curit£, 
la  r6gularit6,  I'efficacitS  et  1'exploita- 
tion  £conomique  des  services  a£riens 
internationaux  des  autres  Etats  con- 
tractants,  et  peut  Stablir  des  taxes 
justes  et  raispnnables  pour  1'utilisa- 
tion  des  facilitfis  fournies. 

ARTICLE  72. — Acquisition  ou 
utilisation  de  terrains 

L£  oft  des  terrains  sont  n6cessaires 
pour  des  facilit£s  finances  en  totalit6 
ou  en  partie  par  le  Conseil  £  la  de- 
mande  d'un  Etat  contractant,  ce 
dernier  doit,  soit  fournir  Iui-m6me 
ces  terrains,  dont  il  conservera  la 
propri6t6  s'il  le  desire,  soit  en  facili- 
ter  1 'utilisation  par  le  Conseil  i  des 
conditions  justes  et  raisonnables  et 
conform£ment  £  ses  lois  nationales. 

ARTICLE  7Z.—D(penses  et  repartition 
desfonds 

Dans  la  limite  des  fonds  qui 
peuvent  £tre  mis  par  P  Assemble  £ 
la  disposition  du  Conseil  en  vertu  du 
chapitre  XII,  le  Conseil  peut  pour- 
voir  aux  d6penses  courantes  n£ces- 
saires  aux  fins  du  present  chapitre  au 
moyen  de  pr61£vements  effectu6s  sur 
le  fonds  g6n£ral  de  lf Organisation. 
Le  Conseil  rtpartit  le  montant  en 
capital  n£cessaire  aux  fins  du  present 
chapitre,  selon  des  proportions  pr6- 
alablement  convenues  et  sur  une 
p^riode  de  temps  raisonnable,  entre 
les  Etats  contractants  qui  y  consent- 
ent  et  dont  les  entreprises  de  trans- 
ports a£riens  utilisent  les  facilit£s  en 
question.  Si  un  fonds  de  roulement 
s'avfere  nteessaire,  le  Conseil  peut 
6galement  en  rtpartir  la  charge  entre 
les  Etats  qui  y  consentent. 

ARTICLE  74. — Assistance  technique  et 
utilisation  des  recettes 

Lorsque,  £  la  demande  d'un  Etat 
contractant,  le  Conseil  avance  des 
fonds  ou  £tablit  des  a£roports  ou 
d'autres  facilit£s  en  totalit£  ou  en 
partie,  lfarrangement  peut  prtvoir, 
si  ledit  Etat  y  consent,  d'une  part 
une  assistance  technique  en  ce  qui 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


2OI 


operation  of  the  airports  and  other 
facilities,  and  for  the  payment,  from 
the  revenues  derived  from  the  opera- 
tion of  the  airports  and  other  facili- 
ties, of  the  operating  expenses  of  the 
airports  and  the  other  facilities,  and 
of  interest  and  amortization  charges. 

ARTICLE  75. — Taking  over  of  facilities 
from  Council 

A  contracting  State  may  at  any 
time  discharge  any  obligation  into 
which  it  has  entered  under  Article 
70,  and  take  over  airports  and  other 
facilities  which  the  Council  has  pro- 
vided in  its  territory  pursuant  to  the 
provisions  of  Articles  71  and  72,  by 
paying  to  the  Council  an  amount 
which  in  the  opinion  of  the  Council 
is  reasonable  in  the  circumstances. 
If  the  State  considers  that  the 
amount  fixed  by  the  Council  is  un- 
reasonable it  may  appeal  to  the 
Assembly  against  the  decision  of  the 
Council  and  the  Assembly  may  con- 
firm or  amend  the  decision  of  the 
Council. 

ARTICLE  76. — Return  of  funds 

Funds  obtained  by  the  Council 
through  reimbursement  under  Arti- 
cle 75  and  from  receipts  of  interest 
and  amortization  payments  under 
Article  74  shall,  in  the  case  of  ad- 
vances originally  financed  by  States 
under  Article  73,  be  returned  to  the 
States  which  were  originally  assessed 
in  the  proportion  of  their  assess- 
ments, as  determined  by  the  Council. 


CHAPTER  XVI 

JOINT  OPERATING  ORGANIZATIONS  AND 
POOLED  SERVICES 

ARTICLE    77. — Joint    operating    or- 
ganizations permitted 

Nothing  in  this  Convention  shall 
prevent  two  or  more  contracting 
States  from  constituting  joint  air 


concerne  le  contrdle  g6n6ral  et  1'ex- 
ploitation  des  a6roports  et  autres 
facilitfe,  et  d'autre  part  le  paiement, 
au  moyen  des  recettes  d 'exploitation 
de  ces  a6roports  et  autres  facilit6s, 
des  frais  d 'exploitation  desdits  a£ro- 
ports  et  autres  facilit6s,  des  int£rgts 
et  de  ramortissement. 

ARTICLE  75.— Reprise  des  installa- 
tions ditenues  par  le  Conseil 

Un  Etat  contractant  peut  i  tout 
moment  se  d^gager  des  obligations 
contract£es  par  lui  en  vertu  de 
1'article  70  et  prendre  possession  des 
a6roports  et  autres  facilit£s  6tablis 
par  le  Conseil  sur  son  territoire  en 
vertu  des  dispositions  des  articles  71 
et  72,  en  versant  au  Conseil  une 
somme  qui,  de  1'avis  du  Conseil,  est 
raisonnable  en  1'occurrence.  Si  1'Etat 
int6ress6  estime  que  la  somme  fix£e 
par  le  Conseil  est  excessive,  il  peut 
appeler  de  la  decision  du  Conseil  i 
T Assemble  qui  confirme  ou  modifie 
cette  decision. 


ARTICLE  76. — Restitution  des  fonds 

Les  fonds  r6unis  par  le  Conseil, 
qu'il  s'agisse  de  fonds  rembours£s  en 
vertu  des  dispositions  de  Tarticle  75 
ou  de  fonds  provenant  du  paiement 
d'int^rgts  et  d'amortissement  en 
vertu  de  1'article  74,  sont,  pour  ce 
qui  est  des  avances  consenties  i 
1'origine  par  des  Etats  en  vertu  de 
Tarticle  73,  restitu6s  auxdits  Etats 
proportionnellement  aux  contribu- 
tions fix£es  initialement  pour  chacun 
d'eux  par  le  Conseil. 

CHAPITRE  XVI 

ORGANISATIONS    D'EXPLOITATION    EN 
COMMUN  ET  SERVICES  EN  POOL 

ARTICLE  77. — Entreprises  en  commun 
autorisfes 

Aucune  disposition  de  la  prfesente 
Convention  n'emp^che  deux  ou  plu- 
sieurs  Etats  contractants  de  con- 


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No.  640 


transport  operating  organizations  or 
international  operating  agencies  and 
from  pooling  their  air  services  on  any 
routes  or  in  any  regions,  but  such 
organizations  or  agencies  and  such 
pooled  services  shall  be  subject  to 
all  the  provisions  of  this  Convention, 
including  those  relating  to  the  regis- 
tration of  agreements  with  the  Coun- 
cil. The  Council  shall  determine  in 
what  manner  the  provisions  of  this 
Convention  relating  to  nationality  of 
aircraft  shall  apply  to  aircraft  oper- 
ated by  international  operating  agen- 
cies. 


ARTICLE   78. — Function  of  Council 

The  Council  may  suggest  to  con- 
tracting States  concerned  that  they 
form  joint  organizations  to  operate 
air  services  on  any  routes  or  in  any 
regions. 

ARTICLE  79. — Participation  in 
operating  organizations 

A  State  may  participate  in  joint 
operating  organizations  or  in  pooling 
arrangements,  either  through  its 
government  or  through  an  airline 
company  or  companies  designated 
by  its  government.  The  companies 
may,  at  the  sole  discretion  of  the 
State  concerned,  be  state-owned 
or  partly  state-owned  or  privately 
owned. 

PART  IV 

FINAL  PROVISIONS 

CHAPTER  XVII 

OTHER  AERONAUTICAL  AGREEMENTS 
AND  ARRANGEMENTS 

ARTICLE    80. — Paris    and    Habana 
Conventions 

Each  contracting  State  under- 
takes, immediately  upon  the  coming 
into  force  of  this  Convention,  to  give 
notice  of  denunciation  of  the  Con- 
vention relating  to  the  Regulation  of 


stituer,  pour  les  transports  a£riens, 
des  organisations  d 'exploitation  en 
commun  ou  des  organismes  inter- 
nationaux  d 'exploitation,  ni  de  met- 
tre  en  pool  leurs  services  a£riens  sur 
toute  route  ou  dans  toute  region. 
Toutefois,  ces  organisations  ou  or- 
ganismes et  ces  services  en  pool 
seront  soumis  £  toutes  les  disposi- 
tions de  la  prgsente  Convention,  y 
compris  celles  qui  ont  trait  £  1'en- 
registrement  des  accords  au  Conseil. 
Le  Conseil  d£terminera  les  modalit£s 
d 'application  des  dispositions  de  la 
prgsente  Convention  concernant  la 
nationality  des  a£ronefs  aux  a£ronefs 
exploits  par  des  organismes  inter- 
nationaux  d'exploitation. 

ARTICLE  7B.—Rdle  du  Conseil 

Le  Conseil  peut  sugg£rer  aux 
Etats  contractants  int£ress£s  de 
former  des  organisations  conjointes 
pour  exploiter  des  services  a6riens  sur 
toutes  routes  ou  dans  toutes  regions. 

ARTICLE  79. — Participation  aux 
entreprises  communes 

Un  Etat  peut  faire  partie  d'organ- 
isations  d'exploitation  en  commun 
ou  participer  £  des  pools  par  1'inter- 
m£diaire  soit  de  son  gouvernement, 
soit  d'une  ou  de  plusieurs  entreprises 
de  transports  a^riens  d6sign6es  par 
son  Gouvernement.  Ces  entreprises 
peuvent,  &  la  discretion  exclusive  de 
1'Etat  int£ress6,  fitre  en  tout  ou  partie 
propri6t6  d'Etat  ou  propri6t£  privte. 

QUATRlfiME  PARTIE 

DISPOSITIONS  FINALES 

CHAPITRE  XVII 

AUTRES  ACCORDS  ET  ARRANGEMENTS 
AfeRONAUTIQUES 

ARTICLE  80. — Conventions  de  Paris 
et  de  La  Havane 

Chaque  Etat  contractant  s'engage 
£  d&ioncer,  d£s  I'entr6e  en  vigueur  de 
la  pr£sente  Convention,  la  Conven- 
tion portant  rtglementation  de  la 
navigation  alrienne,  sign£e  &  Paris 


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203 


Aerial  Navigation  signed  at  Paris  on 
October  13,  1919  or  the  Convention 
on  Commercial  Aviation  signed  at 
Habana  on  February  20,  1928,  if  it  is 
a  party  to  either.  As  between  con- 
tracting States,  this  Convention 
supersedes  the  Conventions  of  Paris 
and  Habana  previously  referred  to. 

ARTICLE  81. — Registration  of  existing 
agreements 

All  aeronautical  agreements  which 
are  in  existence  on  the  coming  into 
force  of  this  Convention,  and  which 
are  between  a  contracting  State  and 
any  other  State  or  between  an  airline 
of  a  contracting  State  and  any  other 
State  or  the  airline  of  any  other 
State,  shall  be  forthwith  registered 
with  the  Council. 


ARTICLE  82. — Abrogation  of 
inconsistent  arrangements 

The  contracting  States  accept  this 
Convention  as  abrogating  all  obliga- 
tions and  understandings  between 
them  which  are  inconsistent  with  its 
terms,  and  undertake  not  to  enter 
into  any  such  obligations  and  under- 
standings. A  contracting  State 
which,  before  becoming  a  member  of 
the  Organization  has  undertaken  any 
obligations  toward  a  non -contracting 
State  or  a  national  of  a  contracting 
State  or  of  a  non-contracting  State 
inconsistent  with  the  terms  of  this 
Convention,  shall  take  immediate 
steps  to  procure  its  release  from  the 
obligations.  If  an  airline  of  any 
contracting  State  has  entered  into 
any  such  inconsistent  obligations, 
the  State  of  which  it  is  a  national  shall 
use  its  best  efforts  to  secure  their 
termination  forthwith  and  shall  in 
any  event  cause  them  to  be  termi- 
nated as  soon  as  such  action  can  law- 
fully be  taken  after  the  coming  into 
force  of  this  Convention. 


le  13  octobre  1919,  ou  la  Convention 
relative  £  1'aviation  commerciale, 
sign6e  &  La  Havane  le  20  fevrier 
1928,  s'il  est  partie  &  Tune  ou  1'autre 
de  ces  Conventions.  La  pr£sente 
Convention  remplace,  entre  les  Etats 
contractants,  les  conventions  de 
Paris  et  de  La  Havane  ci-dessus 
mentionn£es. 

ARTICLE  81. — Enregistrement 
des  accords  en  vigueur 

Tous  accords  a6ronautiques  exist- 
ant  au  moment  de  I'entr6e  en  vigueur 
de  la  pr£sente  Convention  entre  un 
Etat  contractant  et  tout  autre  Etat, 
ou  entre  une  entreprise  de  transports 
a6riens  d'un  Etat  contractant  et 
tout  autre  Etat  ou  une  entreprise  de 
transports  a6riens  d'un  autre  Etat, 
doivent  Stre  enregistr6s  imm6diate- 
ment  au  Conseil. 

ARTICLE  82. — Abrogation  d' arrange- 
ments incompatibles  avec  les  disposi- 
tions de  la  prfsente  Convention 

Les  Etats  contractants  convien- 
nent  que  la  pr6sente  Convention 
abroge  toutes  obligations  et  tous 
engagements  existant  entre  eux  qui 
spnt  incompatibles  avec  les  disposi- 
tions de  ladite  Convention,  et  s'en- 
gagent  a  ne  pas  contracter  des 
obligations  ou  des  engagements  de 
cette  nature.  Un  Etat  contractant 
qui,  avant  de  devenir  membre  de 
TOrganisation,  a  assum6  envers  un 
Etat  non  contractant  ou  un  ressortis- 
sant  d'un  Etat  contractant  des  obli- 
gations incompatibles  avec  les  termes 
de  la  pr6sente  Convention,  doit 
prendre  sans  d61ai  les  mesures  n£ces- 
saires  pour  se  Iib6rer  desdites  obliga- 
tions. Si  une  entreprise  de  transports 
a^riens  d'un  Etat  contractant  quel- 
conque  a  assum6  de  telles  obligations 
incompatibles,  1'Etat  dont  elle  est 
ressortissante  s'emploiera  de  son 
mieux  pour  qu'il  soit  mis  fin  a  ces 
obligations  et  en  tout  cas  veillera  4  ce 
qu'il  y  soit  mis  fin  d&s  que  cela  sera 
juridiquement  possible  apr&s  I'entr6e 
en  vigueur  de  la  pr£sente  Convention. 


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ARTICLE    83. — Registration    of  new 
arrangements 

Subject  to  the  provisions  of  the 
preceding  Article,  any  contracting 
State  may  make  arrangements  not 
inconsistent  with  the  provisions  of 
this  Convention.  Any  such  ar- 
rangement shall  be  forthwith  reg- 
istered with  the  Council,  which  shall 
make  it  public  as  soon  as  possible. 


CHAPTER  XVIII 

DISPUTES  AND  DEFAULT 

ARTICLE  84. — Settlement  of  disputes 

If  any  disagreement  between  two 
or  more  contracting  States  relating 
to  the  interpretation  or  application 
of  this  Convention  and  its  Annexes 
cannot  be  settled  by  negotiation,  it 
shall,  on  the  application  of  any  State 
concerned  in  the  disagreement,  be 
decided  by  the  Council.  No  mem- 
ber of  the  Council  shall  vote  in  the 
consideration  by  the  Council  of  any 
dispute  to  which  it  is  a  party.  Any 
contracting  State  may,  subject  to 
Article  85,  appeal  from  the  decision 
of  the  Council  to  an  ad  hoc  arbitral 
tribunal  agreed  upon  with  the  other 
parties  to  the  dispute  or  to  the 
Permanent  Court  of  International 
Justice.  Any  such  appeal  shall  be 
notified  to  the  Council  within  sixty 
days  of  receipt  of  notification  of  the 
decision  of  the  Council. 

ARTICLE  85. — Arbitration  procedure 

If  any  contracting  State  party  to  a 
dispute  in  which  the  decision  of  the 
Council  is  under  appeal  has  not  ac- 
cepted the  Statute  of  the  Permanent 
Court  of  International  Justice  and 
the  contracting  States  parties  to  the 
dispute  cannot  agree  on  the  choice  of 
the  arbitral  tribunal,  each  of  the 
contracting  States  parties  to  the 
dispute  shall  name  a  single  arbitrator 


ARTICLE  83.— Enregistrement  de  tout 
nouvel  arrangement 

Sous  reserve  des  dispositions  de 
1'article  pr6c6dent,  tout  Etat  con- 
tractant  peut  conclure  des  accords 
qui  ne  soient  pas  incompatibles  avec 
les  dispositions  de  la  pr6sente  Con- 
vention. Tout  accord  de  cette  nature 
est  imm£diatement  enregistr6  au 
Conseil,  qui  le  rend  public  aussitdt 
que  faire  se  peut. 

CHAPITRE  XVIII 

DIFF^RENDS  ET  MANQUEMENTS 
AUX  ENGAGEMENTS 

ARTICLE  84. — R&glement 
des  differ  ends 

Si  un  disaccord  survenu  entre  deux 
ou  plusieurs  Etats  cpntractants  k 
propos  de  Interpretation  ou  de  Tap- 
plication  de  la  pr£sente  Convention 
et  de  ses  annexes  ne  peut  etre  r£gl£ 
par  voie  de  n£gociation,  le  Conseil 
statue  &  la  demande  de  tout  Etat 
impliqu£  dans  ce  disaccord.  Aucun 
membre  du  Conseil  ne  peut  voter  lors 
de  1'examen  par  le  Conseil  d'un 
diflferend  auqucl  il  est  partie.  Tout 
Etat  contractant  peut,  sous  reserve 
de  1'article  85,  faire  appel  de  la  d£- 
cision  du  Conseil  soit  &  un  tribunal 
arbitral  ad  hoc  accept6  par  les  autres 
parties  au  disaccord,  soit  £  la  Cour 
permanente  de  Justice  interna- 
tionale.  Tout  appel  de  ce  genre  doit 
6tre  notifi6  au  Conseil  dans  les  soix- 
ante  jours  qui  suivront  la  date  £  la- 
quelle  notification  de  la  decision  du 
Conseil  a  6t6  regue. 

ARTICLE  85. — Procedure  d'arbitrage 

Si  un  Etat  contractant,  partie  £ 
un  diflferend  pour  lequel  il  a  6t6  fait 
appel  de  la  decision  du  Conseil,  n'a 
pas  accept6  le  Statut  de  la  Cour 
permanente  de  Justice  Internationale 
et  si  les  Etats  contractants  parties  a 
ce  diflferend  ne  peuvent  se  mettre 
d'accord  sur  le  choix  du  tribunal 
arbitral,  chacun  des  Etats  contrac- 
tants partie  au  diflferend  d£signe  un 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


205 


who  shall  name  an  umpire.  If  either 
contracting  State  party  to  the  dis- 
pute fails  to  name  an  arbitrator 
within  a  period  of  three  months  from 
the  date  of  the  appeal,  an  arbitrator 
shall  be  named  on  behalf  of  that 
State  by  the  President  of  the  Coun- 
cil from  a  list  of  qualified  and  avail- 
able persons  maintained  by  the 
Council.  If,  within  thirty  days,  the 
arbitrators  cannot  agree  on  an  um- 
pire, the  President  of  the  Council 
shall  designate  an  umpire  from  the 
list  previously  referred  to.  The 
arbitrators  and  the  umpire  shall  then 
jointly  constitute  an  arbitral  tri- 
bunal. Any  arbitral  tribunal  estab- 
lished under  this  or  the  preceding 
Article  shall  settle  its  own  procedure 
and  give  its  decisions  by  majority 
vote,  provided  that  the  Council  may 
determine  procedural  questions  in 
the  event  of  any  delay  which  in  the 
opinion  of  the  Council  is  excessive. 


ARTICLE  86.— Appeals 

Unless  the  Council  decides  other- 
wise, any  decision  by  the  Council  on 
whether  an  international  airline  is 
operating  in  conformity  with  the 
provisions  of  this  Convention  shall 
remain  in  effect  unless  reversed  on 
appeal.  On  any  other  matter,  deci- 
sions of  the  Council  shall,  if  appealed 
from,  be  suspended  until  the  appeal 
is  decided.  The  decisions  of  the 
Permanent  Court  of  International 
Justice  and  of  an  arbitral  tribunal 
shall  be  final  and  binding. 


ARTICLE  87. — Penalty  for  non- 
conformity of  airline 


Each  contracting  State  under- 
takes not  to  allow  the  operation  of 
an  airline  of  a  contracting  State 
through  the  airspace  above  its  terri- 


arbitre  et  les  arbitres  ainsi  d£sign£s 
nomment  un  surarbitre.  Au  cas  oit 
Tun  pu  1'autre  des  Etats  contractants 
parties  au  diflferend  ne  d£signerait 
pas  d'arbitre  dans  les  trois  mois  qui 
suivent  la  date  de  1 'appel,  un  arbitre 
sera  choisi  au  nom  de  cet  Etat  par  le 
President  du  Conseil  sur  une  liste  de 
personnes  qualifies  et  disponibles 
£tablie  par  le  Conseil.  Si,  dans  les 
trente  jours,  les  arbitres  ne  peuvent 
se  mettre  d'accord  sur  le  choix  d'un 
surarbitre,  le  President  du  Conseil 
d6signe  comme  surarbitre  une  des 
personnes  figurant  sur  la  liste  sus- 
mentionn6e.  Les  arbitres  et  le  sur- 
arbitre constituent  alors  un  tribunal 
arbitral.  Tout  tribunal  arbitral  6tabli 
en  vertu  du  present  article  ou  de 
Tarticle  pr6c6dent  determine  ses 
propres  regies  de  procedure  et  rend 
ses  decisions  £  la  majorit£  des  voix, 
£tant  entendu  toutefois  que  le  Con- 
seil a  la  facult6  de  decider  des  ques- 
tions de  procedure,  au  cas  oft  se 
produiraient  des  retards  qu'il  esti- 
merait  excessifs. 

ARTICLE  86—Appds 

A  moins  que  le  Conseil  n'en  decide 
autrement,  toute  decision  du  Conseil 
sur  la  question  de  savoir  si  une 
entreprise  de  transports  a6riens  in- 
ternationaux  est  exploit£e  conform6- 
ment  aux  dispositions  de  la  prfesente 
Convention  reste  valable,  k  moins 
qu'elle  ne  soit  infirm6e  en  appel.  Sur 
toute  autre  question,  les  decisions  du 
Conseil  sont  suspendues,  s'il  en  est 
fait  appel,  jusqu'£  ce  que  le  tribunal 
d'appel  ait  statu£.  Les  decisions  de 
la  Cour  permanente  de  Justice  inter- 
national ou  d'un  tribunal  arbitral 
sont  definitives  et  lient  les  Parties. 

ARTICLE  87. — Sanctions  d  Vigard 
d'une  entreprise  de  transports  atri- 
ens  qui  ne  se  conforme  pas  aux 
dispositions  prtvues 

Chaque  Etat  contractant  s'engage 
£  ne  pas  autoriser  une  entreprise  de 
transports  a6riens  d'un  Etat  con- 
tractant &  survoler  son  territoire  si  le 


206 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  640 


tory  if  the  Council  has  decided  that 
the  airline  concerned  is  not  conform- 
ing to  a  final  decision  rendered  in 
accordance  with  the  previous  Article. 

ARTICLE  88. — Penalty  far 
non-conformity  by  State 

The  Assembly  shall  suspend  the 
voting  power  in  the  Assembly  and  in 
the  Council  of  any  contracting  State 
that  is  found  in  default  under  the 
provisions  of  this  Chapter. 

CHAPTER  XIX 

WAR 

ARTICLE   89. — War  and   emergency 
conditions 

In  case  of  war,  the  provisions  of 
this  Convention  shall  not  affect  the 
freedom  of  action  of  any  of  the  con- 
tracting States  affected,  whether  as 
belligerents  or  as  neutrals.  The 
same  principle  shall  apply  in  the  case 
of  any  contracting  State  which  de- 
clares a  state  of  national  emergency 
and  notifies  the  fact  to  the  Council. 


Conseil  a  d£cid£  que  1'entreprise  en 
question  ne  se  conforme  pas  &  la  d6- 
cision  definitive  rendue  conform£- 
ment  aux  dispositions  de  1'article 
precedent. 

ARTICLE  88.— Sanctions  A  Vigard 
d'un  Etat  qui  ne  se  conforme  pas 
aux  dispositions  prfvues 

L'Assembiee  suspendra  le  droit  de 
vote  £  1'Assembiee  et  au  Conseil  de 
tout  Etat  contractant  trouve  en  d£- 
faut  par  rapport  aux  dispositions  du 
present  chapitre. 

CHAPITRE  XIX 
GUERRE 

ARTICLE  89.— Etat  de  guerre  et  etat 
de  crise 

En  cas  de  guerre,  les  dispositions 
de  la  prtsente  Convention  ne  portent 
pas  atteinte  &  la  liberte  d 'action  des 
Etats  contractants,  qu'ils  soient 
belligerants  ou  neutres.  Le  mgme 
principe  s'applique  £  tout  Etat  con- 
tractant qui  proclame  1'existence 
d'un  etat  de  crise  et  en  donne  notifi- 
cation au  Conseil. 


CHAPTER  XX 

ANNEXES 

ARTICLE  90. — Adoption  and  amend- 
ment  of  Annexes 

(a)  The  adoption  by  the  Council 
of  the  Annexes  described  in  Article 
54,  subparagraph  (/),  shall  require 
the  vote  of  two-thirds  of  the  Council 
at  a  meeting  called  for  that  purpose 
and  shall  then  be  submitted  by  the 
Council  to  each  contracting  State. 
Any  such  Annex  or  any  amendment 
of  an  Annex  shall  become  effective 
within  three  months  after  its  sub- 
mission to  the  contracting  States  or 
at  the  end  of  such  longer  period  of 
time  as  the  Council  may  prescribe, 
unless  in  the  meantime  a  majority  of 
the  contracting  States  register  their 
disapproval  with  the  Council. 


CHAPITRE  XX 

ANNEXES 

ARTICLE  90. — Adoption  et  modifica- 
tion des  annexes 

a)  L'adoption  par  le  Conseil  des 
annexes  vis6es  &  I'alinfea  /)  de  1'article 
54  requiert  un  vote  des  deux  tiers 
des  voix  du  Conseil  lors  d'une  re- 
union convoqute  £  cette  fin;  lesdites 
sont  ensuite  soumises  par  le  Conseil 
&  chaque  Etat  contractant.  Cha- 
cune  desdites  annexes  ou  tout 
amendement  &  une  annexe  prend 
effet  dans  les  trois  mois  qui  suivent 
sa  communication  aux  Etats  con- 
tractants ou  &  la  fin  d'une  p6riode 
plus  longue  fix6e  par  le  Conseil,  & 
moina  qu'entre  temps  la  majorit6 
des  Etats  contractants  n'aient  notifie 
leur  disapprobation  au  Conseil. 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


207 


(i)  The  Council  shall  immediately 
notify  all  contracting  States  of  the 
coming  into  force  of  any  Annex  or 
amendment  thereto. 


b)  Le  Conaeil  avise  immfediate- 
ment  tous  les  Etats  contractants  de 
l'entr£e  en  vigueur  de  toute  annexe 
ou  de  tout  amendement  &  une  an- 


nexe. 


CHAPTER  XXI 

RATIFICATIONS,  ADHERENCES, 
AMENDMENTS,    AND    DENUNCIATIONS 

ARTICLE  91.— Ratification  of 
Convention 

(a)  This  Convention  shall  be  sub- 
ject to  ratification  by  the  signatory 
States.     The  instruments  of  ratifi- 
cation   shall    be    deposited    in    the 
archives  of  the  Government  of  the 
United   States   of  America,    which 
shall  give  notice  of  the  date  of  the 
deposit  to  each  of  the  signatory  and 
adhering  States. 

(b)  As  soon  as  this  Convention  has 
been    ratified    or    adhered    to    by 
twenty-six  States  it  shall  come  into 
force  between  them  on  the  thirtieth 
day  after  deposit  of  the  twenty-sixth 
instrument.     It  shall  come  into  force 
for  each  State  ratifying  thereafter  on 
the  thirtieth  day  after  the  deposit  of 
its  instrument  of  ratification. 


(c)  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the 
Government  of  the  United  States  of 
America  to  notify  the  government  of 
each  of  the  signatory  and  adhering 
States  of  the  date  on  which  this 
Convention  comes  into  force. 

ARTICLE  92.— Adherence  to 
Convention 

(a)  This  Convention  shall  be  open 
for  adherence  by  members  of  the 
United  Nations  and  States  associ- 
ated with  them,  and  States  which 
remained  neutral  during  the  present 
world  conflict. 

(b)  Adherence   shall    be   effected 
by  a  notification  addressed  to  the 
Government  of  the  United  States  of 
America  and  shall  take  effect  as 


CHAPITRE  XXI 

RATIFICATIONS,  ADHESIONS,  AMENDE- 
MENTS  ET  D£NONCIATIONS 

ARTICLE  91.— Ratification  de  la 
Convention 

a)  La  pr^sente  Convention  est 
soumise  £  la  ratification  des  Etats 
signataires.  Les  instruments  de  rat- 
ification seront  d£pos£s  dans  les 
archives  du  Gouvernement  des 
Etats-Unis  d'Am6rique,  qui  notifiera 
la  date  de  ce  d£pdt  £  chacun  des 
Etats  signataires  et  adherents. 

6)  D£s  que  la  pr6sente  Convention 
aura  r£uni  les  ratifications  ou  adh£- 
sions  de  vingt-six  Etats,  elle  entrera 
en  vigueur  entre  ces  Etats  le  trenti- 
feme  jour  qui  suivra  la  date  du  d6p6t 
du  vingt-sixi&me  instrument  de  rati- 
fication ou  d 'adhesion.  Elle  entrera 
en  vigueur,  £  regard  de  chaque  Etat 
qui  la  ratifiera  par  la  suite,  le  trenti- 
&me  jour  qui  suivra  la  date  du  d£pdt 
de  Tinstrument  de  ratification  dudit 
Etat. 

c)  II  incombera  au  Gouvernement 
des  Etats-Unis  d'Am6rique  de  noti- 
fier  au  gouvernement  de  chacun  des 
Etats  signataires  et  adherents  la  date 
d'entr£e  en  vigueur  de  la  pr£sente 
Convention. 

ARTICLE  Q2.—Adh6sion  &  la 
Convention 

a)  La    pr£sente    Convention    est 
ouverte  b  l'adh£sion  des  Etats  mem* 
bres  des  Nations  Unies,  des  Etats 
assoctes  a  ceux-ci  et  des  Etats  de- 
meur£s  neutres  pendant  le  conflit 
mondial  actuel. 

b)  Cette  adhesion  sera  effectu6e 
par  une  notification  adresste  au  Gou- 
vernement des  Etats-Unis  d'Am6- 
rique  et  prendra  effet  le  trenti&me 


208 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  640 


from  the  thirtieth  day  from  the  re- 
ceipt of  the  notification  by  the  Gov- 
ernment of  the  United  States  of 
America,  which  shall  notify  all  the 
contracting  States. 

ARTICLE    93. — Admission    of    other 
States 

States  other  than  those  provided 
for  in  Articles  91  and  92  (a)  may, 
subject  to  approval  by  any  general 
international  organization  set  up  by 
the  nations  of  the  world  to  preserve 
peace,  be  admitted  to  participation 
in  this  Convention  by  means  of  a 
four-fifths  vote  of  the  Assembly  and 
on  such  conditions  as  the  Assembly 
may  prescribe:  provided  that  in  each 
case  the  assent  of  any  State  invaded 
or  attacked  during  the  present  war 
by  the  State  seeking  admission  shall 
be  necessary. 


ARTICLE  94. — Amendment  of 
Convention 

(a)  Any  proposed  amendment  to 
this  Convention  must  be  approved 
by  a  two-thirds  vote  of  the  Assembly 
and  shall  then  come  into  force  in 
respect  of  States  which  have  ratified 
such  amendment  when  ratified  by 
the  number  of  contracting  States 
specified  by  the  Assembly.  The 
number  so  specified  shall  not  be  less 
than  two-thirds  of  the  total  number 
of  contracting  States. 

(6)  If  in  its  opinion  the  amend- 
ment is  of  such  a  nature  as  to  justify 
this  course,  the  Assembly  in  its  reso- 
lution recommending  adoption  may 
provide  that  any  State  which  has 
not  ratified  within  a  specified  period 
after  the  amendement  has  come  into 
force  shall  thereupon  cease  to  be  a 
member  of  the  Organization  and  a 
party  to  the  Convention. 

ARTICLE  95. — Denunciation  of 
Convention 

(a)  Any  contracting  State  may 
give  notice  of  denunciation  of  this 


jour  qui  suivra  la  date  de  la  r£cep- 
tion  de  cette  notification  par  le 
Gouvernement  des  Etats-Unis 
d'Am^rique,  qui  la  notifiera  4  tous 
les  Etats  contractants. 

ARTICLE  93. — Admission  d'autres 
Etats 

Sous  r6serve  de  Tapprobation  de 
toute  organisation  Internationale 
g£n£rale  cr££e  par  les  nations  du 
monde  pour  le  maintien  de  la  paix, 
des  Etats  autres  que  ceux  vis6s  aux 
articles  91  et  92  a)  peuvent  6tre 
admis  £  participer  &  la  pr6sente  Con- 
vention par  un  vote  des  quatre  cin- 
qui&nes  de  rAssemb!6e  et  dans  les 
conditions  que  TAssembtee  pourra 
imposer,  £tant  entendu  que  dans 
chaque  cas  1'assentiment  de  tout 
Etat  envahi  ou  attaqu6  au  cours  de 
la  guerre  actuelle  par  1'Etat  deman- 
dant son  admission  est  n£cessaire. 

ARTICLE  94. — Amendement  &  la 
Convention 

a)  Tout  projet  d 'amendement  4 
la    prfesente    Convention    doit    §tre 
approuv6  par  les  deux  tiers  des  voix 
de   1' Assemble   et   entre   alors   en 
vigueur    i    regard    des    Etats    qui 
Tont  ratififi,  aprfes  ratification  par  le 
nombre    d'Etats    contractants    fix6 
par    I'Assembtee.     Ce    nombre    ne 
devra  pas  §tre  inferieur  aux  deux 
tiers  du  nombre  total  des  Etats  con- 
tractants. 

b)  Si    1' Assemble    estime    qu'un 
amendement  est  de  nature  &  justifier 
cette  mesure,  elle  peut,  dans  sa  r6so- 
lution  qui  en  recommande  1'adop- 
tion,    stipuler     qu'un     Etat     quel- 
conque    qui    n'a    pas    ratifi£    ledit 
amendement  dans  un  d61ai  fix6  £ 
compter  de  la  date  de  son  entree  en 
vigueur  cesse  ipso  facto  d'etre  mem- 
bre  de  TOrganisation  et  partie  £  la 
Convention. 

ARTICLE    95. — D6nonciation    de    la 
Convention 

a)  Tout  Etat  contractant  peut 
d£noncer  la  pr6sente  Convention 


Dec.  7,  1944 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


209 


Convention  three  years  after  its 
coming  into  effect  by  notification 
addressed  to  the  Government  of  the 
United  States  of  America,  which 
shall  at  once  inform  each  of  the  con- 
tracting States. 

(b)  Denunciation  shall  take  effect 
one  year  from  the  date  of  the  receipt 
of  the  notification  and  shall  operate 
only  as  regards  the  State  effecting 
the  denunciation. 


trois  ans  aprds  son  entree  en  vigueur 
au  moyen  d'une  notification  adress£e 
au  Gouvernement  des  Etats-Unis 
d'Am£rique,  qui  en  avise  imm6diate- 
ment  chacun  des  Etats  contractants. 

b)  Cette  d6nonciation  prend  effet 
un  an  aprts  la  date  de  reception  de  la 
notification  et  n'a  d'effet  qu'i  l'6gard 
de  1'Etat  qui  1'a  effectute. 


CHAPTER  XXII 
DEFINITIONS 

ARTICLE  96 

For  the  purpose  of  this  Conven- 
tion the  expression : 

(a)  "Air    service"     means    any 
scheduled  air  service  performed  by 
aircraft  for  the  public  transport  of 
passengers,  mail  or  cargo. 

(b)  "International    air    service" 
means  an  air  service  which  passes 
through  the  air  space  over  the  terri- 
tory of  more  than  one  State. 

(c)  1 '  Airline ' '  means  any  air  trans- 
port enterprise  offering  or  operating 
an  international  air  service. 

(d)  "Stop    for    non-traffic    pur- 
poses" means  a  landing  for  any  pur- 
pose other  than  taking  on  or  dis- 
charging passengers,  cargo  or  mail. 


SIGNATURE  OF  CONVENTION 

IN  WITNESS  WHEREOF,  the  under- 
signed plenipotentiaries,  having  been 
duly  authorized,  sign  this  Conven- 
tion on  behalf  of  their  respective  gov- 
ernments on  the  dates  appearing  op- 
posite their  signatures. 

Done  at  Chicago  the  seventh  day 
of  December  1944,  in  the  English 
language.  A  text  drawn  up  in  the 
English,  French,  and  Spanish  lan- 
guages,1 each  of  which  shall  be  of 


CHAPITRE  XXII 
DEFINITIONS 

ARTICLE  96 

Aux  fins  de  la  prfeente  Convention, 
il  faut  entendre  par: 

a)  "Service  a6rien",  tout  service 
a£rien  r6gulier  assur6  par  des  a6ronef  s 
destines  au  transport  public  de  passa- 
gers,  de  courrier  ou  de  marchandises; 

b)  "Service  a6rien  international", 
un  service  qui  traverse  1'espace  a6rien 
situ£  au-dessus  du  territoire  de  deux 
ou  plusieurs  Etats; 

c)  "Entreprise  de  transports  adri- 
ens",  toute  entreprise  de  transports 
a6riens    offrant    ou    exploitant    un 
service  adrien  international. 

d)  "Escale     non     commerciale", 
une  escale  ayant  un  objet  autre  que 
celui  d'embarquer  ou  de  d6barquer 
des  passagers,  des  marchandises  ou 
du  courrier. 

SIGNATURE  DE  LA  CONVENTION 

EN  FOI  DE  QUOI,  les  ptenipotenti- 
aires  soussignfes,  dflment  autoris£s  a 
cet  effet,  signent  la  prSsente  Conven- 
tion au  nom  de  leurs  Gouvernements 
respectifs,  aux  dates  figurant  en  re- 
gard de  leurs  signatures. 

Fait  £  Chicago,  le  sept  d6cembre 
mil  neuf  cent  quarante-quatre,  en 
langue  anglaise.  Un  texte  r£dig6 
dans  les  langues  anglaise,  frangaise 
et  espagnole,1  chacune  faisant  6gale- 


1  The  Convention  was  signed  in  the  English  original  version  formulated  at  the  International 
Civil  Aviation  Conference  which  took  place  at  Chicago  from  i  November  to  7  December 
1944.  No  trilingual  text  has  been  opened  for  signature  as  provided  for  in  the  Convention. 
[Continued  on  page  210. — ED.] 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION  No.  640 

equal  authenticity,  shall  be  open  for  ment  foi,  sera  ouvert  &  la  signature 

signature  at  Washington,  D.  C.  Both  £  Washington    (D.   C).   Les  deux 

texts  shall  be  deposited  in  the  ar-  textes  seront  d6pos£s  aux  archives 

chives  of  the  Government  of  the  du   Gouvernement   des   Etats-Unis 

United  States  of  America,  and  certi-  d'Am&ique,  qui  en  transmettra  des 

fied  copies  shall  be  transmitted  by  copies  certifies  con  formes  aux  Gou- 

that   Government   to    the   govern-  vernements  de  tous  les  Etats  qui 

ments  of  all  the  States  which  may  signeront  la  prisente  Convention  ou 

sign  or  adhere  to  this  Convention.  qui  y  adh£reront. 

[Signed:]  For  Afghanistan:  A.  HOSAYN  Aziz;  for  the  Government  of  the 
Commonwealth  of  Australia:  ARTHUR  S.  DRAKEFORD;  for  Belgium:  Vicomtc 
DU  PARC,  April  9th,  1945;  for  Bolivia:  TCNL.  AL.  PACHECO;  for  Brazil:  FER- 
NANDO LOBO,  May  29th,  1945;  for  Canada:  H.  J.  SYMINGTON;  for  Chile: 
R.  SA£NZ,  G.  BISQUERT,  R.  MAGALLANES  B.;  for  China:  CHANG  KIA-NGAU; 
for  Colombia:  GONZALO  RESTREPO  JARAMILLO,  October  31 — 1947;  for  Costa 
Rica:  F.  DE  P.  GUTIERREZ,  March  loth,  1945;  for  Cuba:  GMO.  BELT,  Abril  20, 
1945;  for  Czechoslovakia:  V.  S.  H  URBAN,  April  18,  45;  for  the  Dominican 
Republic:  C.  A.  MCLAUGHLIN;  for  Ecuador:  J.  A.  CORREA,  FRANCISCO 
GOMEZ  JURADO;  for  Egypt:  M.  HASSAN,  M.  ROUSHDY,  M.  A.  KHALIFA;  for 
El  Salvador:  FELIPE  VEGA-G^MEZ,  May  9,  1945;  for  Ethiopia:  RAS  H.  S. 
IMRU,  Feb.  10,  1947;  for  France:  M.  HYMANS,  C.  LEBEL,  BOURGES,  P. 
LOCUSSOL;  for  Greece:  D.  T.  NOTI  BOTZARIS,  A.  J.  ARGYROPOULOS ;  for 
Guatemala:  Osc.  MORALES  L.,  Jan.  30,  1945;  f°r  Haiti:  G.  EDOUARD  ROY; 
for  Honduras:  E.  P.  LEFEBVRE;  for  Iceland:  THOR  THORS;  for  India:  G.  V. 
BEWOOR  ;  for  Iran :  M .  SHAYESTEH  ;  for  Iraq :  ALI  JAWDAT  ;  for  Ireland :  ROBT. 
BRENNAN,  JOHN  LEYDON,  JOHN  J,  HEARNE,  T.  J.  O'DRISCOLL;  for  Lebanon: 
C.  CHAMOUN,  F.  EL-Hoss ;  for  Liberia :  WALTER  F.  WALKER  ;  for  Luxembourg  : 
HUGUES  LE  GALLAIS,  July  9th  1945;  for  Mexico:  PEDRO  A.  CHAPA;  for 
the  Netherlands:  COPES,  F.  C.  ARONSTEIN  ;  for  the  Government  of  New  Zea- 
land: DANIEL  GILES  SULLIVAN;  for  Nicaragua:  R.  E.  FRIZELL;  for  Norway: 
W.  MUNTHE  MORGENSTIERNE,  January  30,  1945;  for  Panama:  (The  Delega- 
tion of  the  Republic  of  Panama  signs  this  Convention  ad  referendum,  and  subject  to  the 
following  reservations:  I.  Because  of  its  strategic  position  and  responsibility  in  the 
protection  of  the  means  of  communication  in  its  territory,  which  are  of  the  utmost 
importance  to  world  trade,  and  vita!  to  the  defense  of  the  Western  Hemisphere,  the 
Republic  of  Panama  reserves  the  right  to  take,  with  respect  to  all  flights  through  the 
air  space  above  its  territory,  all  measures  which  in  its  judgment  may  be  proper  for  its 
own  security  or  the  protection  of  said  means  of  communication. — 2.  The  Republic  of 
Panama  understands  that  the  technical  annexes  to  which  reference  is  made  in  the 
Convention  constitute  recommendations  only,  and  not  binding  obligations.1);  for 

The  Government  of  the  United  States  of  America  in  the  note  of  the  State  Department  of 
22  September  1947  addressed  to  the  Chiefs  of  Mission  of  the  Governments  concerned,  after 
having  drawn  their  attention  to  the  various  problems  involved  in  this  respect  and  to  the  fact 
that  the  Convention  as  drawn  up  at  the  Chicago  Conference  did  not  place  a  specific  responsi- 
bility upon  the  United  States  Government,  as  depository  of  the  Convention,  to  prepare  the 
trilingual  text,  concluded:  "The  Department  of  State  considers  that  it  is  not  advisable  to 
proceed  at  this  time  with  preparations  to  open  for  signature  at  Washington  trilingual  texts  of 
those  documents.  On  the  contrary,  the  United  States  Government  proposes  to  present  the 
Question  to  the  Council  of  the  International  Civil  Aviation  Organization  with  a  request  that 
the  question  be  placed  on  the  agenda  for  the  next  meeting  of  the  Assembly  of  that  Organiza- 
tion. It  is  believed  that  this  procedure  will  afford  the  most  efficacious  means  by  which  the 
governments  concerned  may,  after  due  consideration  of  all  the  factors  and  problems  involved, 
make  such  decisions  with  respect  thereto  as  they  deem  appropriate." 
No  signature  is  affixed  to  this  statement.— ED. 


May  27,  1947  INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 

Paraguay:  CELSO  R.  VELAZQUEZ,  July  27,  1945;  for  Peru:  A.  REVOREDO, 
.  S.  KOECHLIN,  Luis  ALVARADO,  F.  ELGUERA,  GLLMO.  VAN  OORDT  LE6N; 
or  the  Philippine  Commonwealth:  J.  HERNANDEZ,  URBANO  A.  ZAFRA, 
.  H.  FOLEY;  for  Poland:  ZBYSLAW  CIOLKOSZ,  Dr.  H.  J.  G6RECKI,  STEFAN 
.  KONORSKI,  WITOLD  A.  URBANOWicz,  LUDWIK  H.  GOTTLIEB;  for  Portugal: 

MARIO  DE  FlGUEREDO,  ALFREDO  DELESQUE  DOS  SANTOS  ClNTRA,  DUARTE 

CALHIEROS,  VASCO  VIEIRA  GARIN;  for  Spain:  E.  TERRADAS,  GERMAN  BARAI- 
BAR,  DUARTE  CALHEIROS;  for  Sweden:  R.  KUMLIN;  for  Switzerland: 
CHARLES  BRUGGMANN,  July  6th  1945;  for  Syria:  N.  KAHALE;  for  Turkey: 
S.  KOCAK,  F.  SAHINBAS,  ORHAN  H.  EROL;  for  the  Union  of  South  Africa: 
D.  D.  FORSYTH,  4th  June,  1945;  for  the  Government  of  the  United  King- 
dom of  Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ireland:  SWINTON;  for  the  United 
States  of  America:  ADOLF  A.  BERLE,  JR.,  ALFRED  L.  BULWINKLE,  CHAS.  A. 

WOLVERTON,  F.  LAGUARDIA,  EDWARD  WARNER,  L.  WELCH  POGUE,  WlLLIAM 

A.  M.  BURDEN;  for  Uruguay:  CARL  CARBAJAL,  Col.  MEDARDO  R.  FARIAS; 
for  Denmark:  HENRIK  KAUFFMANN;  for  Thailand:  M.  R.  SENI  PRAMOJ. 


No.  640a 

Protocol  relating  to  an  Amendment  to  the  Convention  on  International 
Civil  Aviation.    Signed  at  Montreal,  May  27,  1947. 

Protocole  concernant  un  amendement  &  la  Convention  relative  & 
Paviation  civile  Internationale.    Sign£  &  Montreal,  27  mai  1947. 

EDITOR'S  NOTE.  This  Protocol  was  drawn  up  in  accordance  with  a  resolution  of  the 
First  Assembly  of  the  International  Civil  Aviation  Organization  of  May  13,  1947,  accepting 
a  condition  made  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  United  Nations  to  the  agreement  between 
the  United  Nations  and  ICAO  that  ICAO  should  comply  "with  any  decision  of  the  General 
Assembly  regarding  Franco  Spain."  In  its  resolution  on  Spain,  on  December  12,  1946,  the 
General  Assembly  recommended  that  "  the  Franco  Government  of  Spain  be  debarred  from 
membership  in  international  agencies  established  by  or  brought  into  relationship  with  the 
United  Nations."  U.N.  Doc.  A/64/Add.i,  pp.  63-64,  78. 

RATIFICATIONS.  On  January  i,  1949,  ratifications  of  the  Protocol  had  been  deposited  at 
Montreal  by  Afghanistan,  Canada,  Ceylon,  China,  Czechoslovakia,  Dominican  Republic, 
Great  Britain,  India,  New  Zealand,  and  Pakistan. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  The  text  of  this  Protocol  is  also  published  in  Canada,  Treaty  Series,  1947, 
No.  22]  Br.  Parl.  Papers,  Misc.  No.  II  (1947),  Cmd.  7202;  17  U.S.  Department  of  State 
Bulletin  (1947),  p.  177.  For  a  report  on  it,  see  idem,  p.  175. 

Not  entered  into  force  (January  i,  1949). 
Text  supplied  by  the  International  Civil  Aviation  Organization. 

The  Assembly  of  the  Interim-  L 'Assemble  de  1'Organisation  de 

tional  Civil  Aviation  Organization,  1'aviation  civile  internationale, 

Having  been  convened  at  Mon-  Convoqu6e  £  Montreal  par  le  Con- 

treal  by  the  Interim  Council  of  the  seil  int£rimaire  de  1'Organisation 

Provisional  International  Civil  Avia-  proyisoire  de  1'aviation  civile  inter- 

tion  Organization,  and  having  met  in  nationale  et  s'y  6tant  rtunie  le  6  mai 

its  First  Session  on  May  6th  1947,  and  1947  en  sa  premiere  session,  et 


212 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  640a 


Having  considered  it  advisable  to 
amend  the  Convention  on  Interna- 
tional Civil  Aviation  done  at  Chi- 
cago on  December  7th  1944, 

Approved  on  the  thirteenth  day  of 
May  of  the  year  one  thousand  nine 
hundred  and  forty-seven,  in  accord- 
ance with  the  provisions  of  Article 
94  (a)  of  the  Convention  on  Inter- 
national Civil  Aviation  done  at 
Chicago  on  December  7th  1944,  the 
following  proposed  amendment  to 
the  said  Convention  which  shall  be 
numbered  as  "Article  93  bis": 

"Article  93  bis 

(A)  Notwithstanding  the  provi- 
sions of  Articles  91, 92  and  93,  above, 

(i)  A  State  whose  government 
the  General  Assembly  of  the  United 
Nations  has  recommended  be  de- 
barred from  membership  in  inter- 
national agencies  established  by  or 
brought  into  relationship  with  the 
United  Nations  shall  automatically 
cease  to  be  a  member  of  the  Interna- 
tional Civil  Aviation  Organization; 


(2)  A  State  which  has  been  ex- 
pelled from  membership  in  the 
United  Nations  shall  automatically 
cease  to  be  a  member  of  the  Inter- 
national Civil  Aviation  Organization 
unless  the  General  Assembly  of  the 
United  Nations  attaches  to  its  act  of 
expulsion  a  recommendation  to  the 
contrary. 

(B)  A  State  which  ceases  to  be  a 
member  of  the  International  Civil 
Aviation  Organization  as  a  result  of 
the    provisions    of    paragraph    (A) 
above  may,  after  approval  by  the 
General  Assembly  of  the  United  Na- 
tions, be  readmitted  to  the  Inter- 
national Civil  Aviation  Organization 
upon  application  and  upon  approval 
by  a  majority  of  the  Council. 

(C)  Members  of  the  Organization 
which  are  suspended  from  the  exer- 
cise of  the  rights  and  privileges  of 


Estimant  desirable  d'appprter  un 
ainendement  &  la  Convention  rela- 
tive £  1'aviation  civile  Internationale 
en  date  £  Chicago  du  7  d&embre 

1944, 

A  adoptg  le  treize  mai  mil  neuf 
cent  quarante-sept,  conform£ment 
aux  dispositions  de  1'article  94  (a)  de 
la  Convention  relative  &  1'aviation 
civile  Internationale  en  date  £  Chi- 
cago du  7  d£cembre  1944,  un 
amendement  propos£  £  ladite  Con- 
vention, dont  le  texte  suit  et  qui 
constituera  un  "Article  93  bis": 

"Article  93  bis 

(A)  Nonobstant   les   dispositions 
des  Articles  91,  92  et  93  ci-dessus, 

(1)  Tout  Etat  dont  le  gouverne- 
ment    fait    1'objet   de    la    part   de 
1' Assemble  g£n£rale  de  1'Organisa- 
tion  des  Nations  Unies  d'une  recom- 
mandation  tendant  £  le  priver  de  sa 
qualit6    de    membre    d 'institutions 
Internationales,  £tablies  par  1'Organ- 
isation  des  Nations  Unies  ou  relives 
a   celle-ci,    cesse   automatiquement 
d'Stre  membre  de  1'Organisation  de 
1'aviation  civile  internationale; 

(2)  Tout  Etat  qui  est  exclu  de 
1'Organisation    des    Nations    Unies 
cesse  automatiquement  d'etre  mem- 
bre de  1'Organisation  de  1'aviation 
civile   internationale   £   moins   que 
l'Assembl6e  g6n6rale  de  1'Organisa- 
tion des  Nations  Unies  joigne  a  son 
acte  d 'exclusion  une  recommanda- 
tion  contraire. 

(B)  Tout  Etat  qui  cesse  d'etre 
membre  de  1'Organisation  de  1'ayia- 
tion  civile  internationale,  en  applica- 
tion des  dispositions  du  paragraphe 
(A)  ci-dessus,  peut,  avec  1'accord  de 
1' Assemble  ggngrale  de  1'Organisa- 
tion des  Nations  Unies,  etre  admis  a 
nouveau  dans  1'Organisation  de  1'avi- 
ation  civile   internationale   sur   sa 
demande,  et  avec  1'approbation  du 
Conseil  vot£e  £  la  majority. 

(C)  Les  membres  de  1'Organisa- 
tion qui  sont  suspendus  de  1'exercice 
des  droits  et  privileges  inh£rents  a  la 


May  27,  1947 


INTERNATIONAL  CIVIL  AVIATION 


213 


membership  of  the  United  Nations 
shall,  upon  the  request  of  the  latter, 
be  suspended  from  the  rights  and 
privileges  of  membership  in  this 
Organization  "f 

Specified  on  the  sixteenth  day  of 
May  of  the  year  one  thousand  nine 
hundred  and  forty-seven,  pursuant 
to  the  provisions  of  the  said  Article 
94  (a)  of  the  said  Convention,  that 
the  above  mentioned  amendment 
shall  come  into  force  when  ratified  by 
twenty-eight  Contracting  States,  and 

Instructed  at  the  same  date  the 
Secretary  General  of  the  Interna- 
tional Civil  Aviation  Organization  to 
draw  up  a  Protocol  embodying  this 
proposed  amendment  and  to  the 
following  effect,  which  Protocol  shall 
be  signed  by  the  President  and  the 
Secretary  General  of  the  First  As- 
sembly. 

Consequently,  pursuant  to  the 
aforesaid  action  of  the  Assembly, 

The  present  Protocol  shall  be  sub- 
ject to  ratification  by  any  State 
which  has  ratified  or  adhered  to  the 
said  Convention.  The  instruments 
of  ratification  shall  be  transmitted  to 
the  Secretary  General  of  the  Inter- 
national Civil  Aviation  Organization 
for  deposit  in  the  archives  of  the 
Organization ;  the  Secretary  General 
of  the  Organization  shall  immedi- 
ately notify  all  Contracting  States 
of  the  date  of  deposit  of  each  rati- 
fication ; 

The  aforesaid  proposed  amend- 
ment of  the  Convention  shall  come 
into  force,  in  respect  of  the  States 
which  have  ratified  this  Protocol,  on 
the  date  on  which  the  twenty-eighth 
instrument  of  ratification  is  de- 
posited. The  Secretary  General  of 
the  Organization  shall  immediately 
notify  all  the  States  parties  to  or 
signatories  of  the  said  Convention 
of  the  date  on  which  the  proposed 
amendment  comes  into  force; 

The  aforesaid  proposed  amend- 
ment shall  come  into  force  in  respect 


3ualit£  de  membre  de  1'Organisation 
es  Nations  Unies,  sont,  £  la  requite 
de  cette  derntere,  suspendus  des 
droits  et  privileges  inherents  £  la 
quality  de  membre  de  la  pr6sente 
Organisation", 

A  spedfie  le  seize  mai  mil  neuf 
cent  quarante-sept,  confprm£ment 
aux  dispositions  dudit  Article  94  (a) 
de  la  Convention,  que  1'amendement 
ci-dessus  n'entrera  en  vigueur  qu' 
aprds  avoir  ete  ratifie  par  vingt-huit 
Etats  contractants,  et 

A  charge,  £  la  mSme  date,  le 
Secretaire  general  de  1'Organisa- 
tion  de  Taviation  civile  Interna- 
tionale d'etablir  un  Protocole  rela- 
tif  au  dit  amendement  propose  et 
pour  les  fins  ci-aprts,  ce  Protocole 
devant  Stre  signe  par  le  President  et 
le  Secr6taire  general  de  la  Premiere 
Assemble. 

En  cons6quence,  conformfement  aux 
decisions  ci-dessus  de  1'Assembiee, 

Le  present  Protocole  sera  soumis  & 
la  ratification  de  tout  Etat  qui  a 
ratifie  la  Convention  relative  & 
Taviation  civile  Internationale  ou  y  a 
adhere.  Les  instruments  de  ratifi- 
cation seront  transmis  au  Secretaire 
g6n6ral  de  J'Organisation  de  1'avia- 
tion  civile  internationale  pour  gtre 
deposes  dans  les  archives  de  1'Organ- 
isation;  le  Secretaire  general  de 
TOrganisation  notifiera  immediate- 
ment  £  tous  les  Etats  contractants  la 
date  du  d6p6t  de  chaque  instrument 
de  ratification  sur  ce  Protocole; 

L'amendement  propose  ci-dessus 
entrera  en  vigueur  le  jour  du  dep6t 
du  vingt-huitifeme  instrument  de 
ratification  i  regard  des  Etats  qui 
auront  ratifie  4  cette  date  le  present 
Protocole.  Le  Secretaire  general  de 
TOrganisation  notifiera  immediate- 
ment  &  tous  les  Etats  parties  It  la 
Convention  ou  signataires  de  celle-ci 
la  date  £  laquelle  le  Protocole  est 
entre  en  vigueur; 

L'amendement  propose  ci-dessus 
entrera  en  vigueur,  £  regard  de  tout 


214 


INTERNATIONAL  LEGISLATION 


No.  6406 


of  each  State  ratifying  after  that 
date  upon  deposit  of  its  instrument 
of  ratification  in  the  archives  of  the 
Organization. 

IN  FAITH  WHEREOF  the  President 
and  the  Secretary  General  of  the 
First  Assembly  of  the  International 
Civil  Aviation  Organization,  being 
authorized  thereto  by  the  Assembly, 
sign  this  present  Protocol. 

Done  at  Montreal  on  the  twenty- 
seventh  day  of  May  of  the  year  one 
thousand  nine  hundred  and  forty- 
seven  in  a  single  document  in  the 
English,  French  and  Spanish  lan- 
guages, each  text  being  equally 
authentic.  This  Protocol  shall  re- 
main deposited  in  the  archives  of  the 
International  Civil  Aviation  Or- 
ganization ;  and  certified  copies  thereof 
shall  be  transmitted  by  the  Secre- 
tary General  of  the  Organization  to 
all  States  parties  to  or  signatories  of 
the  Convention  on  International 
Civil  Aviation  done  at  Chicago  on 
December  7th  1944. 


autre  Etat  ratifiant  ult6rieurement 
le  Protocole,  le  jour  du  d6p6t  de  son 
instrument  de  ratification  dans  les 
archives  de  TOrganisation. 

EN  FOI  DE  QUOI,  le  President  et  le 
Secretaire  g£n6ral  de  la  Premiere 
Assembl6e  de  1'Organisation  de  1'avi- 
ation  civile  Internationale,  autoris6s 
&  cet  effet  par  1'Assembtee,  signent  le 
present  Protocole. 

Fait  £  Montreal,  le  vingt-septi&me 
jour  de  mai  mil  neuf  cent  quarante- 
sept,  en  un  seul  document,  en  fran- 
£ais,  en  anglais  et  en  espagnol, 
chacun  des  textes  ayant  une  £gale 
authenticity.  Ce  Protocole  restera 
d6pos6  dans  les  archives  de  1'Organi- 
sation  de  Taviation  civile  Interna- 
tionale; et  des  copies  certifies  con- 
formes  de  ce  Protocole  seront  trans- 
mises  par  le  Secretaire  g6n6ral  de 
TOrganisation  £  tous  les  Etats  par- 
ties £  la  Convention  relative  £ 
Taviation  civile  Internationale  en 
date  £  Chicago  du  7  d6cembre  1944, 
ainsi  qu'aux  autres  Etats  signataires 
de  ladite  Convention. 


ARTHUR  S.  DRAKEFORD,  President  of  the  First  Assembly. 
ALBERT  ROPER,  Secretary  General  of  the  First  Assembly. 


No.  640b 

Agreement  between  the  United  Nations  and  the  International  Civil 
Aviation  Organization.    Signed  at  Lake  Success,  September  3